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Home / All about Upper Triassic

Triassic Biotas
Homepages of Triassic Workers
Triassic Literature
Triassic Palaeobotany
Triassic Palynology
Triassic Climate
The Carnian Pluvial Event
Triassic Palaeogeography
Triassic Stratigraphy
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Triassic Palaeosols
Triassic Charcoal
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips

! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian@
! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic@
! Biotic Recoveries from Mass Extinctions@
Geologic Time Scale@
Teaching Documents about Evolution@
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology@

Home / All about Upper Triassic / Triassic Biotas

Homepages of Triassic Workers
Triassic Palaeobotany
Triassic Palynology
Triassic Climate
The Carnian Pluvial Event
Triassic Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy and Facies of the European Keuper
Triassic Palaeosols
Triassic Charcoal
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips
! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian@
! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic@
! Biotic Recoveries from Mass Extinctions@
Geologic Time Scale@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Geology@

Triassic Biotas

! Friedrich August von Alberti (1834): Beitrag zu einer Monographie des bunten Sandsteins, Muschelkalks und Keupers und die Verbindung dieser Gebilde zu einer Formation. Hosted by Hathi Trust Digital Library, a collaboration of universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the University of California system to establish a repository for their digitized collections.

! Albertiana (The Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy).
The primary mission of Albertiana is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among members of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy and the Triassic community at large. Albertiana are posted in a blog-style format and archived (by volume) as fully-formatted pdf issues at year end.
Albertiana past issues are available from here and likewise from Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana!
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

David L. Alles, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA: Biology 101: An Introduction to Science and Biology. (PDF files). Go to: Illustrated Lecture Presentations, The Mesozoic Era.

J.M. Anderson et al. (1998): Late Triassic ecosystems of the Molteno/Lower Elliot biome of southern Africa. PDF file, Palaeontology 41.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Regional palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Molteno Biome on PDF page 4.

M.A.M. Aref et al. (2014): Microbial and physical sedimentary structures in modern evaporitic coastal environments of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In PDF, Facies. See also here.

! M.J. Benton and F. Wu (2022): Triassic revolution. Free access, Frontiers in Earth Science, 10. See also here.
Note figure 9: Novel physiological and functional characteristics, new tetrapod, insect and plant groups in the Triassic on land.
"... On land, ongoing competition between synapsids and archosauromorphs through the Triassic was marked by a posture shift from sprawling to erect, and a shift in physiology to warm-bloodedness, with insulating skin coverings of hair and feathers. Dinosaurs, for example, originated in the Early or Middle Triassic, but did not diversify until after the CPE [Carnian Pluvial Episode]. ..."

! M.J. Benton (2016): The Triassic. Open access, Current Biology, 26: R1214–R1218.

M.J. Benton et al. (2014): Review Models for the Rise of the Dinosaurs. In PDF, Current Biology 24.

M. Benton et al. (2002): Permian and Triassic Red Beds and the Penarth Group of Great Britain, General introduction. In PDF, Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 24, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
See especially PDF page 3: "Mass Extinctions".
See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkely (UCMP): The Triassic Period. Worth checking out: Triassic Period: Localities, Stratigraphy, and Triassic Period: Tectonics and Paleoclimate.

V. Blagoderov et al. (2007): How time flies for flies: diverse Diptera from the Triassic of Virginia and early radiation of the order. In PDF, American Museum Novitates, 3572: 1-39. See also here.

Ron Blakey, Department of Geology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ: Triassic Paleogeography, Southwestern US. Images from a talk presented to the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Salt Lake City. See also: Triassic Fluvial Systems, Colorado Plateau.

Goran Bogicevic, Department of Regional Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Mininig and Geology at Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Boggy´s Geolinks. Scroll down to: "Stratigraphy", e.g. Triassic. A link directory.

Wilhelm Bölsche (in German, via Google books): Tiere der Urwelt. Animal and palaeovegetation reconstructions.
See also here (in German).

L.A. Buatois et al. (2016): The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. Abstract, The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology, 40: 179-263.
! See also here (in PDF).

Michael Buchwitz, Natural History Museum, Magdeburg, Germany: Triassic critters, Madygen & Co. Letters from a Triassic Lagerstätte.

