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Home / Evolution & Extinction / Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction

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Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Living Fossils
! Early Triassic Floras@
! Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
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Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@

Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction

! A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012): The record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires: Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel? In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 96–97: 60–71.
See also here (abstract).

T.J. Algeo et al. (2015): Global review of the Permian–Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery: Part II. Accessible abstracts of some articles. Earth-Science Reviews, 149. Edited by Zhong-Qiang Chen, Thomas Algeo and Dave Bottjer.

! T.J. Algeo et al. (2011): Terrestrial–marine teleconnections in the collapse and rebuilding of Early Triassic marine ecosystems. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 308: 1–11. See also here.
Note fig. 4: Interpretative reconstructions of terrestrial–marine teleconnections during the PTB crisis.

! J.M. Anderson et al. (1999): Patterns of Gondwana plant colonisation and diversification. Abstract, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28: 145-l67. See also here (in PDF).

L. Azevedo-Schmidt et al. (2024): Ferns as facilitators of community recovery following biotic upheaval. Open access, BioScience.
! Note figure 1: Time-calibrated fern phylogeny [shows additionally major extinction events with and without fern spike].
See also here.
"... The competitive success of ferns has been foundational to hypotheses about terrestrial recolonization following biotic upheaval, from wildfires to the Cretaceous–Paleogene asteroid impact (66 million years ago). Rapid fern recolonization in primary successional environments has been hypothesized to be driven by ferns’ high spore production and wind dispersal
[...] We propose that a competition-based view of ferns is outdated and in need of reexamination ..."

B. Baresel et al. (2017): Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms. Sci. Rep., 7.

C. Beans (2022): Artists join paleobotanists to bring ancient plants to life—and pique viewer interest. Free access, PNAS, 119.
Note reconstruction on PDF-page 2: The depiction of Pleuromeia thriving amongst animals called Lystrosaurus. The scene is meant to illustrate the low biodiversity in the aftermath of the End-Permian extinction.
Note on PDF-page 3: Reconstructions of Thaumatopteris brauniana (by Marlene Hill Donnelly).
Worth to visit: A Fossil Plant Gallery (by J. McElwain et al. (2021), Tropical Arctic).

J.P. Benca (2022): Reconstructing Lycopsids Lost to the Deep Past. PDF file, In: Valérie Bienvenue et al. (eds.): Animals, Plants and Afterimages: The Art and Science of Representing Extinction (!free full text PDF).
See likewise here.
"... Accurate and conservative palaeobotanical reconstructions most often accompany scientific studies that can be difficult for the public to access. However, these works serve as indispensable guides for a growing number of palaeoartists undertaking more holistic ecosystem reconstructions that can, in turn, be presented to the public ..."

! J.P. Benca et al. (2018): UV-B–induced forest sterility: Implications of ozone shield failure in Earth’s largest extinction. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4. See also here.
See also there:
"Increased UV from ozone depletion sterilizes trees", by Robert Sanders, Berkeley News.

! M.J. Benton and F. Wu (2022): Triassic revolution. Free access, Frontiers in Earth Science, 10. See also here.
Note figure 9: Novel physiological and functional characteristics, new tetrapod, insect and plant groups in the Triassic on land.
"... On land, ongoing competition between synapsids and archosauromorphs through the Triassic was marked by a posture shift from sprawling to erect, and a shift in physiology to warm-bloodedness, with insulating skin coverings of hair and feathers. Dinosaurs, for example, originated in the Early or Middle Triassic, but did not diversify until after the CPE [Carnian Pluvial Episode]. ..."

! M.J. Benton (2018): Hyperthermal-driven mass extinctions: killing models during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 376. See also here.
Note Fig. 3: Palaeogeographic map of the Permo-Triassic, showing the single supercontinent Pangaea, modelled climate belts, and the distribution of terrestrial tetrapods.

! M.J. Benton (2016): The Triassic. Open access, Current Biology, 26: R1214–R1218.

