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The Carnian Pluvial Event
Triassic Palaeogeography
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Triassic Palaeosols
Triassic Charcoal
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips
Geologic Time Scale@
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Geology@

Triassic Stratigraphy

N. Ahlrichs et al. (2020): Structural Evolution at the Northeast North German Basin Margin: From Initial Triassic Salt Movement to Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic Remobilization: Free access, Tectonics, 39.
Note figure 1: Tectonic map of the North German Basin including major geological structures and the condensed geological cross section along a profile analyzed in this study, showing main structures and stratigraphic features.
Figure 9. Sketch illustrating the tectonic evolution at the northeastern North German Basin margin.

! T. Aigner and G.H. Bachmann (1992): Sequence-stratigraphic framework of the German Triassic.In PDF, Sedimentary Geology, 80: 115-135.
See also here.

Rainer Albert,, book review, in German:
Trias. Aufbruch in das Erdmittelalter. By Norbert Hauschke, Matthias Franz & Gerhard H. Bachmann (eds.).

! Friedrich August von Alberti (1834): Beitrag zu einer Monographie des bunten Sandsteins, Muschelkalks und Keupers und die Verbindung dieser Gebilde zu einer Formation. Hosted by Hathi Trust Digital Library, a collaboration of universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the University of California system to establish a repository for their digitized collections.

! Albertiana (The Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy).
The primary mission of Albertiana is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among members of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy and the Triassic community at large. Albertiana are posted in a blog-style format and archived (by volume) as fully-formatted pdf issues at year end.
Albertiana past issues are available from here and likewise from Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana!
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! G. Bachmann et al. (2010): Triassic. (Triassic stratigraphy, Facies and hydrocarbons of the southern Permian Basin Area (SPBA)). In: Petroleum Geological Atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area. EAGE Publications, p. 149. ISBN 9789073781610.
See also here (PDF file, with table of contents) and there (PDF file, GIS maps presented in the atlas).

G.H. Bachmann and M.A.M. Aref (2005): A seismite in Triassic gypsum deposits (Grabfeld Formation, Ladinian), southwestern Germany. In PDF, Sedimentary Geology.

! G.H. Bachmann and H.W. Kozur (2004): The Germanic Triassic: correlations with the international chronostratigraphic scale, numerical ages and Milankovitch cyclicity. Free access, Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss., B 26: 17-62.

Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt (LfU), Augsburg and Hof, Germany.
Go to: Geologie. Lots of downloadable stuff, e.g. Sonderband Geotope in Unterfranken (in German). See also:
! Geological maps of Bavaria (in German). Partly downloadable maps and explanations (in PDF). Excellent!

A. Becker (2024): Cyclicity of the Lower Buntsandstein in the eastern part of the Central European Basin: Implications for Early Triassic palaeogeography and for geochronological calibration. Free access, Journal of Palaeogeography.
! Note figure 1: Early Triassic palaeogeography maps.

J.J. Beer (2005): Sequence stratigraphy of fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower part of the Chinle Formation, south central Utah, United States: paleoclimatic and tectonic implications. In PDF, thesis, Duluth, University of Minnesota. 169 p. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.A. Benavente et al. (2024): Triassic Gondwanan floral assemblages reflect paleogeography more than geologic time. Abstract, Gondwana Research.
"... Combining these and existing geochronologic data with a newly assembled comprehensive presence/absence dataset of palynomorphs from the Anisian-Norian of Gondwana, we demonstrate that paleogeography (paleolatitude) has a significantly stronger correlation with taxonomic composition of assemblages than does geologic time
[...] results imply that geography is an important null hypothesis in explaining differences in early Mesozoic Gondwanan palynomorph assemblages, and that precise geochronologic age constraints are important for refining the accuracy of Triassic palynomorph biochronology ..."