The Bristol Palaeobiology Research Group , Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK:
! The Permo-Triassic mass extinction and its aftermath.

These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Buchwitz: Die Grabungsexpedition 2008 zur triassischen Fossillagerstätte Madygen (Kirgisistan, Mittelasien) - neue Ergebnisse zur Landwirbeltierfauna. In PDF.
Now via wayback machine.

! R.J. Butler et al. (2011): Preface to "Late Triassic Terrestrial Biotas and the Rise of Dinosaurs" Special Issue. In PDF, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA: Dinosaurs in there time,
! Triassic Period.
Easy to understand information (PDF file).

! M. Cawthorne et al. (2024): Latest Triassic terrestrial microvertebrate assemblages from caves on the Mendip palaeoisland, S.W. England, at Emborough, Batscombe and Highcroft Quarries. Free access, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association,
! "... folded and uplifted Lower Carboniferous limestones for building and road metal, and quarrymen encountered the fissures: often irregular, subvertical caves, caverns and slots filled with red and yellow-coloured clastic fossiliferous sediments containing terrestrial tetrapod bones washed in from the Mesozoic-aged landscapes above ..."

CFK-Fossilien Coburg (by W. Claus, L. Franzke and U. Knoch; in German):
Saurier-Trittsiegel und Spurenfossilien des mittleren Keuper. Fährten und Spuren in Ablagerungen des “Coburger Sandstein” (Hassberge–Formation).
Ausstellung: Geheimnisvolle Saurierfährten aus der fränkischen Trias.
Ein neuer Saurierfährtenfund aus dem Mittleren Keuper des Coburger Landes.
Der Coburger Sandstein (Mittlerer Keuper) in den Haßbergen.

CFK-Fossilien Coburg (by W. Claus, L. Franzke and U. Knoch; in German):
Kieselhölzer der Löwensteinformation.
Kieselholz aus dem Keuper von Nordfranken.

J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson (2005): Ecology and Behaviour of Mesozoic Reptiles, The Mesozoic Environment. In PDF. See also here,

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Web pages for Chapters in History of Life, 3rd Edition.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
To give some idea of the dynamism in paleontology, here are Web pages to illustrate. Go to: Chapter Eleven: The Triassic Takeover. A link directory.

J. Criscione-Vastano and D.A. Grimaldi (2024): Remarkable Diversity of Beetles (Coleoptera) in the Late Triassic (Norian)“Solite Deposit” of Virginia and North Carolina. Open access, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 467: 1-137.

Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission (DSK), the German Stratigraphic Commission. See also: Subkommission für Perm-Trias-Stratigraphie (in German).

DinoData. Registration needed. Go to: Keuper. A sauropod index. The Upper Triassic (uppermost Ladinian to Norian) continental sediments of the Germanic Basin in Central Europe are mainly referred as the Keuper Formation or simply the Keuper. The Keuper has produced a rich assemblage of archosaurs and dinosaurs, along with other important vertebrates such as phytosaurs, rauisuchians, aetosaurs, and crocodylomorphs.

Dinoraeum-Geo-News (A. Brix, Regensburg, Germany): Go to: Keyword: Triassic (in German).

E.M. Dunne et al. (2023): Climatic controls on the ecological ascendancy of dinosaurs. Open access, Current Biology, 33: 206-214.e4. See also:
Klimawandel an der Trias-Jura-Grenze nahm Schlüsselrolle in der Evolution der Dinosaurier ein. In German.
"... Statistical analyses show that Late Triassic sauropodomorph dinosaurs occupied a more restricted climatic niche space than other tetrapods and dinosaurs, being excluded from the hottest, low-latitude climate zones. ..."

J. Dzik and T. Sulej (2007): A review of the early Late Triassic Krasiejów biota from Silesia, Poland. In PDF, Palaeontologia Polonica, 64: 3–27. THE TRIASSIC PERIOD.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:

Excite Gallery: Triassic Forest. A swampy forest in Chinle area of Arizona during the Triassic period. See also: A hungry Herrerasaurus stalks a Rhynchosaur in the Late Triassic of Argentina.

