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The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies

Thomas Aigner (1973): Frühere Bergbauversuche im Stubensandstein des Schwäbischen Waldes. PDF file, in German.

R. Albert (2014): Die Entstehung und sedimentologische Bedeutung von Steinsalzkristallmarken im fossilen Beleg. PDF file, in German.

! Friedrich August von Alberti (1834): Beitrag zu einer Monographie des bunten Sandsteins, Muschelkalks und Keupers und die Verbindung dieser Gebilde zu einer Formation. Hosted by Hathi Trust Digital Library, a collaboration of universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the University of California system to establish a repository for their digitized collections.

! Albertiana.
The primary mission of Albertiana is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among members of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy and the Triassic community at large. Articles and announcements are posted here in a blog-style format and archived (by volume) as fully-formatted pdf issues at year end.
In its new hybrid digital form, Albertiana publishes peer-reviewed original research articles, literature reviews, meeting announcements and commentary relevant to the Triassic community and in particular the development of Triassic stratigraphy and its time scale.
Still available: Albertiana on SUNY Cortland´s webserver (website edited by Wolfram Kuerschner, Oslo). E-Albertiana is formated in Adobe Portable document format (PDF), issues are available for download. See also:
! Albertiana (PDF files). Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana. Excellent!

R. Aubrecht et al. (2017): Provenance of the Lunz Formation (Carnian) in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia: Heavy mineral study and in situ LA–ICP–MS U–Pb detrital zircon dating. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 471: 233–253. See also here (abstract).
Please take notice: Fig. 23, paleogeographic scheme of Middle Carnian, showing probable provenance of the Lunz Formation arenites and its relation to the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin.

G.H. Bachmann and M.A.M. Aref (2005): A seismite in Triassic gypsum deposits (Grabfeld Formation, Ladinian), southwestern Germany. In PDF, Sedimentary Geology.

! G.H. Bachmann and H.W. Kozur (2004): The Germanic Triassic: correlations with the international chronostratigraphic scale, numerical ages and Milankovitch cyclicity. In PDF, Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss., B 26: 17-62. See also here.

G. Barth et al. (2014): Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) brackish to freshwater habitats at a fluvial-dominated delta plain (Seinstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany). In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94. See also here.

Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Augsburg, Germany: Geotoprecherche Bayern. Interactive map (in German).

S. Bourquin et al. (2011): The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri-Tethyan domain scale: palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 299: 265-280.

S. Bourquin et al. (2007): The Permian-Triassic boundary and Early Triassic sedimentation in Western European basins: an overview. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 33: 221-236. See also here.

G. Burgmeier and M. Schöttle, Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg, Karlsruhe, Germany: Geotope im Regierungsbezirk Stuttgart. PDF file (in German). Scroll to PDF page 20: "Keuper".

J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson (2005): Ecology and Behaviour of Mesozoic Reptiles, The Mesozoic Environment. In PDF. See also here,

J. Dal Corso (2011): The Middle-Late Triassic d13Cplant trend and the carnian pluvial event C-isotope signature. Ph.D. thesis, University of Padua. See also here (abstract).
Amber from the Triassic of the Italian Alps.

Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission (DSK), the German Stratigraphic Commission. See also: Subkommission für Perm-Trias-Stratigraphie (in German).

Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission:
! International Triassic Field Workshops. An informal forum for earth scientists who are interested in the Triassic system. Go to:
! Southern Germany. In PDF, by H. Hagdorn, T. Simon, E. Nitsch, T. Aigner.
! Central Germany. In PDF, by G. H. Bachmann, G. Beutler.

! Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission (DSK): Stratigraphische Tabelle von Deutschland 2002 (STD 2002). Download: pdf (1.4 MB)
pdf (7MB), and Index (in German).

C.G. Diedrich (2010): The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 12; EGU General Assembly 2010.

Doris Dittrich (Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Science Publishers, Stuttgart): Der Schilfsandstein als synsedimentär-tektonisch geprägtes Sediment -- eine Umdeutung bisheriger Befunde. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Band 140. p. 295-310; 1989. Abstract. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A genetic re-interpretation of the "Schilfsandstein" (Stuttgart-Formation, Upper Triassic).

A.M. Dunhill et al. (2016): Dinosaur biogeographical structure and Mesozoic continental fragmentation: a network-based approach. In PDF, Journal of Biogeography.

J. Dzik and T. Sulej (2007): A review of the early Late Triassic Krasiejów biota from Silesia, Poland. In PDF, Palaeontologia Polonica, 64: 3–27.

Euerdorf Community, Germany: A Collection of Franconian Triassic Fossils (in German). The beautiful Euerdorf private collection (including fossil plants from the Lower Keuper) is now accessible to the public!
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See also here.

