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Triassic Charcoal
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips

! Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies@
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! Palynology Databases@
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic@

Triassic Palynology

V. Baranyi et al. (2019): Palynological and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data of Carnian (Late Triassic) formations from western Hungary. Free access, see also here.

V. Baranyi et al. (2019): Palynology and weathering proxies reveal climatic fluctuations during the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) (Late Triassic) from marine successions in the Transdanubian Range (western Hungary). Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 177: 157-172.

! V. Baranyi (2018): Vegetation dynamics during the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian): Response to climate and environmental changes inferred from palynology. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

V. Baranyi et al. (2018): A continental record of the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) from the Mercia Mudstone Group (UK): palynology and climatic implications. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 176: 149-166.
See also here, and there.
Note figure 5: Chrono-, bio- and palynostratigraphical schemes for the Germanic Keuper, Alpine and Boreal realms and North America during the Carnian–Norian.
"... The generally arid Late Triassic climate was interrupted by a wet phase during the mid-Carnian termed the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE).
[...] The vegetation of British CPE successions suggests a more complex climate history during the Carnian, indicating that the CPE is not recognized by the same changes everywhere ..."

V. Baranyi et al. (2017): Norian vegetation history and related environmental changes: New data from the Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona, SW USA). Abstract, GSA Bulletin. See also here (in PDF).
"... A palynological analysis of the Blue Mesa, Sonsela, and Petrified Forest Members of the Norian Chinle Formation has revealed four distinct palynofloras. The new data support the occurrence of a floral turnover in tandem with a faunal turnover between the Adamanian and Revueltian vertebrate biozones. ..."

M. Barbacka et al. (2017): Changes in terrestrial floras at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in Europe. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 480: 80-93.

N. Barbolini (2014): Palynostratigraphy of the South African Karoo supergroup and correlations with coeval Gondwanan successions. In PDF, Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. See also here.

! D. Bailey (2014), FORCE Biostratigraphy Seminar: New observations on Mesozoic miospores and acritarchs, and the implications for existing taxonomy, classification and phylogeny. in PDF.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B.E. Balme (1995): Fossil in situ spores and pollen grains: an annotated catalogue. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 87: 81-323.
See also here.

G. Barth et al. (2018): Marine and terrestrial sedimentation across the T–J transition in the North German Basin. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 489: 74-94. See also here.

C.A. Benavente et al. (2024): Triassic Gondwanan floral assemblages reflect paleogeography more than geologic time. Abstract, Gondwana Research.
"... Combining these and existing geochronologic data with a newly assembled comprehensive presence/absence dataset of palynomorphs from the Anisian-Norian of Gondwana, we demonstrate that paleogeography (paleolatitude) has a significantly stronger correlation with taxonomic composition of assemblages than does geologic time
[...] results imply that geography is an important null hypothesis in explaining differences in early Mesozoic Gondwanan palynomorph assemblages, and that precise geochronologic age constraints are important for refining the accuracy of Triassic palynomorph biochronology ..."

! J.P. Benca et al. (2018): UV-B–induced forest sterility: Implications of ozone shield failure in Earth’s largest extinction. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4. See also here.

Sylvain Bernard et al. (2007): Exceptional preservation of fossil plant spores in high-pressure metamorphic rocks PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 262: 257-272. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! N.R. Bonis (2010), Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Palaeoecology Institute of Environmental Biology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University: Palaeoenvironmental changes and vegetation history during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. PDF file (7.7 MB), LPP Contribution Series No. 29. Seven research reports (chapters) in this thesis, see especially chapter 7 (with W.M. Kürschner):
! Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (PDF page 140).
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

N.R. Bonis et al. (2007): Floral and paleoenvironmental changes during the end-Triassic: New data from European key sections. Abstract, Pdf file, from Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A., eds., 2007, The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41.
See also here (in PDF).

R. Bos et al. (2023): Triassic-Jurassic vegetation response to carbon cycle perturbations and climate change. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 228.
Note figure 1: Paleogeographic reconstruction of the end-Triassic.
Figure 4. Major vegetation patterns as inferred by their botanical affinities.
Figure 5. Palynofloral diversity indices plotted against the variation of major botanical groups.
Figure 7. Depositional model of paleoenvironmental changes in the northern German Basin-

B. Buchardt and M.V. Nielsen (1991): Comparison of organic geochemical and palynofacies methods: Example from the Upper Triassic Gassum Formation in Denmark. PDF file, Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, 38: 267-277.