M. Benton (2014), Abstract starts on PDF page 13, slow download (934 PDF pages!):
Recovery from the greatest mass extinction of all time: data and models.
Abstract volume, 4th International Palaeontological Congress, 2014, Mendoza.
See also here and there.

Phil Berardelli, Science now: The Fungus That Ate the World.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A. Bercovici et al. (2015): Terrestrial paleoenvironment characterization across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China. In PDF, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 98: 225-246. See also here.

M. Bernardi et al. (2017): Tetrapod distribution and temperature rise during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B 285. See also here.

P. Blomenkemper et al. (2018): A hidden cradle of plant evolution in Permian tropical lowlands. Abstract, Science, 362: 1414-1416. See also here (researchers from the University of Münster report on their findings), and there (Scinexx article, in German).
"... These fossils, which include the earliest records of conifers, push back the ages of several important seed-plant lineages. Some of these lineages appear to span the mass extinction event at the end of the Permian, which suggests that the communities they supported may have been more stable than expected over this transition ...".

R. Bos et al. (2023): Triassic-Jurassic vegetation response to carbon cycle perturbations and climate change. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 228.
Note figure 1: Paleogeographic reconstruction of the end-Triassic.
Figure 4. Major vegetation patterns as inferred by their botanical affinities.
Figure 5. Palynofloral diversity indices plotted against the variation of major botanical groups.
Figure 7. Depositional model of paleoenvironmental changes in the northern German Basin-

D.J. Bottjer (2012): Life in the Early Triassic Ocean. Science, 338: 336-337.

! D.J. Bottjer et al. (2008): Understanding mechanisms for the end-Permian mass extinction and the protracted Early Triassic aftermath and recovery. In PDF, GSA Today, 18.

S.A. Bowring et al. (1999): The tempo of mass extinction and recovery: The end-Permian example. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (PNAS, The National Academy of Sciences), 96: 8827-8828.
See also here.

! A. Brayard et al. (2017): Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna. In PDF, Science Advances, 3. See also here.

The Bristol Palaeobiology Research Group, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK:
! The Permo-Triassic mass extinction and its aftermath.

L.A. Buatois et al. (2016): The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. Abstract, The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology, 40: 179-263.
! See also here (in PDF).

! S.D. Burgess et al. (2014): High-precision timeline for Earth´s most severe extinction. In PDF, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111. See also here.

D.J. Button et al. (2017): ! Mass extinctions drove increased global faunal cosmopolitanism on the supercontinent Pangaea. Open access, Nature Communications, 8: 1–8.
"... 891 terrestrial vertebrate species spanning the late Permian through Early Jurassic. This key interval witnessed the Permian–Triassic and Triassic–Jurassic mass extinctions, the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangaea, and the origins of dinosaurs and many modern vertebrate groups. Our results recover significant increases in global faunal cosmopolitanism following both mass extinctions, driven mainly by new, widespread taxa, leading to homogenous ‘disaster faunas’. Cosmopolitanism subsequently declines in post-recovery communities. ..."

C. Cao et al. (2022): Persistent late Permian to Early Triassic warmth linked to enhanced reverse weathering. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 5: 832–838.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Strontium and lithium isotope compositions in seawater reconstructed in this study and compiled from the literature with chronology of tectonic, climatic and biological events occurring during the Permian and Early Triassic.
! See especially figure 2c: Major events during the Permian and the Early Triassic.

B. Cascales-Miñana et al. (2015): A palaeobotanical perspective on the great end-Permian biotic crisis. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).

P. Cermeño et al. (2022): Post-extinction recovery of the Phanerozoic oceans and biodiversity hotspots. Free access, Nature, 607: 507–511.
"... We attribute the overall increase in global diversity during the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras to the development of diversity hotspots under prolonged conditions of Earth system stability and maximum continental fragmentation. We call this the ‘diversity hotspots hypothesis’, ..."