A. Etzold and M. Franz (2005): Ein Referenzprofil des Keupers im Kraichgau, zusammengesetzt aus mehreren Kernbohrungen auf Blatt 6718 Wiesloch (Baden-Württemberg). PDF file, in German. LGRB-Informationen, 17 :25-124.

! S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London.

! Susanne Feist-Burkhardt and Annette E. Götz (2002): Kompaktkurse, Palynofazies und Sequenzstratigraphie (K1). PDF file, in German. SEDIMENT 2002, Frankfurt am Main - Darmstadt.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A. Förster et al. (2010): Reservoir characterization of a CO2 storage aquifer: The Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in the Northeast German Basin. In PDF, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27: 2156-2172.

M. Franz et al. (2015): Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27. See also here (abstract).

M. Franz et al. (2014): Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 122 :305-329. See also here (in PDF).

M. Franz et al. (2012): The strong diachronous Muschelkalk/Keuper facies shift in the Central European Basin: implications from the type-section of the Erfurt Formation (Lower Keuper, Triassic) and basin-wide correlations. Abstract, International Journal of Earth Sciences.

Matthias Franz (2008), Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg: Litho- und Leitflächenstratigraphie, Chronostratigraphie, Zyklo- und Sequenzstratigraphie des Keupers im östlichen Zentraleuropäischen Becken (Deutschland, Polen) und Dänischen Becken (Dänemark, Schweden). Thesis, in German. Available in PDF, 39,5 MB.

Friedrich von Alberti Stiftung (In German). See also here and there.

Gartiser & Piewak, Bamberg: Geologie von Franken (in German). See especially: Images of Frankonian quarries.

Lutz Geißler, Freiberg, Germany (provided by Aufschlüsse der Trias im Thüringer Becken A field guide to the Thuringian Triassic (in German).

Geologische Blätter für Nordost-Bayern und angrenzende Gebiete. Index, 1 - 52 (1951 - 2002). compiled by Alfons Baier (in German).

M.C. Geluk (2005): Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands in the Netherlands and surrounding areas. Thesis, Utrecht University.

S. Grunert and J. Szilagyi (2010): Petrophysikalische Eigenschaften einer Auswahl von Baugesteinen aus Deutschland und ihr Bezug zur Petrographie dieser Gesteine. PDF file, in German. Journal of Central European Geology, 56.
Concerning Schilfsandstein go to PDF page 9.

T. Gunzelmann: Steinlandschaften - wo die Bamberger Bausteine herkommen. PDF file, in German. About some Franconian sandstone quarries from the Germanic Triassic Keuper.

Haubold, H. & Klein, H. (2002): Chirotherien und Grallatoriden aus der Unteren bis Oberen Trias Mitteleuropas und die Entstehung der Dinosauria. PDF file (in German), Hallesches Jb. Geowiss., B 24: 1-22.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Haubold, H. & Klein, H. (2000): Die dinosauroiden Fährten Parachirotherium – Atreipus – Grallator aus dem unteren Mittelkeuper (Obere Trias: Ladin, Karn, ?Nor) in Franken. PDF file (in German), Hallesches Jb. Geowiss., B 22: 59-85.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J. Hornung and T. Aigner (2002): Reservoir architecture in a terminal alluvial plain: an outcrop analogue study (Upper Triassic, southern Germany) Part II: cyclicity, controls and models. PDF file, Journal of Petroleum Geology, 25: 151-178. About Triassic fluvial sandstones of the Stubensandstein Formation.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J. Hornung and T. Aigner (1999): Reservoir and aquifer characterization of fluvial architectural elements: Stubensandstein, Upper Triassic, southwest Germany. Abstract, Sedimentary Geology, 129: 215-280. See also here (in PDF).

S.K. Johansen (2016): Sedimentology and facies distribution of the Upper Triassic De Geerdalen Formation in the Storfjorden area and Wilhelmøya, eastern Svalbard. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).

K.-P. Kelber & E. Nitsch (2005): Paläoflora und Ablagerungsräume im unterfränkischen Keuper (Exkursion H am 1. April 2005).- PDF file (20 MB), in German. Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N.F., 87: 217-253; Stuttgart.
Don't miss the sketch diagram of environmental evolution and main facies distribution on PDF page 3.

D.V. Kent et al. (2017): Astrochronostratigraphic polarity time scale (APTS) for the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic from continental sediments and correlation with standard marine stages. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 166: 153–180. See also here.

H. Kerp (1991): Is There Anything More to Say About Keuper and Buntsandstein Floras?. In PDF, Albertiana. A review of: Mader, D. (1990) Palaeoecology of the Flora in Buntsandstein and Keuper in the Triassic of Middle Europe (Fischer, Stuttgart).

Heike Kirsten (2009): Herkunft, Eigenschaften und Konservierungsmöglichkeiten von Lettenkeuper- und Schilfsandsteinen an Baudenkmalen in Thüringen. Thesis, in PDF. Characterisation of Keuper sandstones (in German).
See also here and there.

