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The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Triassic Palaeosols
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Triassic Field Trips

! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian@
! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic@
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Home / All about Upper Triassic / Triassic Biotas


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Homepages of Triassic Workers
Triassic Palaeobotany
Triassic Palynology
Triassic Climate
Triassic Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy and Facies of the European Keuper
Triassic Palaeosols
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Triassic Field Trips
! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian@
! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic@
! Biotic Recoveries from Mass Extinctions@
Geologic Time Scale@
Palaeogeography@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Geology@


Triassic Biotas


! A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012): The record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires: Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel? In PDF. See also here (abstract).

! Friedrich August von Alberti (1834): Beitrag zu einer Monographie des bunten Sandsteins, Muschelkalks und Keupers und die Verbindung dieser Gebilde zu einer Formation. Hosted by Hathi Trust Digital Library, a collaboration of universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the University of California system to establish a repository for their digitized collections.

Albertiana (website now avaialble on SUNY Cortland´s webserver, still edited by Wolfram Kuerschner, Oslo). Albertiana is the official journal of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy. Its primary aim is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among the members of the IUGS Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy. E-Albertiana is formated in Adobe Portable document format (PDF), issues are available for download. See also:
! Geobiology.cn: Albertiana (PDF files). Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana. Excellent!

David L. Alles, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA: Biology 101: An Introduction to Science and Biology. (PDF files). Go to: Illustrated Lecture Presentations, The Mesozoic Era.

J.M. Anderson et al. (1998): Late Triassic ecosystems of the Molteno/Lower Elliot biome of southern Africa. PDF file, Palaeontology 41.

C.M. Belcher et al. (2010): Burning Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF. See also here (the slides). Go to PDF page 22: "East Greenland 200 Million years ago".
See also there (Linklist: Fire Safety Engineering in the UK: The State of the Art. University of Edinburgh).

M. J. Benton et al. (2014): Review Models for the Rise of the Dinosaurs. In PDF, Current Biology 24.

M. Benton et al. (2002): Permian and Triassic Red Beds and the Penarth Group of Great Britain, General introduction. In PDF, Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 24, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
See especially PDF page 3: "Mass Extinctions".
See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkely (UCMP): The Triassic Period. Worth checking out: Triassic Period: Localities, Stratigraphy, and Triassic Period: Tectonics and Paleoclimate.

V. Blagoderov et al. (2007): How time flies for flies: diverse Diptera from the Triassic of Virginia and early radiation of the order. In PDF, American Museum Novitates, 3572: 1-39. See also here.

Ron Blakey, Department of Geology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ: Triassic Paleogeography, Southwestern US. Images from a talk presented to the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Salt Lake City. See also: Triassic Fluvial Systems, Colorado Plateau.

Goran Bogicevic, Department of Regional Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Mininig and Geology at Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Boggy´s Geolinks. Scroll down to: "Stratigraphy", e.g. Triassic. A link directory.

Wilhelm Bölsche (via Library University of Oldenburg, Germany): Tiere der Urwelt. Animal and palaeovegetation reconstructions (in German). Go to: Page 48, Ceratodus.

Michael Buchwitz, Natural History Museum, Magdeburg, Germany: Triassic critters, Madygen & Co. Letters from a Triassic Lagerstätte.

Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: NEVER MIND THE DINOSAURS!-OTHER MESOZOIC LIFE. Go to: MESOZOIC PLANTS.

! R.J. Butler et al. (2011): Preface to "Late Triassic Terrestrial Biotas and the Rise of Dinosaurs" Special Issue. In PDF, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Web pages for Chapters in History of Life, 3rd Edition. To give some idea of the dynamism in paleontology, here are Web pages to illustrate. Go to: Chapter Eleven: The Triassic Takeover. A link directory.

Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission (DSK), the German Stratigraphic Commission. See also: Subkommission für Perm-Trias-Stratigraphie (in German).

DinoData. Registration needed. Go to: Keuper. A sauropod index. The Upper Triassic (uppermost Ladinian to Norian) continental sediments of the Germanic Basin in Central Europe are mainly referred as the Keuper Formation or simply the Keuper. The Keuper has produced a rich assemblage of archosaurs and dinosaurs, along with other important vertebrates such as phytosaurs, rauisuchians, aetosaurs, and crocodylomorphs.

Dinoraeum-Geo-News (A. Brix, Regensburg, Germany): Go to: Keyword: Triassic (in German).

dmoz: Science: Earth Sciences: Paleontology: By Geological Interval: Mesozoic: Triassic.

EnchantedLearning.com: THE TRIASSIC PERIOD.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:
Triassic.