! Zhong-Qiang Chen and Michael J. Benton (2012): The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Nature Geoscience.

R. Chatterjee et al. (2014): Dwarfism and Lilliput effect: a study on the Glossopteris from the late Permian and early Triassic of India. In PDF, Current Science. See also here and there (abstract).

Zhong-Qiang Chen et al. (2014): State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Global review of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery: Part I. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.

D. Chu et al. (2021): Metal-induced stress in survivor plants following the end-Permian collapse of land ecosystems. Open access, Geology, 49.

! D. Chu et al. (2016): Biostratigraphic correlation and mass extinction during the Permian-Triassic transition in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings of South China. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 146: 67–88.
See also here.

D. Chu et al. (2015): Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life. Scientific reports.

N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003): Climate during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2. Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.

M.O. Clarkson et al. (2016): Dynamic anoxic ferruginous conditions during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery. Nature Communications, 7.

! C.J. Cleal and B. Cascales-Miñana (2021, start on PDF-page 39): Evolutionary floras - revealing large-scale patterns in Palaeozoic vegetation history. Journal of Palaeosciences, 70: 31-42.

F.L. Condamine et al. (2016): Global patterns of insect diversification: towards a reconciliation of fossil and molecular evidence? Scientific Reports, 6.

X. Dai et al. (2023): A Mesozoic fossil lagerstätte from 250.8 million years ago shows a modern-type marine ecosystem. Abstract, Science, 379.
See also:
Massenaussterben: Neues Leben in Rekordzeit.
Fossilfunde widersprechen einer langsamen Erholung nach schlimmstem Aussterben der Erdgeschichte
. In German. E. Bernard, February 13, 2023, scinexx.

! S. Dai et al. (2020): Recognition of peat depositional environments in coal: A review. Free access, International Journal of Coal Geology, 219.
"... No confirmed coal occurs in the Permian-Triassic boundary zone (PTBZ), or indeed, in the Lower Triassic in much of the world (generally refered to as a ‘coal gap’ time period ..."

! J. Dal Corso et al. (2022): Environmental crises at the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Nat. Rev. Earth. Environ.,
"... In this Review, we critically evaluate the geological evidence and discuss the current hypotheses surrounding the kill mechanisms of the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. ..."

J. Dal Corso et al. (2022): Background Earth system state amplified Carnian (Late Triassic) environmental changes. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 578. See also here.

V.I. Davydov et al. (2021): Climate and biotic evolution during the Permian-Triassic transition in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, Kuznetsk Basin, Siberia, Russia. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 573. See also here.

Maarten J. de Wit, Joy G. Ghosh, Stephanie de Villiers, Nicolas Rakotosolofo, James Alexander, Archana Tripathi, and Cindy Looy: Multiple Organic Carbon Isotope Reversals across the Permo-Triassic Boundary of Terrestrial Gondwana Sequences: Clues to Extinction Patterns and Delayed Ecosystem Recovery. PDF file, Journal of Geology, vol. 110, no.2, pp.227-246, 2002.

! W.A. DiMichele (1999): EVOLUTIONARY AND PALEOECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF TERRESTRIAL FLORAL CHANGES IN THE LATE PALEOZOIC TROPICS. Abstract, 1999 GSA Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado; The Geological Society of America (GSA).
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A.A. Dineen et al. (2014): Quantifying functional diversity in pre-and post-extinction paleocommunities: A test of ecological restructuring after the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 136: 339-349.

Dan Dorritie, Berkeley Echo Lake Camp: Killer in our midst. About 250 pages, exclusive of the approximately 150 page bibliography.

X. Duan et al. (2018): Early Triassic Griesbachian microbial mounds in the Upper Yangtze Region, southwest China: Implications for biotic recovery from the latest Permian mass extinction. Open access, PLoS ONE, 13: e0201012.