M. Benton et al. (2002): Permian and Triassic Red Beds and the Penarth Group of Great Britain, General introduction. In PDF, Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 24, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkely (UCMP): The Triassic Period. Worth checking out: Triassic Period: Localities, Stratigraphy, and Triassic Period: Tectonics and Paleoclimate.

S. Callegaro et al. (2023): Editorial: How Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) during the Triassic shaped modern-day ecosystems. Free access, Front. Earth Sci., 11:1302216. doi: 10.3389/feart.2023.1302216.

J. Dal Corso (2011): The Middle-Late Triassic d13Cplant trend and the carnian pluvial event C-isotope signature. Ph.D. thesis, University of Padua. See also here (abstract).
Amber from the Triassic of the Italian Alps.

Timothy M. Demko et al. (2005): Mesozoic Lakes of the Colorado Plateau. PDF file, Geological Society of America, Field Guide 6. Exemplary for comparison.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T.M. Demko (1995): Taphonomy of fossil plants in the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation. Dissertation, in PDF. Table of contents on PDF page 8.

S. Deng et al. (2018): Subdivision and age of the Yanchang Formation and the Middle/Upper Triassic boundary in Ordos Basin, North China. Free access, SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 61: 1419-1439.
Note figure 3: Plant fossils from the Yanchang Formation.
Note figure 4: Elements of the palynoflora from the Yanchang Formation.

R.F. Dubiel (1992): Sedimentology and Depositional History of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the Uinta, Piceance, and Eagle Basins, Northwestern Colorado and Northeastern Utah. In PDF, See also here (Google books).

! A. Elgorriaga et al. (2019): Relictual Lepidopteris (Peltaspermales) from the Early Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Patagonia, Argentina. Abstract, Int. J. Plant Sci., 180. See also here (in PDF), and there.
"... and its youngest species, Lepidopteris ottonis, has been used as a Rhaetian marker for several European, Greenlandic, and American localities ..."
"... Lepidopteris scassoi represents the youngest occurrence of the genus by more than 20 Myr. Lepidopteris and Dicroidium lineages, dominant in Southern Hemisphere Triassic ecosystems, show a similar overall pattern of origination (Late Permian), diversification (late Early-Middle Triassic), and decline (Late Triassic), with relict occurrences during the Early Jurassic. ..."

! Encyclopaedia Britannica: Triassic Period and Correlation of Triassic strata.

! FID GEO (supported by DFG, German Research Foundation). A specialised information service for solid earth geosciences. See especially:
! Geologische Karte 1:25 000 (in German).
Free downloadable maps of Germany.

A. Förster et al. (2010): Reservoir characterization of a CO2 storage aquifer: The Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in the Northeast German Basin. Abstract, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27: 2156-2172.

M. Geluk et al. (2018): An introduction to the Triassic: current insights into the regional setting and energy resource potential of NW Europe. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 469.

! M.C. Geluk (2005): Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands in the Netherlands and surrounding areas. Thesis, Utrecht University.

M.R. Gibling et al. (2023): Braided-river architecture of the Triassic Swartberg Member, Katberg Formation, South Africa: assessing age, fluvial style, and paleoclimate after the End-Permian Extinction. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 93: 741–775. DOI: 10.2110/jsr.2023.018. See likewise here.
Note figure 14: Block diagrams to illustrate four major fluvial styles in the Swartberg member.

Pamela J.W. Gore, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston:
The Earth Through Time (by Harold L. Levin, Eighth Edition).Go to:
Chapter 13, Mesozoic Events. Geology of North America.

A.E. Götz and N. Lenhardt (2011): The Anisian carbonate ramp system of Central Europe (Peri-Tethys Basin): sequences and reservoir characteristics. PDF file, Acta Geologica Polonica, 61: 59-70.

! F.M. Gradstein and J.G. Ogg (2020): The chronostratigraphic scale. In PDF, In: The Geologic Time Scale 2020, Elsevier. See also here (Google books).