Excite Gallery: Triassic Forest. A swampy forest in Chinle area of Arizona during the Triassic period. See also: A hungry Herrerasaurus stalks a Rhynchosaur in the Late Triassic of Argentina.

Factbites (created by Rapid Intelligence, a content technology company based in Sydney, Australia). Go to: Triassic. Factbites offers users meaningful, relevant sentences from every site in the search results.

P.G. Falkowski et al. (2005): The rise of oxygen over the past 205 million years and the evolution of large placental mammals. PDF file, Science, 309.

Mike Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to: PALEOBIOLOGY: FOSSILS AND TIME, and PALEOBIOLOGY: THE MESOZOIC, AGE OF CYCADS AND DINOSAURS.

! S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London.

N.C. Fraser and H.-D. Sues (2012): The beginning of the "Age of Dinosaurs": a brief overview of terrestrial biotic changes during the Triassic. Abstract.

The FreeDictionary.com (Farlex Inc.): Triassic.

J.-C. Gall, Strasbourg; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS): Evolution. Go to: Le Trias et l'ébauche des grands groupes modernes. In French.

The Geological Conservation Review (GCR). GCR is a major initiative to identify and describe the most important Earth science sites in Britain. Go to: The Permo–Triassic world (PDF file). This volume describes sites selected for the Geological Conservation Review that exemplify the Permian and Triassic red-bed sediments of Britain. See also: Mesozoic-Cenozoic Stratigraphy.

G. Geyer and K.-P. Kelber (1987): Flügelreste und Lebensspuren von Insekten aus dem Unteren Keuper Mainfrankens. PDF file, (in German).

Jan Golonka (2007): Phanerozoic paleoenvironment and paleolithofacies maps. Mesozoic. PDF file, Geologia, 33: 211-264. Including Triassic maps!

Pamela J. W. Gore, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA: THE MESOZOIC ERA: TRIASSIC, JURASSIC and CRETACEOUS.

L. Grauvogel-Stamm & K.-P. Kelber (1996): Plant-insect interactions and coevolution during the Triassic in Western Europe.- PDF file, 30 MB! Paleontologica Lombardia, N. S. 5: 5-23, 31 fig.; Milano. Abstract available here.

S.T. Hasiotis et al.: Research Update on Hymenopteran Nests and Cocoons, Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona.

Douglas Henderson, Whitehall, MT: Earth History Illustrations. Geologic Time Timeline, go to the "Triassic Period".

Carmen Heunisch et al. (2007): Erdgeschichte von Niedersachsen. Geologie und Landschaftsentwicklung (in German). PDF file, Landesamt für Bergbau, Energie und Geologie, Hannover (LBEG). State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology. Triassic on page 36!

Marguerite Holloway, Scientific American May 2002 issue: Trees of the Triassic. In the Painted Desert of Arizona, a story of how forests turned to stone and how the stones are walking away.

Thomas R. Holtz, Department of Geology, University of Maryland: Historical Geology - The History of Earth and Life. Lecture notes. Go to: The Mesozoic Era I: Triassic-Jurassic Geology.

B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.

T. Hornung et al. (2007): Multistratigraphic constraints on the NW Tethyan "Carnian crisis". In PDF, In: Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A. (eds.): The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41.

HowComYouCom.com: Education 2001, Leaving the Water. Go to: The Triassic Takeover.

Adrian P. HUNT, Mesalands Dinosaur Museum, Mesa Technical College, Spencer G. LUCAS, NM Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, Phillip HUBER, Dept. of Education, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Martin G. LOCKLEY, Dept. of Geology, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver: FAUNAL EVOLUTION IN LATE TRIASSIC, NONMARINE TETRAPODS

International Commission on Stratigraphy: GSSP for the Permian-Triassic Boundary.

! Report on the International Workshop for a Climatic, Biotic, and Tectonic, Pole-to-Pole Coring Transect of Triassic-Jurassic Pangea. Held June 5-9, 1999 at Acadia University, Nova Scotia, Canada. Navigate from here.

Karen Carr Studio, Silver City, NM:
Late Triassic plant community,
Triassic Landscape,
or Triassic Landscape, Coelophysis detail.

! M. Alan Kazlev et al.: Palaeos. A website about the history of life on Earth. The Mesozoic Era and The Triassic Period.

! K.-P. Kelber (2009): Lebensbilder der Unterkeuperzeit im Spiegel der paläontologischen Forschung. PDF file (8.5 MB), in German. Veröffentlichungen Naturhistorisches Museum Schleusingen, 24: 27-52. Life pictures from the Lower Keuper in the mirror of palaeontological research. A selection of Lower Keuper swamp reconstructions from the germanotype Triassic (Ladinian, Triassic).

