Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Selected Geology / Palaeogeography

Geologic Time Scale
Sedimentology and Sedimentary Rocks
Sequence Stratigraphy
The Gaia Hypothesis

! Focussed on the Fossil Record@
Palaeobotanical Maps@
! Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology@
Teaching Documents about Geochronological Methods@
Sequence Stratigraphy and Facies of the European Keuper@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Geology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Chemistry and Geochemistry@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Natural Stones@
Homepages of Triassic Workers@


UT Institute for Geophysics, The University of Texas at Austin, The John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences: Plate Tectonics News Archive. See also:
The PLATES Project. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
PLATES is a program of research into plate tectonic and geologic reconstructions. PLATES maintains an up-to-date oceanic magnetic and tectonic database, continuously adding new paleomagnetic, hot spot, geological and geophysical data to extend the span and accuracy of global plate reconstructions.
You may navigate from here.

V.M. Avila, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, El Paso:
The Science of Historical Geology.
Early Geologists Tackle History's Mysteries.
Time and Geology.
! Life on Earth: What do Fossils Reveal?.
The Proterozoic: Dawn of a More Modern World.
Early Paleozoic Events.
Life of the Paleozoic Part 1.
Life of the Paleozoic Part 2.
Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations.

AWI, Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, Bremen: PANGAEA. The information system PANGAEA is a public data library on the Internet aimed at archiving, publishing and distributing geocoded data with special emphasis on environmental, marine and geological research. AWI and MARUM have commited to operate PANGAEA on a long-term basis. Go to: Software. The Software on this page is provided by the PANGAEA-Network for the visualization, exploration and interpretation of scientific data. The tools are freeware.

The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Plate Tectonics. See the plate tectonics animation of the last 750 million years, using 1.44MB, 750KB or 350KB. Animation built from images provided by Christopher R. Scotese, PALEOMAP Project, U. Texas at Arlington.

! Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California, Berkeley: UCMP Glossary. Terms in this glossaries are important to practicing biologists, palaeontologists and geologists in various fields. Go to: The glossary of paleogeographic terms.

! Ron Blakey, Department of Geology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff: Paleogeography Through Geologic Time. Choose a geologic period and click on its name to view menu of that time, then select the paleogeographic globe or a 1st order global tectonic feature. See especially:
! Library of Paleogeography. The Paleogeographic Maps of Ron Blakey.

S. Bourquin et al. (2011): The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri-Tethyan domain scale: palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 299: 265-280.

Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project. Using the data bases and their own specially designed software, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project scientists construct paleomaps of the Earth (the paleogeology of the past 250 million years). These "snapshots" contain detailed geologic information - the height of mountains, depth of oceans, even clues to ancient climate - compiled from field work by geologists and paleontologists working around the world.

dmoz, The Open Directory Project:
! Paleogeography.

SE Asia Research Group, Department of Geology, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, U.K.: Palaeogeographic Maps of SE Asia.

S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London. (Michael Wegner, Köln):
! Historische Geologie, Paläoklima. Palaeogeographic maps (based on Scotese 2000) with palaeoclimate symbols. In German. (published by Hobart King): Teaching Plate Tectonics with Easy-to-Draw Illustrations.

By GEOMAR, Research Center for Marine Geosciences / Kiel and the Geological Institute of the University Bremen: Ocean Drilling Stratigraphic Network (ODSN), ODSN Plate Tectonic Reconstruction Service. Calculate platetectonic reconstructions of any age back to 150 My. A Plate Tectonic Animation (330 kb) using 5 my timesteps is available too.

Y. Goddéris et al. (2014): The role of palaeogeography in the Phanerozoic history of atmospheric CO2 and climate. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 128: 122-138.

Jan Golonka (2007): Phanerozoic paleoenvironment and paleolithofacies maps. Mesozoic. PDF file, Geologia, 33: 211-264.

Google: Science > Earth Sciences > Paleogeography and Paleoclimatology. Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

handprint media: The Geological Evolution of the Earth. This web site presents in a vertical time line images of the Earth's geologic evolution from 510 million years ago to the present.