! I.P. Greig et al. (2023): Establishing Provenance from Highly Impoverished Heavy Mineral Suites: Detrital Apatite and Zircon Geochronology of Central North Sea Triassic Sandstones. Open access, Geosciences,13.
Note figure 6: Generalised pre-Atlantic drift map reconstruction of the North Atlantic region showing the extent of the Caledonide orogenic belt.
Figure 7: Geological summary map of the geological units exposed on the landmasses of Scotland and SW Scandinavia with the location of Triassic basins.

H. Hagdorn (2020): Biostratigraphie der Muschelkalk-Cephalopoden. Abstract, in PDF. In: Hagdorn, H., Simon, T. (eds.): Stratigraphie von Deutschland XIII. Muschelkalk. – Schriftenr. Dt. Ges. Geowiss., 91: 246-273,

H. Hagdorn et al. (2015): 4. Biostratigraphie und Alter des Lettenkeupers . PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

! U. Hambach et al. (2001): A time frame for the Middle Keuper - cyclostratigraphy, sedimentology and first paleomagnetic results from the RAUENBERG 1 research well (km1-km4, Upper Triassic, SW-Germany). Poster, in PDF, Conference Sediment 2001, Jena. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 13. See also here (Google search).

Bilal U. Haq et al. (1987): Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. PDF file, Science, 235.

A.B. Heckert and S.G. Lucas (2002): Revised Upper Triassic stratigraphy of the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. In PDF, NM Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci. Bull.

Andrew B. Heckert, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and Spencer G. Lucas, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque: Stratigraphic Distribution and Age of Petrified Wood in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. See also here (National Park Service, Paleontological Research (Vincent Santucci and Lindsay McClelland, eds.).

Andrew B. Heckert, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and Spencer G. Lucas, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque: The Oldest Triassic Strata Exposed in the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. See also here (National Park Service, Paleontological Research (Vincent Santucci and Lindsay McClelland, eds.).

! Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ.
The Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences is Germany’s national research center for the solid Earth Sciences. Go to:
! Stratigraphic Table of Germany Compact 2022 (STGC 2022). In PDF; currently provided by Bibliothek Wissenschaftspark Albert Einstein.

! Yin Hongfu et al. (2001): The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic Boundary. In PDF.

T. Hornung et al. (2007): Multistratigraphic constraints on the NW Tethyan "Carnian crisis". In PDF, In: Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A. (eds.): The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.W. Hounslow and R. Gallois (2023): Magnetostratigraphy of the Mercia Mudstone Group (Devon, UK): implications for regional relationships and chronostratigraphy in the Middle to Late Triassic of western Europe. Open access, Journal of the Geological Society.

! M.W. Hounslow and S.G. Lucas (2023): A proposal for new chronostratigraphic stage subdivisions of the Upper Triassic series. In PDF, Albertiana, 48: 1–10. See also here.
! Note figure 2: The changing durations and ages of the Triassic stages based on important milestones in timescale construction.
"... The longest Phanerozoic stage is the Norian (approximately 18 Myr duration), which is both mismatched in terms of duration with other Phanerozoic stages, and the Lower and Middle Triassic Series,
[...] We examine three alternative scenarios that raise the rank of the Carnian and Norian (and the Rhaetian Stage) in the chronostratigraphic hierarchy to either series or subseries rank.

M.W. Hounslow et al. (2021): Albertiana Working Group Report: The case for the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Norian stage. In PDF, Albertiana, 46: 25–57.
See also here.
"... the Pizzo Mondello section was selected as the global stratotype section and point for the base of the Norian. We evaluated the global correlation potential of the two proposed primary markers, the conodont Metapolygnathus parvus and the ‘flat-clam’ Halobia austriaca. ..."

M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006): Triassic - seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London, London.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Huang et al. (2020): Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology: Case studies from China. Open access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 560.

! International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
The ICS is the largest and oldest constituent scientific body in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). Its primary objective is to define precisely global units (systems, series and stages) of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart. Go to:
! Chart.
Downloadable latest chart versions in PDF or JPG.