K.-P. Kelber and G. Geyer (1989): Lebensspuren von Insekten an Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers. PDF file (in German), Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 109: 165-174.

Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson Sally Stephens, University of Bristol: The Late Triassic Website. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to:
! Ecology of the Triassic.

Spencer G. Lucas et al. Re-evaluation of alleged bees´ nests from the Upper Triassic of Arizona.

R.G. Martins-Neto et al. 2008: ! Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson and Sally Stephens, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK: Late Triassic Website. Go to: Theories on the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Also worth checking out: Ecology of the Triassic.

M. Krings, LMU München: Die obertriassische Flora von Lunz (Niederösterreich) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Samenpflanzen: Systematik, Paläobiologie und Paläoökologie. Scientific project report (in German).

C.M. Liutkus et al. (2010): Use of fine-scale stratigraphy and chemostratigraphy to evaluate conditions of deposition and preservation of a Triassic Lagerstätte, south-central Virginia. In PDF, J. Paleolimnol. 44: 645-666.

LoveToKnow Free Online Encyclopedia (the eleventh edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, first published in 1911): Keuper.

! Spencer G. Lucas (2010): The Triassic timescale: an introduction. PDF file, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 1-16. See also here (abstract).

S.G. Lucas (2001), go to PDF page 52: Restoration of Late Triassic landscapes at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. In PDF, Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference. See also here.

A.C. Mancuso et al. (2007): The Triassic insect fauna from the Los Rastros Formation (Bermejo Basin), La Rioja Province (Argentina): its context, taphonomy and paleobiology. Ameghiniana 44 (2): 337-348.

! C. McRoberts, State University of New York, Cortland: The Global Triassic, Alburquerque, May 2007. PDF files; The joint meeting of the IGCP Project 467 and the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy (hosted by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science).

Vertebrate Palaeontology, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano: Fossiliferous (Fish)Localities. The geological timetable and the Triassic. Click on the coloured sections for access to further pages (under construction).

The Natural History Museum London: Dino Directory. Dinosaur information (including some palaeoflora reconstructions) alphabetically, by time period (Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous), by country, or by body shape. Go to: Upper Triassic. See: Plateosaurus.

P.E. Olsen (1988): Paleontology and paleoecology of the Newark Supergroup (Early Mesozoic, Eastern North America) (PDF file). In: W. Manspeizer, Triassic-Jurassic Rifting. See also here.

Paul E. Olsen, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY: Dinosaurs and the History of Life: Lecture 8. The end of the Permian and the Major Groups of Tetrapods, Lecture 9. The Triassic World, Lecture 10. Great Triassic Assemblages Pt 1 - The Chinle and Newark Newark and Chinle Strata, Lecture 11. Great Triassic Assemblages Pt 2 - The Keuper and Fleming Fjord Formation, Lecture 12. The Lias, Newark, Glen Canyon, and Stormberg Assemblages - Mass Extinction in the Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs.

The Paleontology Portal, produced by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, the Paleontological Society, the US Geological Survey, and the UC Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the Paleontological Research Institute, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (funded by the National Science Foundation): The Triassic - 248 to 206 Million Years Ago.

Bill Parker, Arizona: Chinleana. Discussion of Late Triassic paleontology and other assorted topics.

! E. Peñalvera et al. (2012): Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 8623-8628. See also here.

Poinar, G. O. Jr., Waggoner, B. M., and Bauer, U.-C. 1993: Earliest terrestrial protists and other microorganisms in Triassic amber. Science 259(5092): 222-224.

P David Polly, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN: Historical Geology. Life through time. Lecture notes. Topics are paleontology, geologic time, biological evolution, plate tectonics, ancient environments, and climate change, principles of interpreting earth history from geological data, etc. Go to:
Lecture 21: Mesozoic 2: Terrestrial environments and extinction. Lecture slides (PDF file).

! Allister Rees, GEON SDSC Meeting Webcast Archive, San Diego Supercomputer Center: GEON SDSC Meeting, webcast live: Go to: Dinosaurs and More: Integration of the DINO and PGAP Databases (August 22, 2005). Biomes, climates and floral development from the Permian to the Jurassic.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Mesozoic. Mesozoic topics - including PDF files - are: Jurassic phytogeography and climates (data and models); Late Jurassic climate, vegetation and dinosaur distribution; Mesozoic assembly, Asia: floras, tectonics, paleomagnetism; Paleoecology, middle Cretaceous Grebenka flora, Siberia; and Lower Jurassic floras of Hope Bay & Botany Bay, Antarctica.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleobiography Project. There are three databases, including a map-based search function, plotting on paleomaps, references search, genus name search for the dinosaurs and plants, and tutorial pages:
PGAP, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project Lithofacies Database. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lithofacies.
CSS, the Climate Sensitive Sediments Database. Permian and Jurassic Climate Sensitive Sediments.
DINO, the Dinosauria Distributions Database. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Dinosaur Distributions.
Registration procedure required.