Factbites (created by Rapid Intelligence, a content technology company based in Sydney, Australia). Go to: Triassic. Factbites offers users meaningful, relevant sentences from every site in the search results.

P.G. Falkowski et al. (2005): The rise of oxygen over the past 205 million years and the evolution of large placental mammals. PDF file, Science, 309. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes.
Now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London.

O.R.R. Fernández and I. Werneburg (2022): A new massopodan sauropodomorph from Trossingen Formation (Germany) hidden as ‘Plateosaurus’ for 100&xnbsp;years in the historical Tübingen collection: Vertebrate Zoology, 72: 771–822.
See also here.
! Note figure 1: Summary of the taxonomic history of Late Triassic sauropodomorphs.

D.L. Fillmore et al. (2017): Ichnology of a Late Triassic lake margin: the Lockatong Formation, Newark Basin, Pennsylvania. Google books, Bulletin 76, New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science.
See also here (in PDF).

J. Fischer et al.(2021): Madygen Overview Card. Poster, in PDF.

N.C. Fraser and H.-D. Sues (2012): The beginning of the "Age of Dinosaurs": a brief overview of terrestrial biotic changes during the Triassic. Abstract.

The (Farlex Inc.): Triassic.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Historical Geology. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture.
! See for instance: The Mesozoic. Powerpoint presentation.

H. Furrer (2024): The history of palaeontological research and excavations at Monte San Giorgio. Open access, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 143: 18.

J.-C. Gall, Strasbourg; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS): Evolution. Go to: Le Trias et l'ébauche des grands groupes modernes. In French.

O.F. Gallego et al. (2011): The most ancient Platyperlidae (Insecta, Perlida= Plecoptera) from early Late Triassic deposits in southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 48: 447-461. See also here (abstract).
Please take notice: Fig. 8, the reconstruction by Carsten Brauckmann and Elke Gröening. A plecopteran nymph over a Dicroidium leaf under the water surface.

The Geological Conservation Review (GCR). GCR is a major initiative to identify and describe the most important Earth science sites in Britain. Go to: The Permo–Triassic world (PDF file). This volume describes sites selected for the Geological Conservation Review that exemplify the Permian and Triassic red-bed sediments of Britain.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also: Mesozoic-Cenozoic Stratigraphy.

G. Geyer and K.-P. Kelber (1987): Flügelreste und Lebensspuren von Insekten aus dem Unteren Keuper Mainfrankens. PDF file, (in German).

T.R. Good (2013): Life in an ancient sea of sand: Trace fossil associations and their paleoecological implications in the upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, Northeastern Utah. In PDF, thesis, Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Utah.
See also here.

Jan Golonka (2007): Phanerozoic paleoenvironment and paleolithofacies maps. Mesozoic. PDF file, Geologia, 33: 211-264. Including Triassic maps!

Pamela J. W. Gore, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA: THE MESOZOIC ERA: TRIASSIC, JURASSIC and CRETACEOUS.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L. Grauvogel-Stamm & K.-P. Kelber (1996): Plant-insect interactions and coevolution during the Triassic in Western Europe.- PDF file, 30 MB! Paleontologica Lombardia, N. S. 5: 5-23, 31 fig.; Milano. Abstract available here.

C.T. Griffin et al. (2022): Africa’s oldest dinosaurs reveal early suppression of dinosaur distribution. Abstract, Nature.
See also: here.
"... By the Late Triassic (Carnian stage, ~235 million years ago), cosmopolitan ‘disaster faunas’ had given way to highly endemic assemblages on the supercontinent.
[...] palaeolatitudinal climate belts, and not continental boundaries, are proposed to have controlled distribution. During this time of high endemism ..."

K. Gruntmejer et al. (2015): The Triassic world of Krasiejów. In PDF, Field guide, 13th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists, Opole, Poland, 8-12 July 2015.
Please note Fig.5. Reconstruction of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis; Fig. 7. Reconstruction of Cyclotosaurus intermedius.