Colin Harris, UK: Geology Shop. A link directory (introductory website slow loading), comprising over 70 individual web pages. Go to:
Palaeogeographic Reconstructions.

Bruce C. Heezen and Marie Tharp, Tectonic Designs, (page hosted by World Ocean Floors. Unfortunately in small size 8.91 x 4.83 cm, 150 dpi (jpg). This amazing piece of work accurately illustrates the tectonic Earth including mid-ocean ridges, the giant Pacific Plate, continental shelves, and undersea mountain chains.

M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos, Australia: Pangea.

! Timetable. Clickable palaeogeographic maps.

! W.J. Kious and R.I. Tilling, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey: This dynamic earth: The story of plate tectonics. You can also download a PDF version (3.75 MB).
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

University of London External System, London, UK (This is is a division of the University of London that grants external degrees: Study in Economics, Management, Finance and Social Sciences (EMFSS), Biogeography. Go to: Chapter 4: Patterns in time. This PDF file briefly reviews the evolution of the flora and fauna of the earth and the role that plate tectonics, climate and sea level played in their evolution.

! Ellen E. Martin, Department of Geology, University of Florida: Global Climate Change. Lecture notes (powepoint presentations). Navigate from here or there. See especially: General Overview. Phanerozoic Palaeoclimate. Including some palaeogeographic maps.

Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, PALAEOZOIC PALAEOGEOGRAPHY. Link list page with picture rankings. Explore the Palaeozoic world and see continents move through time and space, and learn about climate and vegetation.

NASA (Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics located at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center): The Digital Tectonic Activity Map (DTAM). The Digital Tectonic Activity Map was first drawn in 1977, under the title "Global Tectonic and Volcanic Activity of the Last One Million Years", as an overlay to the National Geographic Society's Physical World map. It underwent many revisions up to 1998. An entirely new map has been created using current information on seismisity, plate motions, topography and so forth. DTAM is a Geographical Information System (GIS) that displays a realistic synoptic view of present global tectonism by filling in the cartographic gap between conventional geological maps and plate reconstruction maps. The DTAM was created using current global datasets of seismicity, volcanism, and plate motions that were integrated with topography and bathymetry measurements derived from satellite gravity data. Macroscopic structural features were integrated via field studies from various researchers, space geodesy, and space-borne imagery (e.g. astronaut photography, Landsat).

The National Geophysical Data Center: World Data Center for Marine Geology & Geophysics, Boulder; AGE OF THE OCEAN FLOOR POSTER. The poster offered by NGDC are a composite of topographic and bathymetric data available from NGDC and crustal age data. Have a look for (or download) the really enlarged view (1.6 MG GIF file).

Nederlandse Vereniging voor Kartografie: Gondwana. Shockwave and GIF plate tectonic animatioms. To see the evolution of Australia, Antarctica, Africa, and India with attendant faults and hot spots, go to the animated GIF version on-line.

Ocean Drilling Stratigraphic Network (ODSN), by GEOMAR, Research Center for Marine Geosciences / Kiel and the Geological Institute of the University Bremen: ODSN Plate Tectonic Reconstruction Service. In this site you can calculate platetectonic reconstructions of any age back to 150 My. An animation (330 kb) using 5 my timesteps is available too.

Kyoko Okino, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo: Plate Motion Calculator. The prototype of web-based plate motion calculator was developed by K. Tamaki. This calculator is a revised version by K. Okino.

The Paleobiology Database (PaleoBioDB): Organized and operated by a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional, international group of paleobiological researchers.
The PaleobiologyPaleoBioDB is a non-governmental, non-profit public resource for paleontological data. Go to:
! PaleoBioDB API. The Paleobiology Database Application Programming Interface (API) gives access to taxonomic, spatial, and temporal data. See especially:
Navigator. Space, time and taxa.

Pangaea (an independent, international publisher): Alfred Wegner (1880-1930). A biographical note.