International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS): International Commission on Stratigraphy.

International Commission on Stratigraphy:
GSSP for the Permian-Triassic Boundary.
Still provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Johns Hopkins Sedimentology Group: The Latemar Controversy. Recently, an article appeared in Geology that questions the Milankovitch interpretation of the Latemar cyclic succession. Link to the abstract of this article, and read comments by the Johns Hopkins Latemar Group.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC): Permian - Triassic.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.V. Kent et al. (2017): Astrochronostratigraphic polarity time scale (APTS) for the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic from continental sediments and correlation with standard marine stages. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 166: 153–180. See also here.

T.G. Klausen et al. (2019): The largest delta plain in Earth’s history. Free access, Geology, 47: 470-474.

A.A. Klompmake et al. (2010): Biostratigraphic correlation, paleoenvironment stress, and subrosion pipe collapse: Dutch Rhaetian shales uncover their secrets. Facies, 56: 597–613.

! H.W. Kozur & G.H. Bachmann (2010): Tethyan and German Triassic stratigraphy, correlation and numerical ages. Abstract, in PDF. Geophysical Research Abstracts.

! Heinz W. Kozur & G.H. Bachmann (2008): Updated numerical ages of Triassic stages and the correlation of the Germanic Triassic with the Tethyan scale. Abstract, IGC, Oslo.

C. Kunkel et al. (2019): Geothermisches Nutzungspotenzial der Buntsandstein- und Keuperaquifere im Nordosten Bayerns mit Fokus auf tiefe Aquiferspeicher. In German. Open access, Grundwasser – Zeitschrift der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie, 24: 251–267.
Note fig. 1: Simplified geological overview of Bavaria and a schematic cross-section of the subsurface of northern Bavaria.
Fig. 2: Distribution and thickness maps of the Buntsandstein (a) and Keuper (b) aquifers in northern Bavaria.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University: TRIASSIC-JURASSIC WORKING GROUP.

Martin Lee, Division of Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow: Mesozoic stratigraphy. Go to: Triassic and Jurassic.

W. Lestari et al. (2023): Carbon Cycle Perturbations and Environmental Change of the Middle Permian and Late Triassic paleo-Antarctic Circle. Free access, Researchsquare. See likewise here.
Note figure 1: Permian and Triassic paleogeographical maps of the Southern Hemisphere.
"... The Bicheno-5 core from Eastern Tasmania, Australia, provides the opportunity to examine Mid-Permian and Upper Triassic sediments from the paleo-Antarctic, using high-resolution organic carbon isotope (d 13 C TOC) chemostratigraphy, pXRF, and sedimentology, combined with new palynological data integrated with the existing radiometric age model ..."

S. Lin et al. (2022): A millimeter-scale insight into formation mechanism of lacustrine black shale in tephra deposition background. Free access, Scientific Reports, 12.

S. Lindström et al. (2017): A new correlation of Triassic–Jurassic boundary successions in NW Europe, Nevada and Peru, and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: A time-line for the end-Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 478: 80–102.
See also here.
! Note figure 15: Timeline of events around the end-Triassic mass extinction.

! Litholex. Maintained by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, BGR), Hannover, Germany. Database about stratigraphic units in Germany (in German).

Alan Logan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.: Triassic Period.
Please note the map "Pangea: Early Triassic Period". With indicated cold and warm water currents.

! S.G. Lucas (2018): The Late Triassic Timescale. Abstract, with an extended citation list. Pages 1-25. In: L.H. Tanner (ed.): The Late Triassic World. Topics in Geobiology, 46.

S.G. Lucas (2018): Permian-Triassic Charophytes: Distribution, Biostratigraphy and Biotic Events. Abstract, Journal of Earth Science, 29: 778–793.

