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The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
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Triassic Stratigraphy

! Friedrich August von Alberti (1834): Beitrag zu einer Monographie des bunten Sandsteins, Muschelkalks und Keupers und die Verbindung dieser Gebilde zu einer Formation. Hosted by Hathi Trust Digital Library, a collaboration of universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the University of California system to establish a repository for their digitized collections.

Albertiana (website now avaialble on SUNY Cortland´s webserver, still edited by Wolfram Kuerschner, Oslo). Albertiana is the official journal of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy. Its primary aim is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among the members of the IUGS Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy. E-Albertiana is formated in Adobe Portable document format (PDF), issues are available for download. See also:
! Albertiana (PDF files). Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana. Excellent!

G.H. Bachmann and M.A.M. Aref (2005): A seismite in Triassic gypsum deposits (Grabfeld Formation, Ladinian), southwestern Germany. In PDF, Sedimentary Geology.

! G.H. Bachmann and H.W. Kozur (2004): The Germanic Triassic: correlations with the international chronostratigraphic scale, numerical ages and Milankovitch cyclicity. In PDF, Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss., B 26: 17-62. See also here.

Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt (LfU), Augsburg and Hof, Germany.
Go to: Geologie. Lots of downloadable stuff, e.g. Sonderband Geotope in Unterfranken (in German). See also:
! Geological maps of Bavaria (in German). Partly downloadable maps and explanations (in PDF). Excellent!

J.J. Beer (2005): Sequence stratigraphy of fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower part of the Chinle Formation, south central Utah, United States: paleoclimatic and tectonic implications. In PDF, thesis, Duluth, University of Minnesota. 169 p. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Benton et al. (2002): Permian and Triassic Red Beds and the Penarth Group of Great Britain, General introduction. In PDF, Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 24, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkely (UCMP): The Triassic Period. Worth checking out: Triassic Period: Localities, Stratigraphy, and Triassic Period: Tectonics and Paleoclimate.

J. Dal Corso (2011): The Middle-Late Triassic d13Cplant trend and the carnian pluvial event C-isotope signature. Ph.D. thesis, University of Padua. See also here (abstract).
Amber from the Triassic of the Italian Alps.

Timothy M. Demko et al. (2005): Mesozoic Lakes of the Colorado Plateau. PDF file, Geological Society of America, Field Guide 6. Exemplary for comparison.

T.M. Demko (1995): Taphonomy of fossil plants in the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation. Dissertation, in PDF. Table of contents on PDF page 8.

! Encyclopaedia Britannica: Triassic Period and Correlation of Triassic strata.

A. Förster et al. (2010): Reservoir characterization of a CO2 storage aquifer: The Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in the Northeast German Basin. In PDF, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27: 2156-2172.

M. Geluk et al. (2018): An introduction to the Triassic: current insights into the regional setting and energy resource potential of NW Europe. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 469.

M.C. Geluk (2005): Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands in the Netherlands and surrounding areas. Thesis, Utrecht University.

Pamela J.W. Gore, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston:
The Earth Through Time (by Harold L. Levin, Eighth Edition).Go to:
Chapter 13, Mesozoic Events. Geology of North America.

A.E. Götz and N. Lenhardt (2011): The Anisian carbonate ramp system of Central Europe (Peri-Tethys Basin): sequences and reservoir characteristics. PDF file, Acta Geologica Polonica, 61: 59-70.

H. Hagdorn et al. (2015): 4. Biostratigraphie und Alter des Lettenkeupers . PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

! U. Hambach et al. (2001): A time frame for the Middle Keuper - cyclostratigraphy, sedimentology and first paleomagnetic results from the RAUENBERG 1 research well (km1-km4, Upper Triassic, SW-Germany). Poster, in PDF, Conference Sediment 2001, Jena. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 13. See also here (Google search).

Bilal U. Haq et al. (1987): Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. PDF file, Science, 235.

A.B. Heckert and S.G. Lucas (2002): Revised Upper Triassic stratigraphy of the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. In PDF, NM Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci. Bull.

Andrew B. Heckert, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and Spencer G. Lucas, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque: Stratigraphic Distribution and Age of Petrified Wood in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. See also here (National Park Service, Paleontological Research (Vincent Santucci and Lindsay McClelland, eds.).

Andrew B. Heckert, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and Spencer G. Lucas, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque: The Oldest Triassic Strata Exposed in the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. See also here (National Park Service, Paleontological Research (Vincent Santucci and Lindsay McClelland, eds.).

! Yin Hongfu et al. (2001): The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic Boundary. In PDF.

T. Hornung et al. (2007): Multistratigraphic constraints on the NW Tethyan "Carnian crisis". In PDF, In: Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A. (eds.): The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41.

M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006): Triassic - seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London, London.

International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS): International Commission on Stratigraphy.