S.-M. Gui et al. (2023): Evolution of Insect Diversity in the Permian and Triassic. Free access, Palaeoentomology, 006: 472–481.
"... we present a statistical study on taxonomic diversity of insects—at specific, generic and familial levels—throughout the Permian and Triassic, with subsampled tests on the reported global occurrences. Our result show that more than one insect extinction events, accompanied by significant diversity drop and turnovers of faunal compositional, occurred in the Permian and Triassic ..."

H. Hagdorn et al. (2015): 15. Fossile Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper. - p. 359-385, PDF file, in German. Go to PDF page 8:
! Bite traces on plants from the germanotype Lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic).
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

D.W. Haig et al. (2015): Early Triassic (early Olenekian) life in the interior of East Gondwana: mixed marine–terrestrial biota from the Kockatea Shale, Western Australia. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 417: 511-533. See also here (abstract).

S.T. Hasiotis et al. (1998): Research Update on Hymenopteran Nests and Cocoons, Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona.
See also here.

Carmen Heunisch et al. (2007): Erdgeschichte von Niedersachsen. Geologie und Landschaftsentwicklung (in German). PDF file, Landesamt für Bergbau, Energie und Geologie, Hannover (LBEG). State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology.
Triassic on PDF page 36!

Marguerite Holloway, Scientific American May 2002 issue: Trees of the Triassic. In the Painted Desert of Arizona, a story of how forests turned to stone and how the stones are walking away.

Thomas R. Holtz, Department of Geology, University of Maryland: Historical Geology - The History of Earth and Life. Lecture notes. Go to: The Mesozoic Era I: Triassic-Jurassic Geology.

B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Hornung et al. (2007): Multistratigraphic constraints on the NW Tethyan "Carnian crisis". In PDF, In: Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A. (eds.): The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Education 2001, Leaving the Water. Go to: The Triassic Takeover.

Adrian P. HUNT, Mesalands Dinosaur Museum, Mesa Technical College, Spencer G. LUCAS, NM Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, Phillip HUBER, Dept. of Education, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Martin G. LOCKLEY, Dept. of Geology, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver: FAUNAL EVOLUTION IN LATE TRIASSIC, NONMARINE TETRAPODS.

Leslie Hutchinson, Triassic.

International Commission on Stratigraphy:
GSSP for the Permian-Triassic Boundary.
Still provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Report on the International Workshop for a Climatic, Biotic, and Tectonic, Pole-to-Pole Coring Transect of Triassic-Jurassic Pangea. Held June 5-9, 1999 at Acadia University, Nova Scotia, Canada. Navigate from here.

! Karen Carr Studio, Silver City, NM:
Worth checking out: "Karen Carr" Triassic (Google search).
See also: Late Triassic plant community,
Triassic Landscape,
or Triassic Landscape, Coelophysis detail.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M. Alan Kazlev et al.: Palaeos. A website about the history of life on Earth. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
The Mesozoic Era and The Triassic Period.

B.P. Kear et al. (2016): An introduction to the Mesozoic biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic territories. In PDF.

K.-P. Kelber and R. Schoch (2015): 18. Lebensbilder des Lettenkeupers im Wandel der Zeiten. PDF file, in German.
p. 407-413; in: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! K.-P. Kelber (2009): Lebensbilder der Unterkeuperzeit im Spiegel der paläontologischen Forschung. PDF file (8.5 MB), in German. Veröffentlichungen Naturhistorisches Museum Schleusingen, 24: 27-52. Life pictures from the Lower Keuper in the mirror of palaeontological research. A selection of Lower Keuper swamp reconstructions from the germanotype Triassic (Ladinian, Triassic).

K.-P. Kelber et al. (1997): Exotische Kristallingerölle aus dem süddeutschen Schilfsandstein (Mittlerer Keuper, Trias). Exotic Crystalline Pebbles from the Schilfsandstein (Middle Keuper; Triassic) of Southern Germany. Abstract, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont., Abh., 206: 93-131.
See also here (in PDF).
"... we regard a transportation of entrapped rocks within root structures of floating trees as the best explanation ..."

K.-P. Kelber and G. Geyer (1989): Lebensspuren von Insekten an Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers. PDF file (in German), Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 109: 165-174.

! Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson and Sally Stephens, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK: The Late Triassic Website. Go to: Theories on the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Also worth checking out:
! Ecology of the Triassic.

Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson Sally Stephens, University of Bristol: The Late Triassic Website. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to:
! Ecology of the Triassic.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T.G. Klausen et al. (2020): Geological control on dinosaurs' rise to dominance: Late Triassic ecosystem stress by relative sea level change. Open access, Terra Nova, 32: 434-441.
See also here.
"... The Late Triassic is enigmatic in terms of how terrestrial life evolved: it was the time when new groups arose, such as dinosaurs, lizards, crocodiles and mammals. Also, it witnessed a prolonged period of extinctions, distinguishing it from other great mass extinction events, while the gradual rise of the dinosaurs during the Carnian to Norian remains unexplained. Here we show that key extinctions during the early Norian might have been triggered by major sea-level changes ..."

Hendrik Klein and Andrew B. Heckert (2023):
Chirotheres - Tracking the Ancestors of Dinosaurs and Crocodiles. Google books, 360 Pages, Indiana University Press. A compendium of what is known about the five-toed footprints of Triassic archosaurs.
See also here. With reconstruction artwork by Matthew Celeskey.

H. Klein and S.G. Lucas (2021): The Triassic tetrapod footprint record. In PDF, New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin 83. See also here.

M. Krings, LMU München: Die obertriassische Flora von Lunz (Niederösterreich) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Samenpflanzen: Systematik, Paläobiologie und Paläoökologie. Scientific project report (in German).
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.C. Labandeira et al. (2018): Expansion of Arthropod Herbivory in Late Triassic South Africa: The Molteno Biota, Aasvoëlberg 411 Site and Developmental Biology of a Gall. Abstract, with an extended citation list. Pages 623-719. In: L.H. Tanner (ed.): The Late Triassic World.
"... Aas411 was one of the most herbivorized of Molteno´s 106 sites, consisting of 20,358 plant specimens represented by 111 plant form-taxa that includes 14 whole-plant taxa (WPT); the insect damage consists of 11 functional feeding groups (FFGs), 44 damage types (DTs) and 1127 herbivorized specimens. ..."

! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also here (in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.

F. Lang: Erntezeit für Kieselhölzer. PDF file, in German. Permineralized wood mainly from the Upper Triassic of Germany.

M.B. Lara et al. (2023): Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic Insects: State of the Art on Paleoentomological Studies in Southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 60: 418–449.
See likewise here.

Reinhold Leinfelder, geology resources Bebildertes Skript zum Vorlesungsteil 6: Trias (in German).

L. Li et al. (2017): Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF, Geological Magazine.

! S. Lidgard and A.C. Love (2018): Rethinking Living Fossils. Open access, BioScience.
Note the fossil Triops impression from the germanotype Triassic in fig. 2b.

C.M. Liutkus et al. (2010): Use of fine-scale stratigraphy and chemostratigraphy to evaluate conditions of deposition and preservation of a Triassic Lagerstätte, south-central Virginia. In PDF, J. Paleolimnol. 44: 645-666.

LoveToKnow Free Online Encyclopedia (the eleventh edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, first published in 1911): Keuper.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.G. Lucas (2010): The Triassic timescale: an introduction. PDF file, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 1-16. See also here (abstract).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Spencer G. Lucas et al. (2010): Re-evaluation of alleged bees´ nests from the Upper Triassic of Arizona.

S.G. Lucas (2001), go to PDF page 52: Restoration of Late Triassic landscapes at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. In PDF, Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference. See also here.

E.D. Lukashevich (2023): Where the Immatures of Triassic Diptera Developed. Free access, Diversity, 15, 582.

A.C. Mancuso et al. (2007): The Triassic insect fauna from the Los Rastros Formation (Bermejo Basin), La Rioja Province (Argentina): its context, taphonomy and paleobiology. Ameghiniana 44 (2): 337-348.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. McLoughlin and C. Strullu-Derrien (2015): Biota and palaeoenvironment of a high middle-latitude Late Triassic peat-forming ecosystem from Hopen, Svalbard archipelago. PDF file, in: Kear B.P. et al. (eds): Mesozoic Biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic Territories. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Pub., 434: 87–112.
See also here.