R. Burgess et al. (2021): Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Triassic floras from the Central North Sea. Journal of the Geological Society. See also here.
Note fig. 1: Triassic stratigraphy and existing climate models scaled against geological timescale.

S.N. Césari and C. Colombi (2016): Palynology of the Late Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina: Paleoecological and paleogeographic implications. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 449. See also here, and there.

S.N. Césari and C.E. Colombi (2013): A new Late Triasssic phytogeographical scenario in westernmost Gondwana. Open access, Nature Communications, 4, édoi:10.1038/ncomms2917.

D. Chu et al. (2021): Metal-induced stress in survivor plants following the end-Permian collapse of land ecosystems. Open access, Geology, 49.

S. Cirilli (2011): Upper Triassic-lowermost Jurassic palynology and palynostratigraphy: a review. In PDF, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 285-314.
See also here.

R.F.A. Clarke (1965): Keuper miospores from Worcestershire, England. PDF file, Palaeontology.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

B. Cornet (1993): Applications and limitations of palynology in age, climatic, and paleoenvironmental analyses of Triassic sequences in North America. PDF file, In: Lucas, S.G. and M. Morales, (eds.): The Nonmarine Triassic. New Mexico Museum Of Natural History & Science Bulletin, 3: 75-93. See also here.

B. Courtinat (2000): La matière organique sédimentaire en environnement de dépôt marginal. Exemple de la plaine deltaïque hypersaline du Ladinien de la bordure est du Massif central. (Sedimentary organic matter in nearshore deposits. Example from the Ladinian hypersaline delta plain in the eastern margin of the Massif Central (France)). PDF file (in French), Géologie de la France, 1: 35-45.

S. Deng et al. (2018): Subdivision and age of the Yanchang Formation and the Middle/Upper Triassic boundary in Ordos Basin, North China. Free access, SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 61: 1419-1439.
Note figure 3: Plant fossils from the Yanchang Formation.
Note figure 4: Elements of the palynoflora from the Yanchang Formation.

T. Dixon (2013): Palynofacies and Palynological Analysis of Late Triassic Sediments from the Kentish Knock-1 Well (Northern Carnarvon Basin, NW Australia). Reconstruction of vegetation history, interpretation of climate and sea level changes and placement in regional zonation. In PDF, thesis, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo.

! Susanne Feist-Burkhardt and Annette E. Götz (2002): Kompaktkurse, Palynofazies und Sequenzstratigraphie (K1). PDF file, in German. SEDIMENT 2002, Frankfurt am Main - Darmstadt.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A. Fijalkowska-Mader et al. (2022): Lost Norian fluvial tracks: Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic coarse-grained deposits in Kamienica Slaska (Upper Silesia, southern Poland). In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 92.
"... Palynological analysis of mudstone interbeds within the conglomeratic deposits shows the presence of miospores guiding and characteristic for subzone c of the Corollina meyeriana zone of the late Norian-early Rhaetian age. ..."

A. Fijalkowska-Mader et al. (2020): Record of the Carnian Pluvial Episode in the Polish microflora. In PDF, Palaeoworld. See also here.

A. Fijalkowska-Mader et al. (2015): Palynostratigraphy and palynofacies of the Upper Silesian Keuper (southern Poland). In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 637-661.

A. Fijalkowska-Mader (2015): A record of climatic changes in the Triassic palynological spectra from Poland. In PDF, Geological Quarterly, 59.

C.R. Fielding et al. (2022): Environmental change in the late Permian of Queensland, NE Australia: The warmup to the end-Permian Extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 594.
See also here.
"... the time interval 257–252 Ma represented by the studied succession does not record a simple monotonic change in palaeoenvironmental conditions, but rather a series of intermittent stepwise changes towards warmer, and more environmentally stressed conditions leading up to the EPE [End-Permian Extinction] in eastern Australia. ..."

C.R. Fielding et al. (2019): Age and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction constrained by multiproxy analysis. Open access, Communications, 10.
"... we use palynology coupled with high-precision CA-ID-TIMS dating of euhedral zircons from continental sequences of the Sydney Basin, Australia, to show that the collapse of the austral Permian Glossopteris flora occurred prior to 252.3?Ma (~370 kyrs before the main marine extinction). Weathering proxies indicate that floristic changes occurred during a brief climate perturbation in a regional alluvial landscape ..."