International Commission on Stratigraphy:
GSSP for the Permian-Triassic Boundary.
Still provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CORRELATION PROGRAMME (IGCP), UNESCO HQ, Paris, IGCP 467: Triassic time and trans-Panthalassan correlations. Goals are to identify datums for global correlation of Triassic rocks and to provide a vehicle to enhance the degree of international co-operation and collaboration between paleontologists, stratigraphers, magnetostratigraphers, and geochemists, in both the marine and non-marine realms, and all the rest of it.

The Johns Hopkins Sedimentology Group: The Latemar Controversy. Recently, an article appeared in Geology that questions the Milankovitch interpretation of the Latemar cyclic succession. Link to the abstract of this article, and read comments by the Johns Hopkins Latemar Group.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC): Permian - Triassic.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.V. Kent et al. (2017): Astrochronostratigraphic polarity time scale (APTS) for the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic from continental sediments and correlation with standard marine stages. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 166: 153–180. See also here.

A.A. Klompmake et al. (2010): Biostratigraphic correlation, paleoenvironment stress, and subrosion pipe collapse: Dutch Rhaetian shales uncover their secrets. Facies, 56: 597–613.

! H.W. Kozur & G.H. Bachmann (2010): Tethyan and German Triassic stratigraphy, correlation and numerical ages. Abstract, in PDF. Geophysical Research Abstracts.

! Heinz W. Kozur & G.H. Bachmann (2008): Updated numerical ages of Triassic stages and the correlation of the Germanic Triassic with the Tethyan scale. Abstract, IGC, Oslo.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University: TRIASSIC-JURASSIC WORKING GROUP.

Martin Lee, Division of Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow: Mesozoic stratigraphy. Go to: Triassic and Jurassic.

S. Lindström et al. (2016): A new correlation of Triassic–Jurassic boundary successions in NW Europe, Nevada and Peru, and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: A time-line for the end-Triassic mass extinction Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 478: 80-102. See also here.

! Litholex. Maintained by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, BGR), Hannover, Germany. Database about stratigraphic units in Germany (in German).

Alan Logan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.: Triassic Period.
Please note the map "Pangea: Early Triassic Period". With indicated cold and warm water currents.

! S.G. Lucas (2018): The Late Triassic Timescale. Abstract, with an extended citation list. Pages 1-25. In: L.H. Tanner (ed.): The Late Triassic World. Topics in Geobiology, 46.

! S.G. Lucas (2013): A new Triassic timescale. PDF file; In Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin, 61: 366-374.

! S.G. Lucas (2013): Plant Megafossil Biostratigraphy and Biochronology, Upper Triassic Chinle Group, Western USA. In PDF, In: Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61.

! S.G. Lucas et al. (2012): The Late Triassic timescale: Age and correlation of the Carnian-Norian boundary. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 114: 1-18.

! Spencer G. Lucas (2010): The Triassic timescale: an introduction. PDF file, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 1-16. See also here (abstract).

S.G. Lucas et al. (2007): First day: Middle and Upper Triassic stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of west-central New Mexico, and Second day: Early and Middle Triassic stratigraphy, palaeontology and correlation in northeastern Arizona. PDF files, In: Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A., eds., Triassic of the American West. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 40.

S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2007): The nonmarine Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews, 84: 1–20. See also here.

M. Lutz et al. (2005): Lithofazies und Leitflächen: Grundlagen einer dualen lithostratigraphischen Gliederung. Abstract, PDF file, in German; Newsl. Stratigr., 41: 211-223.

S.G. Lucas et al. (2001): Triassic Stratigraphy, Biostratigraphy and Correlation in East-Central New Mexico. In PDF.

! Spencer G. Lucas (1998): Global Triassic tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 143: 47-384.

Spencer G. Lucas et al. (1997): Triassic stratigraphy and paleontology on the Fort Wingate quadrangle, west-central New Mexico. In PDF.

! S.G. Lucas (1980): Upper Triassic Chinle Group, western United States: a nonmarine standard for late Triassic time. PDF file. In. Dilcher, D. and Taylor. T, eds., Biostratigraphy of fossil plants: ... This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Jeffrey W. Martz, Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University: Friends of the Triassic. A mailing list dedicated to providing information and discussion on Triassic paleontology and stratigraphy.

Jeffrey W. Martz and William G. Parker (2010): Revised Lithostratigraphy of the Sonsela Member (Chinle Formation, Upper Triassic) in the Southern Part of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. PDF file, see also here.

T. McKie and P.M. Shannon (2011): Comment on "The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri Tethyan domain scale: Palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications" by S. Bourquin, A. Bercovici, J. López-Gómez, J. B. Diez, J. Broutin, A. Ronchi, M. Durand, A. Arché, B. Linol and F. Amour. [Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 299 (2011) 265–280]. Abstract.

! C. McRoberts, State University of New York, Cortland: The Global Triassic, Alburquerque, May 2007. PDF files; The joint meeting of the IGCP Project 467 and the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy (hosted by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science).

! M. Menning et al. (2011): Beschlüsse der Deutschen Stratigraphischen Kommission 1991-2010 zu Perm und Trias von Mitteleuropa. PDF file, in German; Z. dt. Ges. Geowiss., 162: 1-18. Recommendations of the German Stratigraphic Commission 1991-2010 on the Permian and Triassic of Central Europe.

