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The Carnian Pluvial Event
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips
! Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies@
! Palynology Databases@
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic@
V. Baranyi et al. (2019): Palynological and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data of Carnian (Late Triassic) formations from western Hungary. Free access, see also here.
V. Baranyi et al. (2019): Palynology and weathering proxies reveal climatic fluctuations during the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) (Late Triassic) from marine successions in the Transdanubian Range (western Hungary). Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 177: 157-172.
! V. Baranyi (2018): Vegetation dynamics during the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian): Response to climate and environmental changes inferred from palynology. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
V. Baranyi et al. (2017):
vegetation history and related environmental changes: New data from the Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest
National Park (Arizona, SW USA). Abstract, GSA Bulletin. See also
"... A palynological analysis of the Blue Mesa, Sonsela, and Petrified Forest Members of the Norian Chinle Formation has revealed four distinct palynofloras. The new data support the occurrence of a floral turnover in tandem with a faunal turnover between the Adamanian and Revueltian vertebrate biozones. ..."
M. Barbacka et al. (2017): Changes in terrestrial floras at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in Europe. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 480: 80-93.
N. Barbolini (2014): Palynostratigraphy of the South African Karoo supergroup and correlations with coeval Gondwanan successions. In PDF, Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. See also here.
! D. Bailey (2014), FORCE Biostratigraphy Seminar: New observations on Mesozoic miospores and acritarchs, and the implications for existing taxonomy, classification and phylogeny. in PDF.G. Barth et al. (2018): Marine and terrestrial sedimentation across the T–J transition in the North German Basin. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 489: 74-94. See also here. J.P. Benca et al. (2018): UV-B–induced forest sterility: Implications of ozone shield failure in Earth’s largest extinction. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4. See also here.
Sylvain Bernard et al. (2007): Exceptional preservation of fossil plant spores in high-pressure metamorphic rocks PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 262: 257-272. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Nina R. Bonis (2010), Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology,
Palaeoecology Institute of Environmental Biology,
Department of Biology, Utrecht University:
and vegetation history during the Triassic-Jurassic transition.
PDF file (7.7 MB), LPP Contribution Series No. 29.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Seven research reports (chapters) in this thesis, see especially chapter 7 (with W.M. Kürschner):
! Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (PDF page 140).
Nina R. Bonis, Wolfram M. Kürschner and Leopold Krystyn (2007): Floral and paleoenvironmental changes during the end-Triassic: New data from European key sections. Abstract, Pdf file, from Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A., eds., 2007, The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41.
B. Buchardt and M.V. Nielsen (1991): Comparison of organic geochemical and palynofacies methods: Example from the Upper Triassic Gassum Formation in Denmark. PDF file, Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, 38: 267-277.
S.N. Césari and C. Colombi (2016): Palynology of the Late Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina: Paleoecological and paleogeographic implications. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 449. See also here, and there.S.N. Césari and C.E. Colombi (2013): A new Late Triasssic phytogeographical scenario in westernmost Gondwana. Open access, Nature Communications, 4, édoi:10.1038/ncomms2917.
Simonetta Cirilli (2011): Upper Triassic-lowermost Jurassic palynology and palynostratigraphy: a review. Abstract.
R.F.A. Clarke (1965): Keuper miospores from Worcestershire, England. PDF file, Palaeontology.
B. Cornet (1993): Applications and limitations of palynology in age, climatic, and paleoenvironmental analyses of Triassic sequences in North America. PDF file, In: Lucas, S.G. and M. Morales, (eds.): The Nonmarine Triassic. New Mexico Museum Of Natural History & Science Bulletin, 3: 75-93. See also here.
B. Courtinat (2000): La matière organique sédimentaire en environnement de dépôt marginal. Exemple de la plaine deltaïque hypersaline du Ladinien de la bordure est du Massif central. (Sedimentary organic matter in nearshore deposits. Example from the Ladinian hypersaline delta plain in the eastern margin of the Massif Central (France)). PDF file (in French), Géologie de la France, 1: 35-45.