C.B. Foster and S.A. Afonin (2005): Abnormal pollen grains: an outcome of deteriorating atmospheric conditions around the Permian-Triassic boundary. In PDF,, Journal of the Geological Society, 162(4): 653-659.
See also here.

M. Franz et al. (2019): The Schilfsandstein and its flora - arguments for a humid mid-Carnian episode? Journal of the Geological Society, 176: 133-148. See also here (in PDF).

! J.M. Galloway and S. Lindström (2023): Impacts of large-scale magmatism on land plant ecosystems. Open access, Elements, 19: 289–295.
! Note figure 1: Summary figure of changes in the diversity of land plants over geological time.
Figure 2: Flow chart showing the myriad of ways large-scale magmatism may impact land plants.
"... Emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) is implicated in almost every mass extinction and smaller biotic crises in Earth’s history, but the effects of these and other large-scale magmatic events on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood
[...] We review existing palynological literature to explore the direct and cumulative impacts of large-scale magmatism, such as LIP-forming events, on terrestrial vegetation composition and dynamics over geological time ..."

C. Gisler et al. (2007): Sedimentological and palynological constraints on the basal Triassic sequence in Central Switzerland. Abstract, Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 100: 263–272. See also here (in PDF).
Please note Fig. 5. Palaeogeographic situation showing the location of the Vindelician High during Early Triassic and earliest Anisian.

! A.E. Götz and D. Uhl (2022): Triassic micro-charcoal as a promising puzzle piece in palaeoclimate reconstruction: An example from the Germanic Basin. Free access, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 92.
See also here.
"The Triassic has long been regarded as a period without evidence of wildfires; however, recent studies on macro-charcoal have provided data indicating their occurrence throughout almost the entire Triassic. Still, the macro-palaeobotanical record is scarce ..."
[...] Comparison with the global record indicates that charcoal occurrence corresponds to warming phases and thus is vital in Triassic climate reconstruction. ..."
Note figure 1: Stratigraphic framework of charcoal discoveries in the Germanic Basin.
! Figure 4: First-order warming cycles based on Tethyan surface open-marine temperatures inferred from the conodont record of stratigraphic sections of the central and western Tethyan realm.

A.E. Götz et al. (2009): Palynological evidence of synchronous changes within the terrestrial and marine realm at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Csõvár section, Hungary). PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 401-409. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.E. Götz et al. (2006): Eustatic history of Mesozoic epeiric seas: A palynological approach . PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8.

Annette E. Götz et al. (2005): Distribution of sedimentary organic matter in Anisian carbonate series of S Poland: evidence of third-order sea-level fluctuations. PDF file, Int. J. Earth Sci. (Geol Rundsch), 94: 267-274.

L. Grauvogel-Stamm et al. (2022): Microspores of the Middle Triassic lycopsid Lepacyclotes (syn. Annalepis) zeilleri: Morphology, ultrastructure, laminated zones and comments about the lycopsid evolution. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 301.

J. Gravendyck (2021): Shedding new Light on the Triass-Jurassic Transition in the Germanic Basin: Novel insights from the Bonenburg section & palynotaxonomy and nomenclature of plant microfossils. In PDF, Thesis, Freie Universität Berlin.
See also here.
This is a cumulative dissertation based on published and unpublished manuscripts. Table of contents on PDF-page 11.

P.R. Gutiérrez and A.M. Zavattieri (2023): Middle Triassic Continental Palynological Assemblages of San Rafael Depocenter, Central-Western Argentina. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 60: 391–417.
See also here.

A.M.B.A. Hamad (2004): Palaeobotany and Palynostratigraphy of the Permo-Triassic in Jordan. Dissertation, University of Hamburg.

Christoph Hartkopf-Fröder, Geologisches Landesamt NRW, Krefeld: Muschelkalk und Keuper in der Eifel. Palynomorph photographs (via wayback archive) of Granuloperculatipollis rudis, Aratrisporites, Retisulcites perforatus (in German).

! J.I. Hedges and R.G. Keil (1995): Sedimentary organic matter preservation: an assessment and speculative synthesis. PDF file, Marine Chemistry, 49: 81-115.
See also here.

! E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237. See also here.