A.A. Klompmake et al. (2010): Biostratigraphic correlation, paleoenvironment stress, and subrosion pipe collapse: Dutch Rhaetian shales uncover their secrets. Facies, 56: 597–613.

! H.W. Kozur and R.E. Weems (2010): The biostratigraphic importance of conchostracans in the continental Triassic of the northern hemisphere. In PDF. From: Lucas, S.G. (ed.) The Triassic Timescale. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 315–417. See also here (abstract).

! H.W. Kozur and G.H. Bachmann (2010): The Middle Carnian Wet Intermezzo of the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein), Germanic Basin. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 290: 107-119. See also here (in PDF).

! Heinz W. Kozur & G.H. Bachmann (2008): Updated numerical ages of Triassic stages and the correlation of the Germanic Triassic with the Tethyan scale. Abstract, IGC, Oslo.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Heinz W. Kozur & G.H. Bachmann (2008): Updated numerical ages of Triassic stages and the correlation of the Germanic Triassic with the Tethyan scale. PDF file, Berichte Geol. B.-A., 76.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H.W. Kozur and R.E. Weems (2007): Upper Triassic conchostracan biostratigraphy of the continental rift basins of eastern North America: Its importance for correlating Newark Supergroup events with the Germanic basin and the international geologic time scale. PDF file, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41: 137–188.

LoveToKnow Free Online Encyclopedia (the eleventh edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, first published in 1911): Keuper.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Lutz et al. (2005): Lithofazies und Leitflächen: Grundlagen einer dualen lithostratigraphischen Gliederung. Abstract, PDF file, in German; Newsl. Stratigr., 41: 211-223.

T. McKie (2014): Climatic and tectonic controls on Triassic dryland terminal fluvial system architecture, central North Sea. Provided by Google books.

! M. Menning et al. (2011): Beschlüsse der Deutschen Stratigraphischen Kommission 1991-2010 zu Perm und Trias von Mitteleuropa. PDF file, Z. dt. Ges. Geowiss., 162: 1-18. Recommendations of the German Stratigraphic Commission 1991-2010 on the Permian and Triassic of Central Europe.

! Manfred Menning et al. (2006): Zeitskala für Perm und Trias in der Stratigraphischen Tabelle von Deutschland 2002, zyklostratigraphische Kalibrierung der hoheren Dyas und Germanischen Trias und das Alter der Stufen Roadium bis Rhaetium 2005. Abstract (in German and English), Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 41: 173-210.
The numerical ages for the 17 global stages Gzhelian to Rhaetian and the five groups Rotliegend, Zechstein, Buntsandstein, Muschelkalk and Keuper of the Central European standard succession are estimated.

J. Nawrocki et al. (2015): Magnetic polarity of Upper Triassic sediments of the Germanic Basin in Poland. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 663–674. See also here.

A.J. Newell (2017): Rifts, rivers and climate recovery: A new model for the Triassic of England. Abstract, Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association.

Friedrich Nies (1868): Beitraege zur Kenntniss des Keupers im Steigerwald. In PDF, Open Library. See also here (Google books).

E. Nitsch (2015): 1. Der Lettenkeuper – Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").

E. Nitsch and H. Hagdorn (2015): 2. Lettenkohle, Lettenkeuper, Unterkeuper – Vom Gesteinsnamen zum stratigraphischen Begriff. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

E. Nitsch et al. (2005) Feinstratigraphische Korrelation der Grabfeld-Formation (Keuper, Trias) zwischen Hochrhein und Ostsee. In PDF.

! Edgar Nitsch, Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau, Stuttgart (page hosted by the "Oberrheinische Geologische Verein"): Paläogeographie und Stratigraphie des Keupers in Deutschland. Keuper (Upper Triassic) palaeogeography and stratigraphy in Germany. PDF file, in German.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B. Norden and P. Frykman (2013): Geological modelling of the Triassic Stuttgart Formation at the Ketzin CO2storage site, Germany. In PDF, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 19: 756-774.

! D. Palermo et al. (2010): Three-dimensional facies modeling of carbonate sand bodies: Outcrop analog study in an epicontinental basin (Triassic, southwest Germany). In PDF.

! J. Paul et al. (2009): Keuper (Late Triassic) sediments in Germany: indicators of rapid uplift of Caledonian rocks in southern Norway. PDF file, Norwegian Journal of Geology, 89: 193-202.

M. Pirrung et al. (2015): Zur Geochemie der Sedimente des Unteren und Mittleren Keupers der zentralen Thüringer Mulde. In PDF, Beitr. Geol. Thüringen, N.F., 22.

M. Pöppelreiter and T. Aigner (2003): Unconventional pattern of reservoir facies distribution in epeiric successions: Lessons from an outcrop analog (Lower Keuper, Germany). Abstract.