! S.G. Lucas (2013): A new Triassic timescale. PDF file; In Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin, 61: 366-374.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! S.G. Lucas (2013): Plant Megafossil Biostratigraphy and Biochronology, Upper Triassic Chinle Group, Western USA. In PDF, In: Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61.
See also here. (Goggle books).

! S.G. Lucas et al. (2012): The Late Triassic timescale: Age and correlation of the Carnian-Norian boundary. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 114: 1-18.

! S.G. Lucas (2010): The Triassic timescale: an introduction. PDF file, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 1-16. See also here (abstract).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.G. Lucas et al. (2007): First day: Middle and Upper Triassic stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of west-central New Mexico, and Second day: Early and Middle Triassic stratigraphy, palaeontology and correlation in northeastern Arizona. Google books (downloadable in PDF), In: Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A., eds., Triassic of the American West. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 40.
See also here (from Terra Triassica, Euerdorf, Germany).

S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2007): The nonmarine Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews, 84: 1–20. See also here.

S.G. Lucas et al. (2001): Triassic Stratigraphy, Biostratigraphy and Correlation in East-Central New Mexico. In PDF.

! Spencer G. Lucas (1998): Global Triassic tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 143: 47-384.

Spencer G. Lucas et al. (1997): Triassic stratigraphy and paleontology on the Fort Wingate quadrangle, west-central New Mexico. In PDF.

! S.G. Lucas (1980): Upper Triassic Chinle Group, western United States: a nonmarine standard for late Triassic time. PDF file. In. Dilcher, D. and Taylor. T, eds., Biostratigraphy of fossil plants: ... This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Lutz et al. (2005): Lithofazies und Leitflächen: Grundlagen einer dualen lithostratigraphischen Gliederung. Abstract, PDF file, in German; Newsl. Stratigr., 41: 211-223.

! G. Mangerud et al. (2021): Triassic palynoevents in the circum-Arctic region. Open access, Atlantic Geology, 57: 71–101.
See also here (in PDF).
"... a compilation of 78 last occurrences (LOs), first occurrences (FOs), and some abundance events that are anticipated to have correlation potential in the Arctic region. ..."

Jeffrey W. Martz and William G. Parker (2010): Revised Lithostratigraphy of the Sonsela Member (Chinle Formation, Upper Triassic) in the Southern Part of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. PDF file, see also here.

T. McKie and P.M. Shannon (2011): Comment on "The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri Tethyan domain scale: Palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications" by S. Bourquin, A. Bercovici, J. López-Gómez, J. B. Diez, J. Broutin, A. Ronchi, M. Durand, A. Arché, B. Linol and F. Amour. [Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 299 (2011) 265–280]. Abstract.

! C. McRoberts, State University of New York, Cortland:
The Global Triassic, Alburquerque, May 2007. PDF files; The joint meeting of the IGCP Project 467 and the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy (hosted by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science).
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M. Menning et al. (2011): Beschlüsse der Deutschen Stratigraphischen Kommission 1991-2010 zu Perm und Trias von Mitteleuropa. PDF file, Z. dt. Ges. Geowiss., 162: 1-18. Recommendations of the German Stratigraphic Commission 1991-2010 on the Permian and Triassic of Central Europe.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Manfred Menning et al. (2006): Zeitskala für Perm und Trias in der Stratigraphischen Tabelle von Deutschland 2002, zyklostratigraphische Kalibrierung der hoheren Dyas und Germanischen Trias und das Alter der Stufen Roadium bis Rhaetium 2005. Abstract (in German and English), Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 41: 173-210.
The numerical ages for the 17 global stages Gzhelian to Rhaetian and the five groups Rotliegend, Zechstein, Buntsandstein, Muschelkalk and Keuper of the Central European standard succession are estimated.