E. Hermann et al. (2011): Terrestrial ecosystems on North Gondwana following the end-Permian mass extinction. Abstract.

C. Heunisch (2015): 6. Die Palynoflora des Lettenkeupers. - PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

Carmen Heunisch, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR): Das Sammlungsobjekt des Monats Unverwechselbar: Rhaetipollis germanicus. In German.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Carmen Heunisch, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung, Hannover: Die Bedeutung der Palynologie für Biostratigraphie und Fazies in der Germanischen Trias. (now via wayback archive) - In: Hauschke, N. & Wilde, V. (Hrsg.); 1999: Trias - eine ganz andere Welt, Europa am Beginn des Erdmittelalters (in German).

Carmen Heunisch and Heinz-Gerd Röhling, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover: Permo-Triassic climatic development. Research report (via wayback archive, in German).

Carmen Heunisch & U. Rosenfeld: Lithofacies and palynofacies in the Triassic north and northeast of the Rhenish Massif (NW Germany). Abstract, 32nd annual meeting, AASP, Savannah, 1999 (now via wayback archive).


! P.A. Hochuli (2016): Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic Boundary sections. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 144:48-50. See also here (in PDF).

P.A. Hochuli and S. Feist-Burkhardt (2013): Angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of the Germanic Basin (Northern Switzerland). In PDF, Frontiers in plant science.

P.A. Hochuli et al. (2010): Multiple climatic changes around the Permian-Triassic boundary event revealed by an expanded palynological record from mid-Norway. In PDF, GSA Bulletin, 122: 884-896.
See also here.
"... In contrast to the common claim that marine and terrestrial biota both suffered a mass extinction related to the Permian- Triassic boundary event, the studied material from the Norwegian midlatitudinal sites shows no evidence for destruction of plant ecosystems. ..."

Björn Holstein, Geologisch-PaläontologischesInstitut, Frankfurt/Main: Palynological investigations in selected sections of the Rhaetian Koessen Beds, Alpine Upper Triassic.
Snapshot archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

N.V. Ilyina and A.Y. Egorov (2008): The Upper Triassic of northern Middle Siberia: stratigraphy and palynology. In PDF, Polar Research, 27: 372-392.
See also here.

X. Jin et al. (2021): Middle Triassic lake deepening in the Ordos Basin of North China linked with global sea-level rise. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 207.
See also here.

A.I. Kirichkova and N.K. Kulikova (2005): The Problem of Correlation between Triassic Continental Sequences of Southern Germany, the Timan-Pechora Region, and Eastern Urals. Abstract.

T.G. Klausen et al. (2020): Geological control on dinosaurs' rise to dominance: Late Triassic ecosystem stress by relative sea level change. Open access, Terra Nova, 32: 434-441.
See also here.
"... The Late Triassic is enigmatic in terms of how terrestrial life evolved: it was the time when new groups arose, such as dinosaurs, lizards, crocodiles and mammals. Also, it witnessed a prolonged period of extinctions, distinguishing it from other great mass extinction events, while the gradual rise of the dinosaurs during the Carnian to Norian remains unexplained. Here we show that key extinctions during the early Norian might have been triggered by major sea-level changes ..."

A.A. Klompmake et al. (2010): Biostratigraphic correlation, paleoenvironment stress, and subrosion pipe collapse: Dutch Rhaetian shales uncover their secrets. Facies, 56: 597–613.

J. Krupnik et al. (2014): A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynological analyses of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic sediments from the Holy Cross Mountains region. Acta Palaeobotanica, 54: 35–65.

M. Kumar et al. (2011): Charcoalified plant remains from the Lashly Formation of Allan Hills, Antarctica: Evidence of forest fire during the Triassic Period. In PDF, Episodes, 34. See also here and there (in PDF).

W.M. Kürschner et al. (2014): A gymnosperm affinity for Ricciisporites tuberculatus Lundblad: implications for vegetation and environmental reconstructions in the Late Triassic. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94: 295–305. See also here.

W.M. Kürschner et al. (2013): Aberrant Classopollis pollen reveals evidence for unreduced (2n) pollen in the conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B, 280.

! W.M. Kürschner and G.F.W. Herngreen (2010): Triassic palynology of central and northwestern Europe: a review of palynofloral diversity patterns and biostratigraphic subdivisions. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 263-283. See also here (in PDF).

W.M. Kuerschner et al.: Abrupt climate changes at the Triassic. Jurassic boundary inferred from palynological evidence. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 2006.

This expired link is still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! E. Kustatscher et al. (2019): Triassic macro- and microfloras of the Eastern Southern Alps. In PDF, Geo.Alp, 16.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2010): Macrofloras and palynomorphs as possible proxies for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological studies: A case study from the Pelsonian (Middle Triassic) of Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Prà della Vacca (Olang Dolomites, N-Italy). In PDF, 290: 71–80.
See also here.