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2014): Triassic timescale status: A brief overview. PDF file, go to PDF page 3, Albertina 41.

Lutz Reinhardt (2000): Dynamic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system: a record of Pangean megamonsoon cyclicity (Triassic, Middle Keuper, Southern Germany). Abstract, in PDF, Dissertation, University of Cologne, Germany.

Lutz Reinhardt, Department of Geology, University of Cologne: The strati-chem record of playa cycles: implications for paleo-climate control (Triassic, Middle Keuper, S-Germany). Abstract.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.A. Ruban (2017): Examining the Ladinian crisis in light of the current knowledge of the Triassic biodiversity changes. Abstract, Gondwana Research, 48: 285-291.

A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London.

M. Schlirf (2005): Revision and description of Keuper (Middle Ladinian to Rhaetian) invertebrate trace fossils from the southern part of the Germanic Basin and studies of related material. In PDF. Dissertation, University of Würzburg. See also here.

Michael Schlirf et al. (2001): Upper Triassic (Keuper) non-marine trace fossils from the Haßberge area (Franconia, south-eastern Germany). Abstract.

Rainer R. Schoch (2002): Stratigraphie und Taphonomie wirbeltierreicher Schichten im Unterkeuper (Mitteltrias) von Vellberg (SW-Deutschland). PDF file (in German). Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Ser. B, 318. Stratigraphy and taphonomy of vertebrate-bearing beds in the Lower Keuper (Middle Triassic) of Vellberg (SW Germany).

B. Schröder, University of Bochum, Germany: Revision of Keuper areas in Northern Bavaria and Thuringia (in German). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Dieter B. Seegis, (1993): The lacustrine-palustrine facies of the upper Knollenmergel (Middle Keuper, Upper Triassic) in Southwest Germany: Sedimentary types and formation. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 189, 309-332, Stuttgart. Abstract from members of the Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, University of Stuttgart (IGPS).

D. Seegis: Geologischer Pfad Gaildorf. PDF file, in German.

D.B. Seegis and M. Goerik: Lakustrine und pedogene Sedimente im Knollenmergel (Mittlerer Keuper, Obertrias) des Mainhardter Waldes (Nordwürttemberg). Abstract, in German. Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen: NF 74: 1992; Oberrheinischer Geologischer Verein.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

U.K. Shukla et al. (2010): Facies architecture of the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein, Upper Triassic), central Germany, and its comparison with modern Ganga system, India. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 297: 110-128.
See also here. Abstract.

U.K. Shukla et al. (2006): Extremely distal fluvial sandstone within the playa system of Arnstadt Formation (Norian, Late Triassic), Central Germany. Abstract.

T. Stinder (1983): Revisionskartierung von Muschelkalk und Keuper im N-Teil von Blatt 5728 Oberlauringen. In German.

The Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, Germany:
Mittlerer und Oberer Keuper.
Mittlerer Keuper vor 233 – 205 Millionen Jahren.
Unterer Keuper.
Unterer Keuper vor 235 – 233 Millionen Jahren.
Easy to understand informations, in German.

! Subkommission für Perm-Trias-Stratigraphie in der Deutschen Stratigraphischen Kommission (DSK, in German): International Triassic Field Workshops. Downloadable excursion guides (PDF files).

Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Book announcement (in German). See also here (in PDF).

J. Szulc et al. (2015): How many Upper Triassic bone-bearing levels are there in Upper Silesia (southern Poland)? A critical overview of stratigraphy and facies. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 85: 587–626.
Don't miss the sketch diagram of environmental evolution and main facies distribution on PDF page 32 and the environmental model on PDF page 33.

M. Szurlies: Detailed correlation of the classic Germanic Triassic with the marine Lower Triassic stages -- A multi-stratigraphic approach. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 08585, 2006; European Geosciences Union 2006.


Trias Verein Thüringen e.V. (in German). Worth checking out: Triassic Links.

! S. Tyrrell et al. (2012): Large-scale, linked drainage systems in the NW European Triassic: insights from the Pb isotopic composition of detrital K-feldspar. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society of London, 169: 279-295.

! C. Virgili (2008): The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 34: 123-158.

O.J.W. Wakefield et al. (2015): Architectural analysis of a Triassic fluvial system: The Sherwood Sandstone of the East Midlands Shelf, UK. Abstract, Sedimentary Geology, 327: 1–13. See also here (in PDF).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Germanic Trias.
Keuper (in German).

T. Vollmer (2005): Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles: New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin) PDF file (10.3 MB), Thesis, Universität zu Köln. See also here.

Z. Zhou and M.T. Antunes (2013): Terrestrial Mesozoic stratigraphy. In PDF, Ciências da Terra (UNL), 18; Lisboa.

Rainer Ziegler, Ipsheim: Hans Thürach. A biography (in German).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

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