S. Deng et al. (2018):
and age of the Yanchang Formation and the Middle/Upper Triassic boundary in Ordos Basin, North
China. Free access,
SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 61: 1419-1439.
Note figure 3: Plant fossils from the Yanchang Formation.
Note figure 4: Elements of the palynoflora from the Yanchang Formation.
T. Dixon (2013): Palynofacies and Palynological Analysis of Late Triassic Sediments from the Kentish Knock-1 Well (Northern Carnarvon Basin, NW Australia). Reconstruction of vegetation history, interpretation of climate and sea level changes and placement in regional zonation. In PDF, thesis, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo.
! Susanne Feist-Burkhardt and Annette E. Götz (2002): Kompaktkurse,
und Sequenzstratigraphie (K1). PDF file, in German.
SEDIMENT 2002, Frankfurt am Main - Darmstadt.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A. Fijalkowska-Mader et al. (2015): Palynostratigraphy and palynofacies of the Upper Silesian Keuper (southern Poland). In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 637-661.
A. Fijalkowska-Mader (2015): A record of climatic changes in the Triassic palynological spectra from Poland. In PDF, Geological Quarterly, 59.
C.R. Fielding et al. (2019):
and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction
constrained by multiproxy analysis. Open access,
"... we use palynology coupled with high-precision CA-ID-TIMS dating of euhedral zircons from continental sequences of the Sydney Basin, Australia, to show that the collapse of the austral Permian Glossopteris flora occurred prior to 252.3?Ma (~370 kyrs before the main marine extinction). Weathering proxies indicate that floristic changes occurred during a brief climate perturbation in a regional alluvial landscape ..."
C.B. Foster and S.A. Afonin: Abnormal pollen grains: an outcome of deteriorating atmospheric conditions around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 162(4): 653-659; 2005.
M. Franz et al. (2018): The Schilfsandstein and its flora - arguments for a humid mid-Carnian episode? Journal of the Geological Society. See also here (in PDF).
C. Gisler et al. (2007):
and palynological constraints on the basal Triassic sequence in Central Switzerland. Abstract,
Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 100: 263–272.
Please note Fig. 5. Palaeogeographic situation showing the location of the Vindelician High during Early Triassic and earliest Anisian.
A.E. Götz et al. (2009): Palynological evidence of synchronous changes within the terrestrial and marine realm at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Csõvár section, Hungary). PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 401-409. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A.E. Götz et al. (2006): Eustatic history of Mesozoic epeiric seas: A palynological approach . PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8.
Annette E. Götz et al. (2005): Distribution of sedimentary organic matter in Anisian carbonate series of S Poland: evidence of third-order sea-level fluctuations. PDF file, Int. J. Earth Sci. (Geol Rundsch), 94: 267-274.
A.M.B.A. Hamad (2004): Palaeobotany and Palynostratigraphy of the Permo-Triassic in Jordan. Dissertation, University of Hamburg.
Christoph Hartkopf-Fröder, Geologisches Landesamt NRW, Krefeld: Muschelkalk und Keuper in der Eifel. Palynomorph photographs (via wayback archive) of Granuloperculatipollis rudis, Aratrisporites, Retisulcites perforatus (in German).
! J.I. Hedges and R.G. Keil (1995): Sedimentary organic matter preservation: an assessment and speculative synthesis. PDF file, Marine Chemistry, 49.
! E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237. See also here. Abstract.
E. Hermann et al. (2011): Terrestrial ecosystems on North Gondwana following the end-Permian mass extinction. Abstract.
C. Heunisch (2015):
Palynoflora des Lettenkeupers. - PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.
Carmen Heunisch, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR): Das Sammlungsobjekt des Monats Unverwechselbar: Rhaetipollis germanicus. In German.