Linda M. Larsson (2009): Palynostratigraphy of the Triassic-Jurassic transition in southern Sweden. PDF file, GFF, 131: 147-163. See also here.

W. Lestari et al. (2023): Carbon Cycle Perturbations and Environmental Change of the Middle Permian and Late Triassic paleo-Antarctic Circle. Free access, Researchsquare. See likewise here.
Note figure 1: Permian and Triassic paleogeographical maps of the Southern Hemisphere.
"... The Bicheno-5 core from Eastern Tasmania, Australia, provides the opportunity to examine Mid-Permian and Upper Triassic sediments from the paleo-Antarctic, using high-resolution organic carbon isotope (d 13 C TOC) chemostratigraphy, pXRF, and sedimentology, combined with new palynological data integrated with the existing radiometric age model ..."

L. Li et al. (2022): Palynological record of the Carnian Pluvial Episode from the northwestern Sichuan Basin, SW China. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany.

L. Li et al. (2017): Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF, Geological Magazine.

L. Li et al. (2017): Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF, Geological Magazine. See also here.

X. Li et al. (2023): Vegetation changes and climate shift during the latest Ladinian to the early Carnian: Palynological evidence from the Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China. Open access, Front. Earth Sci., 10: 1008707. doi: 10.3389/feart.2022.1008707.
"... We thus know that the climate during the latest Ladinian and early Carnian was “hot house” with seasonal aridity. In addition, three strong monsoonal pluvial pulses were signaled by the humidity index of lowland plants ..."

S. Lindström (2021): Two-phased Mass Rarity and Extinction in Land Plants During the End-Triassic Climate Crisis. Free access, Front. Earth Sci., 9: 780343. doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.780343
Note figure 5: Correlation of d13Corg-records, mass rarity phases (MR1 and 2) and crisis interval.
Figure 6: Flow chart illustrating cause-and-effect relationships between the CAMP and the terrestrial vegetation.

S. Lindström et al. (2019): Volcanic mercury and mutagenesis in land plants during the end-Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Sci. Adv., 5.

! S. Lindström et al. (2017): A new correlation of Triassic–Jurassic boundary successions in NW Europe, Nevada and Peru, and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: A time-line for the end-Triassic mass extinction Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 478: 80-102. See also here.

S. Lindström et al. (2017): Palynology and terrestrial ecosystem change of the Middle Triassic to lowermost Jurassic succession of the eastern Danish Basin. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 244: 65-95. See also here (in PDF).

S. Lindström (2016): Palynofloral patterns of terrestrial ecosystem change during the end-Triassic event - a review. In PDF, Geological Magazine, 153: 223-251. See also here (abstract).

Sofie Lindström et al. (2009): Ladinian palynofloras in the Norwegian-Danish Basin: a regional marker reflecting a climate change. PDF file, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, 17: 21-24.

S. Lindström and S. McLoughlin (2007): Synchronous palynofloristic extinction and recovery after the end-Permian event in the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica: Implications for palynofloristic turnover across Gondwana. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 145: 89-122. See also here.

V.S.P. Loinaze et al. (2019): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here and there.

! L. Mander et al. (2012): Tracking Taphonomic Regimes Using Chemical and Mechanical Damage of Pollen and Spores: An Example from the Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction.

Luke Mander et al. (2010): An explanation for conflicting records of Triassic-Jurassic plant diversity. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 15351-15356. See also here.

! G. Mangerud et al. (2021): Triassic palynoevents in the circum-Arctic region. Open access, Atlantic Geology, 57: 71–101.
See also here (in PDF).
"... a compilation of 78 last occurrences (LOs), first occurrences (FOs), and some abundance events that are anticipated to have correlation potential in the Arctic region. ..."

! C. Mays et al. (2021): Permian–Triassic non-marine algae of Gondwana—Distributions, natural affinities and ecological implications. Open access, Earth-Science Reviews, 212. See also here.

! C. Mays et al. (2019): Refined Permian–Triassic floristic timeline reveals early collapse and delayed recovery of south polar terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, GSA Bulletin. See also here.
Note figure 11: Timeline of Permian–Triassic floral and palynological bioevents, geochemical and sedimentological features, and stages in terrestrial ecosystem evolution, recorded from eastern Australian basins.