A.M. Dunhill et al. (2022): Extinction cascades, community collapse, and recovery across a Mesozoic hyperthermal event. In PDF, bioRxiv.
See also here.
"... the extinction event caused a switch from a diverse, stable community with high levels of functional redundancy to a less diverse, more densely connected, and less stable community of generalists. Ecological recovery appears to have lagged behind the recovery of biodiversity, with most metrics only beginning to return to pre-extinction levels ~7 million years after the extinction event...."

A.M. Dunhill et al. (2016): Dinosaur biogeographical structure and Mesozoic continental fragmentation: a network-based approach. In PDF, Journal of Biogeography, 43: 1691-1704.
See also here.
"... dinosaur macro-biogeographical structure was influenced by continental fragmentation, although intercontinental exchange of dinosaur faunas appears to have continued up to the end of the Cretaceous. Macro-biogeographical patterns are obscured by uneven geographical sampling through time ..."

C. Elliott-Kingston et al. (2014): Damage structures in leaf epidermis and cuticle as an indicator of elevated atmospheric sulphur dioxide in early Mesozoic floras. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 208: 25-42.

! Douglas H. Erwin (2001): Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from mass extinctions. PNAS 98: 5399-5403.

! Douglas H. Erwin, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (website hosted by Stanley Zane Guffey, Division of Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville): Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from mass extinctions. PDF file.

! D.H. Erwin (1996): The mother of mass extinctions. In PDF, Scientific American.

Yoichi Ezaki et al., Department of Geosciences, Osaka City University, Sugimoto, Osaka, Japan: Earliest Triassic Microbialite Micro- to Megastructures in the Huaying Area of Sichuan Province, South China: Implications for the Nature of Oceanic Conditions after the End-Permian Extinction. Abstract, PALAIOS, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 388-402.

X. Feng et al. (2022): Resilience of infaunal ecosystems during the Early Triassic greenhouse Earth. Open acces, Sci. Adv., 8: eabo0597.
Note fig. 5: Reconstruction of marine ecosystems before and after the P-Tr mass extinction in China.

Z. Feng et al. (2020): From rainforest to herbland: New insights into land plant responses to the end-Permian mass extinction. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews.
Note fig. 8: Tomiostrobus sinensis Feng, whole plant reconstruction.
Note fig. 9: Reconstructions of the late Permian and Early Triassic vegetation in Southwest China.

C.R. Fielding et al. (2022): Environmental change in the late Permian of Queensland, NE Australia: The warmup to the end-Permian Extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 594.
See also here.
"... the time interval 257–252 Ma represented by the studied succession does not record a simple monotonic change in palaeoenvironmental conditions, but rather a series of intermittent stepwise changes towards warmer, and more environmentally stressed conditions leading up to the EPE [End-Permian Extinction] in eastern Australia. ..."

! C.R. Fielding et al. (2019): Age and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction constrained by multiproxy analysis. Open access, Nature Communications.

W.J. Foster et al. (2022): Machine learning identifies ecological selectivity patterns across the end-Permian mass extinction. Free access, Paleobiology, 2022: 1–15. See also here.
Worth to visit: Forscher finden Survival-Faktoren. In German, Der Spiegel, March 03, 2022.

W.J. Foster (2017): Subsequent biotic crises delayed marine recovery following the late Permian mass extinction event in northern Italy. Open access, PLoS ONE 12(3): e0172321.

C.B. Foster and S.A. Afonin (2005): Abnormal pollen grains: an outcome of deteriorating atmospheric conditions around the Permian-Triassic boundary. In PDF,, Journal of the Geological Society, 162(4): 653-659.
See also here.

N.C. Fraser and H.-D. Sues (2012): The beginning of the "Age of Dinosaurs": a brief overview of terrestrial biotic changes during the Triassic. Abstract, Earth and Environmental Science, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.