Carmen Heunisch: A rare microflora from the Mainhardt Formation (km3o; Upper Triassic) of Southern Germany. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.
Carmen Heunisch, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung, Hannover: Die Bedeutung der Palynologie für Biostratigraphie und Fazies in der Germanischen Trias. (now via wayback archive) - In: Hauschke, N. & Wilde, V. (Hrsg.); 1999: Trias - eine ganz andere Welt, Europa am Beginn des Erdmittelalters (in German).
Carmen Heunisch and Heinz-Gerd Röhling, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover: Permo-Triassic climatic development. Research report (via wayback archive, in German).
Carmen Heunisch & U. Rosenfeld: Lithofacies and palynofacies in the Triassic north and northeast of the Rhenish Massif (NW Germany). Abstract, 32nd annual meeting, AASP, Savannah, 1999 (now via wayback archive).
! P.A. Hochuli (2016): Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic Boundary sections. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 144:48-50. See also here (in PDF).
P.A. Hochuli and S. Feist-Burkhardt (2013): Angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of the Germanic Basin (Northern Switzerland). In PDF, Frontiers in plant science.
P.A. Hochuli et al. (2010): Multiple climatic changes around the Permian-Triassic boundary event revealed by an expanded palynological record from mid-Norway. Abstract, GSA Bulletin, 122: 884-896.
Palynological investigations in selected sections of the Rhaetian Koessen Beds,
Alpine Upper Triassic.
Snapshot archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
N.V. Ilyina and A.Y. Egorov (2008): The Upper Triassic of northern Middle Siberia: stratigraphy and palynology. In PDF, Polar Research, 27: 372-392.
A.I. Kirichkova and N.K. Kulikova (2005): The Problem of Correlation between Triassic Continental Sequences of Southern Germany, the Timan-Pechora Region, and Eastern Urals. Abstract.
A.A. Klompmake et al. (2010): Biostratigraphic correlation, paleoenvironment stress, and subrosion pipe collapse: Dutch Rhaetian shales uncover their secrets. Facies, 56: 597–613.
J. Krupnik et al. (2014): A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynological analyses of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic sediments from the Holy Cross Mountains region. Acta Palaeobotanica, 54: 35–65.
M. Kumar et al. (2011): Charcoalified plant remains from the Lashly Formation of Allan Hills, Antarctica: Evidence of forest fire during the Triassic Period. In PDF, Episodes, 34. See also here and there (in PDF).W.M. Kürschner et al. (2014): A gymnosperm affinity for Ricciisporites tuberculatus Lundblad: implications for vegetation and environmental reconstructions in the Late Triassic. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94: 295–305. See also here.
W.M. Kürschner et al. (2013): Aberrant Classopollis pollen reveals evidence for unreduced (2n) pollen in the conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 280.
! W.M. Kürschner and G.F.W. Herngreen (2010): Triassic palynology of central and northwestern Europe: a review of palynofloral diversity patterns and biostratigraphic subdivisions. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 263-283. See also here (in PDF).
W.M. Kuerschner et al.: Abrupt climate changes at the Triassic. Jurassic boundary inferred from palynological evidence. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 2006.
KÜRSCHNER, Wolfram M., KRYSTYN, Leopold, and VISSCHER, Henk: THE NORIAN - RHAETIAN TRANSITION: NEW PALYNOLOGICAL AND PALAEONTOLOGICAL DATA FROM A TETHYAN KEY SECTION IN THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS (AUSTRIA). Abstract, 2004 Denver Annual Meeting (November 7-10, 2004.
Evelyn Kustatscher et al. (2009): Macrofloras and palynomorphs as possible proxies for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological studies: A case study from the Pelsonian (Middle Triassic) of Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Prà della Vacca (Olang Dolomites, N-Italy). Abstract.
Linda M. Larsson (2009): Palynostratigraphy of the Triassic-Jurassic transition in southern Sweden. PDF file, GFF, 131: 147-163. See also here.L. Li et al. (2017): Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF, Geological Magazine.