A.R. Meltveit (2015): Middle to Late Triassic (Ladinian to Carnian) palynology of shallow stratigraphic cores 7831/2-U-2 and 7831/2-U-1, offshore Kong Karls Land, Norwegian Arctic. In PDF, Thesis for master degree in Petroleum Geoscience. Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen.
See also here.

M. Mendelin et al. (2022): An Early Triassic Pleuromeia strobilus from Nevada, USA. Open access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 302.
! Note table 1: Pleuromeia species and their respective in situ micro and macrospores.

K.I. Miljeteig (2016): Late Triassic (early Carnian) palynology of the shallow stratigraphic core 7830/3-U-1, offshore Kong Karls Land, Northern Barents Sea. In PDF, Master Thesis, University of Bergen. See also here.

S. Mueller et al. (2015): Integrated stratigraphy and palaeoclimate history of the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Boreal realm; new data from the Upper Triassic Kapp Toscana Group in central Spitsbergen (Norway). In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society.

S. Mueller et al. (2015): Climate variability during the Carnian Pluvial Phase - A quantitative palynological study of the Carnian sedimentary succession at Lunz am See, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

H. Nowak (2018): Correlation of Lopingian to Middle Triassic Palynozones. Abstract, Journal of Earth Science, 29: 755–777. See also here (in PDF).

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2020): The triassic period. In PDF, Geologic Time Scale 2020, Volume 2: 903-953. See also here.
! Note the generalized synthesis of selected Triassic stratigraphic scales in Figs. 25.5-25.7!

N.W. Paterson et al. (2016): A multidisciplinary biofacies characterisation of the Late Triassic (late Carnian–Rhaetian) Kapp Toscana Group on Hopen, Arctic Norway. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464: 16-42. See also here (in PDF).

N.W. Paterson and G. Mangerud (2017): Palynology and depositional environments of the Middle – Late Triassic (Anisian – Rhaetian) Kobbe, Snadd and Fruholmen formations, southern Barents Sea, Arctic Norway. Abstract, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 86: 304-324.

N.W. Paterson et al. (2017): Late Triassic (early Carnian) palynology of shallow stratigraphical core 7830/5-U-1, offshore Kong Karls Land, Norwegian Arctic. Abstract, Palynology, 41. See also here (in PDF).

! N.W. Paterson et al. (2016): A multidisciplinary biofacies characterisation of the Late Triassic (late Carnian–Rhaetian) Kapp Toscana Group on Hopen, Arctic Norway. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464: 16-42. See also here (in PDF).

! J.L. Payne and B. Van de Schootbrugge (2007): Life in Triassic oceans: links between planktonic and benthic recovery and radiation. PDF file; In: P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll (eds.), The Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Triassic timescale, inorganic carbon isotope record, global diversity, and significant evolutionary events.
"... The Triassic Period was an interval of transition for benthic and planktonic marine ecosystems in terms of taxonomic composition, ecological structure, nutrient requirements, and biogeochemical cycles. ..."

J. Peng et al. (2022): A Late Triassic vegetation record from the Huangshanjie Formation, Junggar Basin, China: possible evidence for the Carnian Pluvial Episode. In PDF, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 521: 95-108. See also here.
"... Among these palynofloras, we observed a prominent shift from a conifer-dominated climax forest community, with common ginkgophytes and bennettites, to a fern-dominated community, suggestive of an environmental perturbation. We interpret this change as a regional shift in vegetation, likely caused by increased humidity, consistent with the CPE [Carnian Pluvial Episode]. ..."

J. Peng et al. (2021): A review of the Triassic pollen Staurosaccites: systematic and phytogeographical implications. In PDF, Grana, 60: 407–423.
See also here.
Note figure 5. Global distribution of Staurosaccites species during the Middle and Late Triassic.
Figure 6: Global Middle Triassic palynofloras based on the distribution of Staurosaccites, Camerosporites, Enzonalasporites, Infernopollenites and Ovalipollis.

J. Peng et al. (2021): Megaspores from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic of southern Scandinavia: taxonomic and biostratigraphic implications. Free access, GFF, DOI: 10.1080/11035897.2021.1923060 See also here (in PDF).

J. Peng et al. (2019): Triassic vegetation and climate evolution on the northern margin of Gondwana: a palynological study from Tulong, southern Xizang (Tibet), China. Abstract, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 175: 74-82. See also here (in PDF).

J. Peng et al. (2017): Triassic palynostratigraphy and palynofloral provinces: evidence from southern Xizang (Tibet), China. Free access, Alcheringa, 42, 67–86. See also here (in PDF).