Rasmussen College: A Beginner's Guide to Plate Tectonics. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Mesozoic. Mesozoic topics - including PDF files - are: Jurassic phytogeography and climates (data and models); Late Jurassic climate, vegetation and dinosaur distribution; Mesozoic assembly, Asia: floras, tectonics, paleomagnetism; Paleoecology, middle Cretaceous Grebenka flora, Siberia; and Lower Jurassic floras of Hope Bay & Botany Bay, Antarctica. See also: PGAP Paleogeographic Maps (downloadable pdf files).

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleobiography Project. Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
There are three databases, including a map-based search function, plotting on paleomaps, references search, genus name search for the dinosaurs and plants, and tutorial pages:
PGAP, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project Lithofacies Database. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lithofacies.
CSS, the Climate Sensitive Sediments Database. Permian and Jurassic Climate Sensitive Sediments.
DINO, the Dinosauria Distributions Database. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Dinosaur Distributions.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Mesozoic. Mesozoic topics - including PDF files - are: Jurassic phytogeography and climates (data and models); Late Jurassic climate, vegetation and dinosaur distribution; Mesozoic assembly, Asia: floras, tectonics, paleomagnetism; Paleoecology, middle Cretaceous Grebenka flora, Siberia; and Lower Jurassic floras of Hope Bay & Botany Bay, Antarctica.

Allister Rees, Fred Ziegler and David Rowley, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT (PGAP). Including a Jurassic and Permian slideshow sampler (QuickTime), paleogeographic maps (downloadable pdf files), and a bibliography of PGAP Publications (with links to abstracts).

François Rosselet, Section des Sciences de la Terre, Lausanne, Switzerland: Tethyan Plate Tectonic Home Page. Tethyan plate reconstructions and descriptions.

I. Sanmartín and F. Ronquist (2004): Southern Hemisphere Biogeography Inferred by Event-Based Models: Plant versus Animal Patterns. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 216-243.

! A. Schettino. Istituto Tecnico Industriale e Liceo Scientifico Tecnologico "Ettore Molinari", Milano: Plate Tectonic Reconstructions. On-line paleogeographic reconstruction tool.

! C.R. Scotese, Paleomap Project: Scotese's Palaeogeographic and Palaeotectonic Reconstructions of the World. An educational online resource for R. Leinfelder's University Lecture "Historical Geology - System Earth". You can purchase these and other animations via

! Christopher R. Scotese: Paleomap Project. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Travel back through time and check out what the earth looked like during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, and what it may look like far into the future.

! Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program: This Dynamic Planet. The map is designed to show Earth's most prominent features when viewed from a distance, and more detailed features upon closer inspection (interactive mapping functions, including zoom). See also
here (U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey), or
there (Tom Simkin et al., 1994: This Dynamic Planet: World Map of Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Impact Craters, and Plate Tectonics). In PDF.

! G.M. Stampfli, et al., Institute of Geology and Paleontology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland: Global Reconstruction and Database Project. Also available in PDF (10.7 MB).

Kensaku Tamaki, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo: Absolute Plate Motion Calculator. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Select name of concerned plate, input latitude and longitude of the point on the plate, and press the button of "Execute calculation". Then you will get the velocity and motion direction at the point in a hotspot reference frame.

Mark Torrence, Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services Corporation, Greenbelt, Ben Chao and John W. Robbins, NASA: Tectonic Plate Motion from space geodesy. The results you will find here only represent the generally slow and smooth nature of tectonic motion.

UNAVCO (a non-profit membership-governed consortium, facilitates geoscience research and education using geodesy): Plate Motion Calculator. This program is for the calculation of tectonic plate motion at any location on Earth using one or more plate motion models.

Urwelt-Museum Hauff (Hauff Museum of the Prehistoric World), Holzmaden, Germany: Die Geologische Uhr. The geological clock, a downloadble Flush Plug In (in German).
See also here Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Faculty of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University: Plate Motion Calculator.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Palaeogeography and
Plate tectonics.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Harry Hammond Hess.
Alfred Wegner.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated January 22, 2017