J. Michalík (2019; article started on PDF-page 135): Mesozoic sedimentary basins, current systems and life domains in northern part of the Mediterranean Tethys Ocean. In PDF, Carpathica, 70: 134-136.
See also here.
"... Contact of the Mediterranean Tethys with Paleoeurope has been affected by tension, rifting, and by left lateral shift since the Early Triassic. The Late Triassic/Early Jurassic evolution was controlled by convergence along border of the Meliata Ocean and by contemporaneous divergence along the Middle Atlantic/Penninic rift. ..."

! R. Mundil et al. (2010): The Triassic time scale: new constraints and a review of geochronological data. In PDF. From: Lucas, S.G. (ed.) The Triassic Timescale. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 41-60.

! G. Muttoni et al. (2004): Integrated Anisian–Ladinian boundary chronology. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 208: 85–102. See also here.

S. Niegel and M. Franz (2023): Depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity evolution in sandstone reservoirs of the Stuttgart Formation (North German Basin). Free access, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 151. See also here.
Note figure 1: Central European Basin System with subbasins, major fault systems and basement exposures.
! Figure 3: Generalised N–S cross-section summarising large-scale architecture, depositional environments and stratigraphic control of the Stuttgart Formation.

S. Niegel (2023): Diagenetic controls on sandstones of the Stuttgart Formation – consequences for the porosity evolution of hydrothermal reservoirs in the North German Basin. In PDF, Dissertation, Georg-August University Göttingen, Germany. See also here.
Note figure 1.2: Central European Basin System with subbasins, major fault systems and basement exposures.

E. Nitsch (2015): 1. Der Lettenkeuper – Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

E. Nitsch and H. Hagdorn (2015): 2. Lettenkohle, Lettenkeuper, Unterkeuper – Vom Gesteinsnamen zum stratigraphischen Begriff. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

! Edgar Nitsch, Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau, Stuttgart (page hosted by the "Oberrheinische Geologische Verein"): Paläogeographie und Stratigraphie des Keupers in Deutschland. Keuper (Upper Triassic) palaeogeography and stratigraphy in Germany. PDF file, in German. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2020): The triassic period. In PDF, Geologic Time Scale 2020, Volume 2: 903-953. See also here.
! Note the generalized synthesis of selected Triassic stratigraphic scales in Figs. 25.5-25.7!

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2014): Triassic timescale status: A brief overview. PDF file, go to PDF page 3, Albertina 41.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.E. Olsen et al. (2018): Colorado Plateau Coring Project, Phase I (CPCP-I): a continuously cored, globally exportable chronology of Triassic continental environmental change from western North America. In PDF, Sci. Dril., 24: 15–40.

P.E. Olsen et al. (2008): CPCP: Colorado Plateau Coring Project - 100 Million Years of Early Mesozoic Climatic, Tectonic, and Biotic Evolution of an Epicontinental Basin Complex. In PDF, Scientific Drilling, 6.

P.E. Olsen (1988): Paleontology and paleoecology of the Newark Supergroup (Early Mesozoic, Eastern North America) (PDF file). In: W. Manspeizer, Triassic-Jurassic Rifting. See also here.

P.E. Olsen (1985): A summary of the biostratigraphy of the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America with comments on Early Mesozoic provinciality. In PDF.

D. Palermo et al. (2012): Reservoir properties and petrophysical modelling of carbonate sand bodies: outcrop analogue study in an epicontinental basin (Triassic, Germany). Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications.

The Pennsylvania-New Jersey Ancient Earth Association (PANJAEA): This group was formerly known as the Newark Basin Fossil Footprint Research Group. They have always sought to discover new fossil localities of all types and age periods and have expanded their Triassic-Jurassic research to include bones and plants. Visit the accessible abstracts in "published works".
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.E. Peters and J.M. Husson (2018): We need a global comprehensive stratigraphic database: here's a start. In PDF, The Sedimentary Record.
See also here.
Note figure 5: Abundance of evaporite- and iron formation-bearing units.

H.I. Petersen et al. (2013): Deposition, floral composition and sequence stratigraphy of uppermost Triassic (Rhaetian) coastal coals, southern Sweden. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 116–117: 117–134. See also here (abstract).