V.S. Perez Loinaze et al. (2018): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 502. See also here.

! T. Reichgelt et al. (2013): The palynology of the Sonsela member (Late Triassic, Norian) at Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 189: 18-28.

L.J.R. Rey (2021): New Palynological Data of the Cerro de las Cabras Formation (Middle Triassic) at its Type Locality, Mendoza, Argentina. Biostratigraphic and Phytogeographic Implications. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 58: 181-206. See also here.

J.B. Riding and M.J. Head (2017): Preparing photographic plates of palynomorphs in the digital age. Palynology, 42. See also here (in PDF).

! G Roghi et al. (2022): An Exceptionally Preserved Terrestrial Record of LIP Effects on Plants in the Carnian (Upper Triassic) Amber-Bearing Section of the Dolomites, Italy. In PDF, Frontiers in Earth Science.
Note figure 1: Pangaean floristic subprovinces during the Late Triassic.
! Fig. 6: Fossil plant remains and palynomorphs enclosed in the amber droplets.

Katrin Ruckwied et al. (2008): Palynology of a terrestrial coal-bearing series across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Mecsek Mts, Hungary). PDF file, Central European Geology, 51: 1-15.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Katrin Ruckwied (2009): Palynology of Triassic/Jurassic boundary key sections of the NW Tethyan Realm (Hungary and Slovakia). PDF files, Dissertation, TU Darmstadt.

E. Schneebeli-Hermann and E. Kustatscher (2023): Triassic palynology of the Swiss Belchentunnel: a restudy of the Scheuring samples. Open access, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 142.
"... The Carnian Pluvial Episode is marked by changes in lithology and vegetation composition due to higher relative humidity in middle Carnian successions
[...] However, records from the Germanic Basin seem to contradict this [..] since palaeoclimate proxies indicate rather continuous semiarid- to-arid conditions throughout the Carnian ..."

E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2020): Sedimentary organic matter from a cored Early Triassic succession, Georgetown (Idaho, USA). Open access, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 139.

! E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2012): Palynology of the Lower Triassic succession of Tulong, South Tibet - Evidence for early recovery of gymnosperms. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 339-341: 12-24.

M.A.N. Schobben (2011): Marine and terrestrial proxy records of environmental changes across the Triassic/Jurassic transition: A combined geochemical and palynological approach. In PDF, Master thesis, University Utrecht.
See also here.

A. Sopeña et al. (2009): New palynological and isotopic data for the Triassic of the western Cantabrian Mountains (Spain). PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 35: 35-45.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Tewari et al, (2015): The Permian-Triassic palynological transition in the Guryul Ravine section, Kashmir, India: implications for Tethyan-Gondwanan correlations. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 149: 53-66.

! A. Tripathi et al. (2006): Atlas of Spores and Pollen from the Triassic Succession of India. In PDF, Diamond Jubilee Special Publication, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.

! R.V. Tyson (1987): Part I: Concepts and Methods. The genesis and palynofacies characteristics of marine petroleum source rocks. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 26: 47-67.

Utrecht University, The Netherlands: Late Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic Research.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.


V. Vajda et al. (2024): Confirmation that Antevsia zeilleri microsporangiate organs associated with latest Triassic Lepidopteris ottonis (Peltaspermales) leaves produced Cycadopites-Monosulcites-Chasmatosporites- and Ricciisporites-type monosulcate pollen. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 640.

! V. Vajda et al. (2023): The ‘seed-fern’ Lepidopteris mass-produced the abnormal pollen Ricciisporites during the end-Triassic biotic crisis. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 627.
Note figure 4: Microsporophyll Antevsia zeilleri and microsporangia (pollen sacs) with contained pollen linked to the Lepidopteris ottonis plant.
! Figure 10C: Reconstruction of branch of male plant with short shoots bearing Lepidopteris ottonis foliage and Antevsia zeilleri microsporophylls.
"... We show that R. tuberculatus is a large, abnormal form of the small smooth-walled monosulcate pollen traditionally associated with L. ottonis, which disappeared at the ETE [end-Triassic mass extinction], when volcanism induced cold-spells followed by global warming. We argue that the production of aberrant R. tuberculatus resulted from ecological pressure in stressed environments that favoured asexual reproduction in peltasperms ..."

V. Vajda et al. (2013): Palynostratigraphy of dinosaur footprint-bearing deposits from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval of Sweden. In PDF, GFF, 135: 120-130.
See also here.