! C. McRoberts, State University of New York, Cortland:
The Global Triassic, Alburquerque, May 2007. PDF files; The joint meeting of the IGCP Project 467 and the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy (hosted by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science).
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P. Mietto (2020): Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Italy: the state of the art. In PDF, Journal of Mediterranean Earth Sciences 12 (2020), 83-136. In: Romano M., Citton P. (Eds.), Tetrapod ichnology in Italy: the state of the art.
See also here.

Vertebrate Palaeontology, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano: Fossiliferous (Fish)Localities. The geological timetable and the Triassic. Click on the coloured sections for access to further pages (under construction).

K.S. Nam et al. (2017): An extraordinary palaeontinid from the Triassic of Korea and its significance. Sci. Rep., 7.

National Geographic Society: Triassic Period.

The Natural History Museum London:
Dino Directory. Dinosaur information (including some palaeoflora reconstructions) alphabetically, by time period (Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous), by country, or by body shape. Go to: Upper Triassic. See: Plateosaurus.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2020): The triassic period. In PDF, Geologic Time Scale 2020, Volume 2: 903-953. See also here.
! Note the generalized synthesis of selected Triassic stratigraphic scales in Figs. 25.5-25.7!

P.E. Olsen (1988): Paleontology and paleoecology of the Newark Supergroup (Early Mesozoic, Eastern North America) (PDF file). In: W. Manspeizer, Triassic-Jurassic Rifting. See also here.

Paul E. Olsen, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY: Dinosaurs and the History of Life: Lecture 8. The end of the Permian and the Major Groups of Tetrapods, Lecture 9. The Triassic World, Lecture 10. Great Triassic Assemblages Pt 1 - The Chinle and Newark Newark and Chinle Strata, Lecture 11. Great Triassic Assemblages Pt 2 - The Keuper and Fleming Fjord Formation, Lecture 12. The Lias, Newark, Glen Canyon, and Stormberg Assemblages - Mass Extinction in the Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs.

! K. Padian and H.-D. Sues (2015): The Age of Transformation: The Triassic Period and the Rise of Today´s Land Vertebrate Fauna. In PDF; pp. 351–374, in: Great Transformations: Major Events in the History of Vertebrate Life (Univ. of Chicago Press).

The Paleontology Portal, produced by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, the Paleontological Society, the US Geological Survey, and the UC Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the Paleontological Research Institute, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (funded by the National Science Foundation): The Triassic - 248 to 206 Million Years Ago.

W.G. Parker (2011): Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs and Our Modern Biota. Book Review, 0pen access, BioScience, 61: 570–571. See also here.
Note the Triassic landscape reconstruction on the cover.

Bill Parker, Arizona: Chinleana. Discussion of Late Triassic paleontology and other assorted topics.

N.W. Paterson et al. (2016): A multidisciplinary biofacies characterisation of the Late Triassic (late Carnian–Rhaetian) Kapp Toscana Group on Hopen, Arctic Norway. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464: 16-42. See also here (in PDF).

E. Peñalver et al. (2024): Early detritivory and sedimentivory in insects based on in situ gut contents from Triassic aquatic nymphs. Free access, Papers in Palaeontology, 9. e1478.

! E. Peñalver et al. (2012): Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 8623-8628. See also here.

Poinar, G. O. Jr., Waggoner, B. M., and Bauer, U.-C. 1993: Earliest terrestrial protists and other microorganisms in Triassic amber. Science 259(5092): 222-224.

P. David Polly, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN:
Historical Geology. Life through time. Lecture notes. Topics are paleontology, geologic time, biological evolution, plate tectonics, ancient environments, and climate change, principles of interpreting earth history from geological data, etc. Go to:
Lecture 15: Paleobiology, and
Lecture 21: Mesozoic 2: Terrestrial environments and extinction. Lecture slides (PDF files).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.A. Prokin and A.S. Bashkuev (2020): Trialarva coburgensis gen. et sp. nov., a remarkable fossil holometabolan larva (Insecta: Coleoptera) from the Triassic of Germany. Abstract, PalZ. See also here (in PDF).