! M. Pöppelreiter (1999): Controls of epeiric successions exemplified with the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate Lower Keuper (Ladinian, German Basin). Tübinger Geowissenschaftliche Arbeiten A51, 117 pp.

! J. Ramezani et al. (2011): High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona, USA): Temporal constraints on the early evolution of dinosaurs. Abstract.

D.C.G. Ravida et al. (2022): Drainage and environmental evolution across the Permo–Triassic boundary in the south-east Germanic Basin (north-east Bavaria). Open access, Sedimentology, 69, 501–536. See also here.
Note fig. 2: Palaeogeography of the Franconian Basin during the deposition of Rotliegend, Zechstein and Buntsandstein.

G.J. Retallack et al. (2005): The Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. PDF file, Antarctic Science, 17: 241-258.
See also here.

A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. ScienceDirect Topic Pages. These pages provide concept definitions and subject overviews. Each synopsis provides a series of short, authoritative, excerpts from highly relevant book chapters. These topic summaries are derived from Elsevier encyclopedias, reference works and books. Go to:
Learn more about Triassic Period.
Learn more about Triassic.

! J.W. Schneider et al. (2022): Report on the activities of the Carboniferous – Permian –Triassic Nonmarine-Marine Correlation Working Group for 2021 to 2022. In PDF, Permophiles, 73. See also here.
Note chapter "Triassic" on page 38 (PDF-page 8).
! Note figure 11. Palaeogeographic map of the epicontinental Central European Basin.

J.W. Schneider et al. (2019): Late Paleozoic–early Mesozoic continental biostratigraphy — Links to the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Scale. Abstract, Palaeoworld. See also here (in PDF).

J.W. Schneider et al. (2014): Excursion Guide: CPC-2014 Field Meeting on Carboniferous and Permian Nonmarine – Marine Correlation July 21st – 27th, Freiberg, Germany. In PDF, TU Freiberg, Institut für Geologie, Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 46.
Don´t miss chapter 4.1: The Germanic Triassic (PDF page 80).

! B. Schröder (1982): Entwicklung des Sedimentbeckens und Stratigraphie der klassischen Germanischen Trias. In PDF, Geologische Rundschau, 71: 783-794.

! Cesar L. Schultz (2007): Biostratigraphy of the Non-Marine Triassic: Is a Global Correlation Based on Tetrapod Faunas Possible? Abstract; In: Koutsoukos, Eduardo A.M. (ed.) Applied Stratigraphy. Series: Topics in Geobiology, Vol. 23.
See also here (in PDF) and there (Google books).

ScienceDirect (provided by the Dutch publisher Elsevier):
Triassic Period.
Created by ScienceDirect using heuristic and machine-learning approaches to extract relevant information.

J. Sha et al. (2024): An introduction to the Triassic and Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, China: advances in palaeontology and environments. Free access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 538: 1-8.

! M.S. Stoker et al. (2017): An overview of the Upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic stratigraphy of the NE Atlantic region. Open access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 447: 11-64.

Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy (STS). Under the auspicities of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the STS is charged with the establishment of a standard, globally applicable stratigraphic scale for the Triassic system. Go to:
Meetings and news announcements.

! Subkommission für Perm-Trias-Stratigraphie in der Deutschen Stratigraphischen Kommission (DSK, in German): International Triassic Field Workshops. Downloadable excursion guides (PDF files). See also:
Publikationen 2001 - 2006.

Y.D. Sun et al. (2021): Editorial preface to special issue: Triassic at the dawn of modern world in honour of Prof. Leopold Krystyn. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 208. See also here.

J. Szulc et al. (2015): How many Upper Triassic bone-bearing levels are there in Upper Silesia (southern Poland)? A critical overview of stratigraphy and facies. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 85: 587–626.
Don't miss the sketch diagram of environmental evolution and main facies distribution on PDF page 32 and the environmental model on PDF page 33.