! Manfred Menning et al. (2006): Zeitskala für Perm und Trias in der Stratigraphischen Tabelle von Deutschland 2002, zyklostratigraphische Kalibrierung der hoheren Dyas und Germanischen Trias und das Alter der Stufen Roadium bis Rhaetium 2005. Abstract (in German and English), Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 41: 173-210.
The numerical ages for the 17 global stages Gzhelian to Rhaetian and the five groups Rotliegend, Zechstein, Buntsandstein, Muschelkalk and Keuper of the Central European standard succession are estimated.

! R. Mundil et al. (2010): The Triassic time scale: new constraints and a review of geochronological data. In PDF. From: Lucas, S.G. (ed.) The Triassic Timescale. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 41-60.

E. Nitsch (2015): 1. Der Lettenkeuper – Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").

E. Nitsch and H. Hagdorn (2015): 2. Lettenkohle, Lettenkeuper, Unterkeuper – Vom Gesteinsnamen zum stratigraphischen Begriff. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

! Edgar Nitsch, Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau, Stuttgart (page hosted by the "Oberrheinische Geologische Verein"): Paläogeographie und Stratigraphie des Keupers in Deutschland. Keuper (Upper Triassic) palaeogeography and stratigraphy in Germany. PDF file, in German. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2014): Triassic timescale status: A brief overview. PDF file, go to PDF page 3, Albertina 41.

P.E. Olsen et al. (2008): CPCP: Colorado Plateau Coring Project - 100 Million Years of Early Mesozoic Climatic, Tectonic, and Biotic Evolution of an Epicontinental Basin Complex. In PDF, Scientific Drilling, 6.

P.E. Olsen (1988): Paleontology and paleoecology of the Newark Supergroup (Early Mesozoic, Eastern North America) (PDF file). In: W. Manspeizer, Triassic-Jurassic Rifting. See also here.

P.E. Olsen (1985): A summary of the biostratigraphy of the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America with comments on Early Mesozoic provinciality. In PDF.

D. Palermo et al. (2012): Reservoir properties and petrophysical modelling of carbonate sand bodies: outcrop analogue study in an epicontinental basin (Triassic, Germany). Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications.

The Pennsylvania-New Jersey Ancient Earth Association (PANJAEA): This group was formerly known as the Newark Basin Fossil Footprint Research Group. They have always sought to discover new fossil localities of all types and age periods and have expanded their Triassic-Jurassic research to include bones and plants. Visit the accessible abstracts in "published works".
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H.I. Petersen et al. (2013): Deposition, floral composition and sequence stratigraphy of uppermost Triassic (Rhaetian) coastal coals, southern Sweden. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 116–117: 117–134. See also here (abstract).

! J. Ramezani et al. (2011): High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona, USA): Temporal constraints on the early evolution of dinosaurs. Abstract.

G.J. Retallack et al. (2005): The Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. PDF file, Antarctic Science, 17: 241-258.

A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London. ScienceDirect Topic Pages. These pages provide concept definitions and subject overviews. Each synopsis provides a series of short, authoritative, excerpts from highly relevant book chapters. These topic summaries are derived from Elsevier encyclopedias, reference works and books. Go to:
Learn more about Triassic Period.
Learn more about Triassic.

! Cesar L. Schultz (2007): Biostratigraphy of the Non-Marine Triassic: Is a Global Correlation Based on Tetrapod Faunas Possible? Abstract; In: Koutsoukos, Eduardo A.M. (ed.) Applied Stratigraphy. Series: Topics in Geobiology, Vol. 23.
See also here (in PDF) and there (Google books).

! Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy (STS). The STS is charged with the establishment of a standard, globally applicable stratigraphic scale for the Triassic system. Don´t miss the Annual Reports of the STS (PDF files).

! Subkommission für Perm-Trias-Stratigraphie in der Deutschen Stratigraphischen Kommission (DSK, in German): International Triassic Field Workshops. Downloadable excursion guides (PDF files). See also:
Publikationen 2001 - 2006.

J. Szulc et al. (2015): How many Upper Triassic bone-bearing levels are there in Upper Silesia (southern Poland)? A critical overview of stratigraphy and facies. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 85: 587–626.
Don't miss the sketch diagram of environmental evolution and main facies distribution on PDF page 32 and the environmental model on PDF page 33.

J. Szulc et al. (2015): Key aspects of the stratigraphy of the Upper Silesian middle Keuper, southern Poland. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 557-586.

M. Szurlies et al. (2012): The continental Permian-Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

! U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA: Geolex. Geolex is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names.

! Wikipedia the free encyclopedia:
Trias (in German).
Germanic Trias.
Keuper (in German).

Karl Zelger (1867): Geognostische Wanderungen im Gebiete der Trias Franken´s. PDF, in German. See also here (link DDB).

Z. Zhou and M.T. Antunes (2013): Terrestrial Mesozoic stratigraphy. In PDF, Ciências da Terra (UNL), 18; Lisboa.

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Last updated February 10, 2018

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