A.A. Prokin et al. (2013): New beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Coptoclavidae, Caraboidea, Polyphaga) from the Upper Triassic of Germany. In PDF.

! M. Qvarnström et al. (2019): Beetle-bearing coprolites possibly reveal the diet of a Late Triassic dinosauriform. Open access, R. Soc. open sci., 6: 181042.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Mesozoic. Mesozoic topics - including PDF files - are: Jurassic phytogeography and climates (data and models); Late Jurassic climate, vegetation and dinosaur distribution; Mesozoic assembly, Asia: floras, tectonics, paleomagnetism; Paleoecology, middle Cretaceous Grebenka flora, Siberia; and Lower Jurassic floras of Hope Bay & Botany Bay, Antarctica.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleobiography Project. Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
There are three databases, including a map-based search function, plotting on paleomaps, references search, genus name search for the dinosaurs and plants, and tutorial pages:
PGAP, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project Lithofacies Database. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lithofacies.
CSS, the Climate Sensitive Sediments Database. Permian and Jurassic Climate Sensitive Sediments.
DINO, the Dinosauria Distributions Database. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Dinosaur Distributions.

Silvio Renesto et al., Fossil Gallery, Università degli Studi di Milano: Vertebrate Palaeontology in Milano University is represented by a small but active staff. Research deals mainly with Middle-Late Triassic fishes and reptiles from well known localities in Northern Italy. Go to: Fossiliferous Localities. Norian localities are Preone Valley, Raibl, Giffoni, Seefeld. Ladinian localities are Besano-M.S.Giorgio, Ca'del Frate, Meride, Perledo.

! Robert A. Rohde, International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS):
GeoWhen Database. GeoWhen Database is an attempt to sort out the mess that man has made of the geologic timescale. This project aims to reconcile the international stratigraphic standards with many of the regional and archaic naming schemes that appear in the literature. The central stratigraphic classification and dates are based on the 2004 time scale endorsed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) and documented in Gradstein, Ogg, Smith, et al., A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Go to:

S. Ros-Franch et al. (2014): Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record. In PDF.

D.A. Ruban (2022): A review of the Late Triassic conodont conundrum: survival beyond biotic perturbations. Open access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 102: 373–382.
See also here.
Note fig. 3: The Middle–Late Triassic biotic perturbations.

M. Schlirf (2005): Revision and description of Keuper (Middle Ladinian to Rhaetian) invertebrate trace fossils from the southern part of the Germanic Basin and studies of related material. In PDF. Dissertation, University of Würzburg. See also here.

! A.R. Schmidt et al. (2012): Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period. Free access, PNAS, 109.

R. Schoch and R. Moreno (2024): Synopsis on the temnospondyls from the German Triassic. Open access, Palaeodiversity, 17: 9-48.
Note figure 1: Triassic outcrops in Germany with most important temnospondyl localities highlighted.
Figure 19: Stratigraphy of the German Lower and basal Middle Triassic with ranges of all valid temnospondyl taxa mapped.
Figure 20: Stratigraphy of the German upper Middle and Upper Triassic with ranges of all valid temnospondyl taxa mapped.

R. Schoch (2016), smnstuttgart-blog, Understanding Nature: Pappochelys, die Opaschildkröte. In German.

ScienceDirect (provided by the Dutch publisher Elsevier):
Triassic Period.
Created by ScienceDirect using heuristic and machine-learning approaches to extract relevant information. ScienceDirect Topic Pages. These pages provide concept definitions and subject overviews. Each synopsis provides a series of short, authoritative, excerpts from highly relevant book chapters. These topic summaries are derived from Elsevier encyclopedias, reference works and books. Go to:
Learn more about Triassic Period.
Learn more about Triassic.

Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Paleoenvironment of Utah: Fading the Mists of Time. Powerpoint presentation.

D. Seegis: Geologischer Pfad Gaildorf. PDF file, in German.

Paul A. Selden et al. (2009): A review of the fossil record of spiders (Araneae) with special reference to Africa, and description of a new specimen from the Triassic Molteno Formation of South Africa. In PDF. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L.J. Seyfullah et al. (2018): The Carnian Pluvial Episode and the first global appearance of amber. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society.