Gerben van Bergeijk, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Department of Geobiology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands: Palynological research at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary within the Alpine-Triassic, Austria. Project description.

B. van de Schootbrugge et al. 2024): Recognition of an extended record of euglenoid cysts: Implications for the end-Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 322.
Note figure 1: Reconstructed palaeographic map of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval.
"... We conclude that Chomotriletes is the valid senior synonym of a variety of taxa, including Circulisporites, Pseudoschizaea, and Concentricystes
[...] Chomotriletes s.l. is considered to be a cyst of a freshwater organism
[...] The presence of euglenoid cysts in association with the end-Triassic extinction fits a scenario in which enhanced rainfall followed by strong soil erosion resulted in the release and redeposition of Chomotriletes into shallow marine settings ..."

! B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2009): Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. PDF file.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H. Visscher and C.J. van der Zwan (1981): Palynology of the circum-mediterranean triassic: Phytogeographical and palaeoclimatological implications. In PDF, Geologische Rundschau, 70: 625–634.
See also here.

Z. Wangping and J.A. Grant-Mackie (2010): Late Triassic-Early Jurassic palynofloral assemblages from Murihiku strata of New Zealand, and comparisons with China. Free access, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
See also here.

M. Zaton et al. (2005): Late Triassic charophytes around the bone-bearing bed at Krasiejów (SW Poland) -- palaeoecological and environmental remarks. PDF file, Acta Geologica Polonica, 55: 83-293.
See also here.

N. Zavialova (2024): Comment on “The ‘seed-fern’ Lepidopteris mass-produced the abnormal pollen Ricciisporites during the end-Triassic biotic crisis” by V. Vajda, S. McLoughlin, S. M. Slater, O. Gustafsson, and A. G. Rasmusson [Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 627 (2023), 111,723]. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 322.
"... Recently, Ricciisporites Lundblad and Cycadopites Wodehouse (= Monosulcites Cookson) pollen types have been found cooccurring in Antevsia zeilleri
[...] the two pollen types are too dissimilar by their exine ultrastructure as well as by the general morphology and exine sculpture.
[...] Another explanation should be found for the presence of Ricciisporites tetrads in these pollen sacs ..."

N. Zavialova and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2011): Exine ultrastructure of in situ peltasperm pollen from the Rhaetian of Germany and its implications. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168: 7-20.
See also here.

Natalia Zavialova et al. (2010): The ultrastructure of some Rhaetian Circumpolles from southern England. PDF file, Grana, 49: 281-299.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Zhang, Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany: Sporopollen – a useful tool for Palynology.
Sporopollen is a database of Mesozoic sporomorphs to improve identification, stratigraphic analysis, and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.

J. Zhang et al. (2021): Database-based Eco-Plant analysis for Mesozoic dispersed sporomorphs. Open access, MethodsX, 8: 101329. e-ISSN 2215-0161.
Go to: J. Zhang: Sporopollen – a useful tool for Palynology.

J. Zhang, Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany: Sporopollen – a useful tool for Palynology.
Sporopollen is a database of Mesozoic sporomorphs to improve identification, stratigraphic analysis, and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.

! J. Zhang et al. (2021): The Eco-Plant model and its implication on Mesozoic dispersed sporomorphs for Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, and Gymnosperms. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

J. Zhang (2021): Quantitative analysis of Triassic-Jurassic pollen and spores for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate reconstructions. In PDF, Doctoral thesis. Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany.

! P. Zhang et al. (2022): Volcanically-Induced Environmental and Floral Changes Across the Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) Transition. In PDF, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.
",,, The record of sedimentary mercury reveals two discrete CAMP eruptive phases during the T-J transition. Each of these can be correlated with large, negative C isotope excursions [...}, significantly reduced plant diversity (with ca. 45 and 44% generic losses, respectively), enhanced wildfire (marked by increased fusinite or charcoal content), and major climatic shifts toward drier and hotter conditions (indicated by the occurrence of calcareous nodules, increased Classopollis pollen content, and PCA analysis). ..."

J. Zhang et al. (2021): Database-based Eco-Plant analysis for Mesozoic dispersed sporomorphs. Free access, MethodsX, 8.
"... The online database Sporopollen was created to quickly assign eco-climatic traits to quantitative fossil sporomorph data to assess implications for past vegetation patterns and climatic changes. ..."
Go to: Sporopollen database.

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