L. Li et al. (2014): Late Triassic palaeoclimate and palaeoecosystem variations inferred by palynological record in the northeastern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF.
S. Lindström et al. (2019): Volcanic mercury and mutagenesis in land plants during the end-Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Sci. Adv., 5.
! S. Lindström et al. (2017): A new correlation of Triassic–Jurassic boundary successions in NW Europe, Nevada and Peru, and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: A time-line for the end-Triassic mass extinction Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 478: 80-102. See also here.
S. Lindström et al. (2017): Palynology and terrestrial ecosystem change of the Middle Triassic to lowermost Jurassic succession of the eastern Danish Basin. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 244: 65-95. See also here (in PDF).
S. Lindström (2016): Palynofloral patterns of terrestrial ecosystem change during the end-Triassic event - a review. In PDF, Geological Magazine, 153: 223-251. See also here (abstract).
Sofie Lindström et al. (2009): Ladinian palynofloras in the Norwegian-Danish Basin: a regional marker reflecting a climate change. PDF file, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, 17: 21-24.
S. Lindström and S. McLoughlin (2007): Synchronous palynofloristic extinction and recovery after the end-Permian event in the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica: Implications for palynofloristic turnover across Gondwana. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 145: 89-122. See also here.
V.S.P. Loinaze et al. (2019): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here and there.
! L. Mander et al. (2012): Tracking Taphonomic Regimes Using Chemical and Mechanical Damage of Pollen and Spores: An Example from the Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction.
Luke Mander et al. (2010): An explanation for conflicting records of Triassic-Jurassic plant diversity. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 15351-15356. See also here.
C. Mays et al. (2019):
Permian–Triassic floristic timeline reveals early collapse
and delayed recovery of south polar terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF,
Note figure 11: Timeline of Permian–Triassic floral and palynological bioevents, geochemical and sedimentological features, and stages in terrestrial ecosystem evolution, recorded from eastern Australian basins.
A.R. Meltveit (2015): Middle to Late Triassic (Ladinian to Carnian) palynology of shallow stratigraphic cores 7831/2-U-2 and 7831/2-U-1, offshore Kong Karls Land, Norwegian Arctic. In PDF, Thesis for master degree in Petroleum Geoscience. Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen.
K.I. Miljeteig (2016): Late Triassic (early Carnian) palynology of the shallow stratigraphic core 7830/3-U-1, offshore Kong Karls Land, Northern Barents Sea. In PDF, Master Thesis, University of Bergen. See also here.
S. Mueller et al. (2015): Integrated stratigraphy and palaeoclimate history of the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Boreal realm; new data from the Upper Triassic Kapp Toscana Group in central Spitsbergen (Norway). In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society.
S. Mueller et al. (2015): Climate variability during the Carnian Pluvial Phase - A quantitative palynological study of the Carnian sedimentary succession at Lunz am See, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
H. Nowak (2018): Correlation of Lopingian to Middle Triassic Palynozones. Abstract, Journal of Earth Science, 29: 755–777. See also here (in PDF).
N.W. Paterson et al. (2016): A multidisciplinary biofacies characterisation of the Late Triassic (late Carnian–Rhaetian) Kapp Toscana Group on Hopen, Arctic Norway. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464: 16-42. See also here (in PDF).
N.W. Paterson and G. Mangerud (2017): Palynology and depositional environments of the Middle – Late Triassic (Anisian – Rhaetian) Kobbe, Snadd and Fruholmen formations, southern Barents Sea, Arctic Norway. Abstract, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 86: 304-324.
N.W. Paterson et al. (2017): Late Triassic (early Carnian) palynology of shallow stratigraphical core 7830/5-U-1, offshore Kong Karls Land, Norwegian Arctic. Abstract, Palynology, 41. See also here (in PDF).