J. Szulc et al. (2015): Key aspects of the stratigraphy of the Upper Silesian middle Keuper, southern Poland. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 557-586.

M. Szurlies et al. (2012): The continental Permian-Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

L.H.Tanner (ed., 2018): The Late Triassic World. Earth in a Time of Transition. Topics in Geobiology, 46 (Springer). Go to:
Chapter 1 The Late Triassic Timescale. In PDF.

J. Tong et al. (2019): Triassic integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China. Free access, SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 62, 1: 189-222. See also here.

! J.R. Underhill and N. Richardson (2022): Geological controls on petroleum plays and future opportunities in the North Sea Rift Super Basin. Open access, AAPG Bulletin, 106: 573–631.
Note figure 1: Map showing the geographical extent of the main petroleum systems of the northwestern European continental shelf and the position of the North Sea Rift Super Basin in relation to the Anglo-Polish Super Basin (or Southern Permian Basin), its Northern Permian Basin counterpart, and other significant petroleumsystems.

! U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA: Geolex. Geolex is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names.

J.C. Van Wagoner et al. (1987): An overview of the fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions. First page, In: A.W. Bally (ed.), Atlas of Seismic Stratigraphy, volume 1, Studies in Geology vol. 27, American Association of Petroleum Geologists (1987), pp. 11–14.

S. Voigt et al. (2020): Report on the activities of the Late Carboniferous–Permian–Early Triassic Nonmarine-Marine Correlation Working Group for 2018 and 2019, In PDF, Permophiles, 68.

M. Warnecke et al. (2019): Asymmetry of an epicontinental basin—facies, cycles, tectonics and hydrodynamics: The Triassic Upper Muschelkalk, South Germanic Basin. In PDF, The Depositional Record.

! Wikipedia the free encyclopedia:
Trias (in German).
Germanic Trias.
Keuper (in German).

Z. Yang et al. (1982; translated by W. Downs): The Triassic of China. PDF file, Acta Geologica Sinica.

! A. Zeh et al. (2021): Zircon of Triassic Age in the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein)-Witness of Tephra Fallout in the Central European Basin and New Constraints on the Mid-Carnian Episode. Free access, Front. Earth Sci. See also here.
"... volcanic zircon grains of Olenekian to early Carnian age in the Stuttgart Formation points to the presence of tephra beds in the Buntsandstein to Keuper Groups, which were previously overlooked. The detritus of these pre- depositional tephra beds was incorporated into the Stuttgart Formation due to fluvial incision and reworking at the southern margins of the Central European Basin. ..."

Karl Zelger (1867): Geognostische Wanderungen im Gebiete der Trias Franken´s. PDF file, in German. See also here and there (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek).

Y. Zhang et al. (2020): Carnian (Late Triassic) magnetostratigraphy from the Germanic Basin allowing global correlation of the Mid-Carnian Episode. Abstract, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 541.
"... Three boreholes through the Middle Keuper formations of the Germanic Basin yielded overlapping records of magnetic polarity successions spanning the entire Carnian, including the Mid-Carnian Episode. The composite Carnian magnetostratigraphy from the Germanic Basin has seven main magnetozones. The main features can be correlated with Newark series of eastern North American ..."

Z. Zhou and M.T. Antunes (2013): Terrestrial Mesozoic stratigraphy. In PDF, Ciências da Terra (UNL), 18; Lisboa. See also here.

I.C. Zutterkirch et al. (2022): Thin-section detrital zircon geochronology mitigates bias in provenance investigations. Free access, Journal of the Geological Society, 179.
Note fig. 1: Tectonic setting of Australia during the Late Triassic.
Note Note fig. 8: Schematic diagram illustrating how in situ zircon U–Pb measurements in thinsections are more representative of the detrital sink than measurements on processed hand-picked mounts.

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