Silvio Renesto et al., Fossil Gallery, Università degli Studi di Milano: Vertebrate Palaeontology in Milano University is represented by a small but active staff. Research deals mainly with Middle-Late Triassic fishes and reptiles from well known localities in Northern Italy. Go to: Fossiliferous Localities. Norian localities are Preone Valley, Raibl, Giffoni, Seefeld. Ladinian localities are Besano-M.S.Giorgio, Ca'del Frate, Meride, Perledo.

! Robert A. Rohde, International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS): GeoWhen Database. GeoWhen Database is an attempt to sort out the mess that man has made of the geologic timescale. This project aims to reconcile the international stratigraphic standards with many of the regional and archaic naming schemes that appear in the literature. The central stratigraphic classification and dates are based on the 2004 time scale endorsed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) and documented in Gradstein, Ogg, Smith, et al., A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Go to: Triassic.

S. Ros-Franch et al. (2014): Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record. In PDF.

G.N. Sadovnikov (2011): On Quantitative and Semiquantitative Analysis of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Nonmarine Paleoecosystems. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, 45: 105-111.

A.R. Schmidt et al. (2012): Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period. In PDF, PNAS, 109.

Paul A. Selden et al. (2009): A review of the fossil record of spiders (Araneae) with special reference to Africa, and description of a new specimen from the Triassic Molteno Formation of South Africa. In PDF.

Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.

Sternfreunde Erftstadt (H. Sommerkorn & O. Gardner, Erftstadt): Die Trias (in German).

! Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy (STS). Under the auspicities of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the STS is charged with the establishment of a standard, globally applicable stratigraphic scale for the Triassic system.

! Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic Life on Land: The Great Transition. Google books.

J. Szwedo and A. Nel (2011): The oldest aphid insect from the Middle Triassic of the Vosges, France. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56: 757-766.

! L. Tapanila and E.M. Roberts (2012): The Earliest Evidence of Holometabolan Insect Pupation in Conifer Wood. In PDF. See also here.

ThinkQuest Library: The ThinkQuest Library of entries is the collection of educational web sites designed by participants in the ThinkQuest Contests. Go to: History of Earth, Mesozoic Era. An easy to understand description of the geology, animal life, and plant life.

Bruce H. Tiffney (University of California, Santa Barbara), Access Excellance, BioForum 4: The Influence of Plants on the Evolution of Terrestrial Communities. Go to Mesozoic reconstruction.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York: Triassic-Jurassic Working Group.

Trias Verein Thüringen e.V. (in German). Worth checking out: Triassic Links.

D. Uhl et al. (2008): Permian and Triassic wildfires and atmospheric oxygen levels. PDF file.

UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.

! Wang Xiaofeng et al. (2009): The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from Barren Mountain, Guizhou Province, China. A colony of Traumatocrinus sp. attached by root cirri to an agatized piece of driftwood! PDF file, from:
Jere H. Lipps and Bruno R.C. Granier (eds.) 2009, (e-book, hosted by Carnets): PaleoParks - The protection and conservation of fossil sites worldwide. Also available from here.

Jessica H. Whiteside et al. (2011): Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea. PDF file, PNAS, 108.

! Wikipedia the free encyclopedia:
Triassic.
Trias (in German).
Germanic Trias.
Keuper.
Keuper (in German).

YAHOO: Science > Earth Sciences > Geology and Geophysics > Geologic Time > Mesozoic Era, and Triassic Period.

K.E. ZEIGLER, A.B. HECKERT, and S.G. LUCAS: Taphonomic analysis of a fire-related Upper Triassic vertebrate fossil assemblage from north-central New Mexico. PDF file; New Mexico Geological Society, 56th Field Conference Guidebook, Geology of the Chama Basin, 2005, p.341-351.

Zunyi Yang, Zishun Li, Lifan Qu, Zhongming Lu, Huiqin Zhou, Tongshun Zhou, Guifang Liu, Benpei Liu & Ruitang Wu (China University of Geosciences and Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences): The Triassic of China. PDF file, hosted by Polyglot Paleontologist English Translations of Non-English Paleontological Literature. Translator: W. Downs.











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