! N.W. Paterson et al. (2016): A multidisciplinary biofacies characterisation of the Late Triassic (late Carnian–Rhaetian) Kapp Toscana Group on Hopen, Arctic Norway. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464: 16-42. See also here (in PDF).
J.L. Payne and B. Van de Schootbrugge (2007): Life in Triassic oceans: links between planktonic and benthic recovery and radiation. PDF file; In: P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll (eds.), The Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea.
J. Peng et al. (2017): Triassic palynostratigraphy and palynofloral provinces: evidence from southern Xizang (Tibet), China. Free access, Alcheringa, 42, 67–86. See also here (in PDF).V.S. Perez Loinaze et al. (2018): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 502. See also here.
! T. Reichgelt et al. (2013): The palynology of the Sonsela member (Late Triassic, Norian) at Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 189: 18-28.
J.B. Riding and M.J. Head (2017): Preparing photographic plates of palynomorphs in the digital age. Palynology, 42. See also here (in PDF).
Katrin Ruckwied et al. (2008):
of a terrestrial coal-bearing series across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary
(Mecsek Mts, Hungary). PDF file, Central European Geology, 51: 1-15.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Katrin Ruckwied (2009): Palynology of Triassic/Jurassic boundary key sections of the NW Tethyan Realm (Hungary and Slovakia). PDF files, Dissertation, TU Darmstadt.
! E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2012): Palynology of the Lower Triassic succession of Tulong, South Tibet - Evidence for early recovery of gymnosperms. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 339-341: 12-24.
M.A.N. Schobben (2011): Marine and terrestrial proxy records of environmental changes across the Triassic/Jurassic transition: A combined geochemical and palynological approach. In PDF, Master thesis, University Utrecht.
R. Tewari et al, (2015): The Permian-Triassic palynological transition in the Guryul Ravine section, Kashmir, India: implications for Tethyan-Gondwanan correlations. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 149: 53-66.
! A. Tripathi et al. (2006): Atlas of Spores and Pollen from the Triassic Succession of India. In PDF, Diamond Jubilee Special Publication, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.
! R.V. Tyson (1987): Part I: Concepts and Methods. The genesis and palynofacies characteristics of marine petroleum source rocks. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 26: 47-67.
Utrecht University, The Netherlands: Late Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic Research.
John Utting et al.: REWORKED MIOSPORES IN THE UPPER PALEOZOIC AND LOWER TRIASSIC OF THE NORTHERN CIRCUM-POLAR AREA AND SELECTED LOCALITIES. Abstract, Palynology, 28: 75-119; 2004.
V. Vajda et al. (2013): Palynostratigraphy of dinosaur footprint-bearing deposits from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval of Sweden. In PDF, GFF, 135: 120-130.
Gerben van Bergeijk, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Department of Geobiology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands: Palynological research at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary within the Alpine-Triassic, Austria. Project description.
! B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2009):
changes across the Triassic/Jurassic
boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M. Zaton et al. (2005):
Late Triassic charophytes around the bone-bearing
bed at Krasiejów (SW Poland) -- palaeoecological
and environmental remarks. PDF file,
Acta Geologica Polonica, 55: 83-293.
See also here.
Ana Marîa Zavattieri: Aspectos biogeográficos y paleoclimáticos de las sucesiones triásicas de Argentina, en base a registros palinológicos. PDF file, in Spanish and English.
N. Zavialova and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2012): Exine ultrastructure of in situ peltasperm pollen from the Rhaetian of Germany and its implications. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168: 7-20. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Natalia Zavialova et al. (2010):
ultrastructure of some Rhaetian Circumpolles from
southern England. PDF file,
Grana, 49: 281-299.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, and J. A. Grant-Mackie,
Department of Geology, University of Auckland:
Triassic-Early Jurassic palynofloral assemblages from Murihiku strata of New Zealand,
and comparisons with China. Abstract,
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
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