J. Sha et al. (2024): The Triassic and Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, China: Advances in palaeontology and environments – an introduction. Free access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 538.

Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.

S. Sroka and A.H. Staniczek (2022): Evolution of filter-feeding in aquatic insects dates back to the Middle Triassic: New evidence from stemgroup mayflies (Insecta: Ephemerida) of Grès à Voltzia, Vosges, France. Abstract, Papers in Palaeontology, 8: 1-17. Worth checking out:
245-million-year-old fossils provide new insights into the evolution and feeding strategies of aquatic insects (by Meike Rech, idw, August 25, 2022).

Sternfreunde Erftstadt (H. Sommerkorn & O. Gardner, Erftstadt): Die Trias (in German).

The Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, Germany:
Mittlerer und Oberer Keuper.
Mittlerer Keuper vor 233 – 205 Millionen Jahren.
Unterer Keuper.
Unterer Keuper vor 235 – 233 Millionen Jahren.
Easy to understand informations, in German.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart:
Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Book announcement (in German).
See also here (in PDF).
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy (STS).
Under the auspicities of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the STS is charged with the establishment of a standard, globally applicable stratigraphic scale for the Triassic system.

! Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic Life on Land: The Great Transition. Google books.

Ge Sun et al. (2010): The Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic strata and floras of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 203-214.
See also here.

J. Szwedo and A. Nel (2011): The oldest aphid insect from the Middle Triassic of the Vosges, France. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56: 757-766.

! L. Tapanila and E.M. Roberts (2012): The Earliest Evidence of Holometabolan Insect Pupation in Conifer Wood. In PDF. See also here.

ThinkQuest Library: The ThinkQuest Library of entries is the collection of educational web sites designed by participants in the ThinkQuest Contests. Go to: History of Earth, Mesozoic Era. An easy to understand description of the geology, animal life, and plant life.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Bruce H. Tiffney (University of California, Santa Barbara), Access Excellance, BioForum 4: The Influence of Plants on the Evolution of Terrestrial Communities. Go to Mesozoic reconstruction.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York: Triassic-Jurassic Working Group.

Trias Verein Thüringen e.V. (in German). Worth checking out: Triassic Links.

! M.E. Tucker and M.J. Benton (1982): Triassic environments, climates and reptile evolution. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 40: 361-379. See also here.

UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.

! X. Wang et al. (2009): The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from Barren Mountain, Guizhou Province, China. PDF file.
! Note figure 29: A colony of Traumatocrinus sp. attached by root cirri to an agatized piece of driftwood!
PDF still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

J.H. Whiteside et al. (2015): Extreme ecosystem instability suppressed tropical dinosaur dominance for 30 million years. In PDF, PNAS.

! J.H. Whiteside et al. (2011): Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea. Open access, PNAS, 108.
See also here.
"... . Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions. ..."

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Triassic events
Category:Triassic life
Category:Triassic first appearances
Category:Triassic animals
! Category:Triassic plants

! Wikipedia the free encyclopedia:
Trias (in German).
Germanic Trias.
Keuper (in German).

! S.L. Wing et al. (1992): Mesozoic and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF. In: Behrensmeyer, A.K., Damuth, J.D., DiMichele, W.A., Potts, R., Sues, H., Wing, S.L. (eds): Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time : Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp.327–416.
! See especially page 329 (on PDF page 3): "Triassic Biotas"

YAHOO: Science > Earth Sciences > Geology and Geophysics > Geologic Time > Mesozoic Era, and Triassic Period.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Z. Yang et al. (1982; translated by W. Downs): The Triassic of China. PDF file, Acta Geologica Sinica.

K.E. Zeigler et al. (2005): Taphonomic analysis of a fire-related Upper Triassic vertebrate fossil assemblage from north-central New Mexico. PDF file; New Mexico Geological Society, 56th Field Conference Guidebook, Geology of the Chama Basin, 2005, p.341-351.

! D. Zheng et al. (2018): Middle-Late Triassic insect radiation revealed by diverse fossils and isotopic ages from China. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4.

D. Zheng et al. (2017): The first Late Triassic Chinese triadophlebiomorphan (Insecta: Odonatoptera): biogeographic implications. Scientific Reports.

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