E. Friesenbichler et al. (2021): The main stage of recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction: taxonomic rediversification and ecologic reorganization of marine level-bottom communities during the Middle Triassic. Open access, PeerJ, 9: e11654.
"... Data on species richness from 37 Early and Middle Triassic lithological units containing level-bottom communities indicate that most of the analyzed taxa and guilds followed a hyperbolic-damped diversity trajectory, with an extended Early Triassic lag phase followed by an explosive increase in diversity at the beginning of the Middle Triassic that levelled out in the Ladinian. ..."

Thomas Galfetti et al. (2007): Smithian-Spathian boundary event: Evidence for global climatic change in the wake of the end-Permian biotic crisis. PDF file, Geology, 35: 291-294. This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (abstract).

R.A. Gastaldo and M.K. Bamford (2023): The influence of taphonomy and time on the paleobotanical record of the Permian–Trisssic transition of the Karoo basin (and elsewhere). In PDF, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 204.
See also here.

! R. Gastaldo (2019): Ancient plants escaped the end-Permian mass extinction. Free access, Nature, NEWS AND VIEWS.


! The Geological Society of London:
Lyell Meeting 2018: Mass extinctions – understanding the world’s worst crises. Keynote speakers M. Benton and S. Lindström. It's probably better to start the YouTube video lectures from here. See also there. See especially: ! Recovery of life from the greatest mass extinction of all time.

Anna Goodwin, Jon Wyles and Alex Morley, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: The palaeofiles, The end-Permian mass extinction. Go to: What life was present, Vascular plants.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Léa Grauvogel-Stamm and Sidney R. Ash (2005): Recovery of the Triassic land flora from the end-Permian life crisis. Abstract, C. R. Palevol, 4.

E. Gulbranson et al. (2022): Paleoclimate-induced stress on polar forested ecosystems prior to the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Scientific Reports.
See also here.

E.L. Gulbranson et al. (2020): When does large woody debris influence ancient rivers? Dendrochronology applications in the Permian and Triassic, Antarctica. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 541. See also here (in PDF).

S.-M. Gui et al. (2023): Evolution of Insect Diversity in the Permian and Triassic. Free access, Palaeoentomology, 006: 472–481.
"... we present a statistical study on taxonomic diversity of insects—at specific, generic and familial levels—throughout the Permian and Triassic, with subsampled tests on the reported global occurrences. Our result show that more than one insect extinction events, accompanied by significant diversity drop and turnovers of faunal compositional, occurred in the Permian and Triassic ..."

! D.W. Haig et al. (2015): Early Triassic (early Olenekian) life in the interior of East Gondwana: mixed marine–terrestrial biota from the Kockatea Shale, Western Australia. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 417: 511-533. See also here (abstract).

! E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237. See also here.

E. Hermann et al. (2011): Terrestrial ecosystems on North Gondwana following the end-Permian mass extinction. Abstract.

C. Heunisch and H.G. Röhling (2016): Early Triassic phytoplankton episodes in the Lower and Middle Buntsandstein of the Central European Basin. Abstract, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 167. See also here (in PDF).

! P.A. Hochuli et al. (2016): Severest crisis overlooked - Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Scientific Reports.

! Peter A. Hochuli et al. (2010): Rapid demise and recovery of plant ecosystems across the end-Permian extinction event. PDF file, Global and Planetary Change.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Hofmann et al. (2011): New trace fossil evidence for an early recovery signal in the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 310: 216-226.
See also: Early Triassic recovery from the end-Permian extinction of benthic ecosystems in the palaeotropics. In PDF, thesis 2014, University of Zurich. Article "New trace fossil evidence for an early recovery signal in the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction" starting on PDF page 21.

! M. Holz (2015): Mesozoic paleogeography and paleoclimates - a discussion of the diverse greenhouse and hothouse conditions of an alien world. In PDF, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 61: 91-107.
See also here.

B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Shi-xue Hu et al. (2011): The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B 278. See also here.

! F. Hua et al. (2024): The impact of frequent wildfires during the Permian–Triassic transition: Floral change and terrestrial crisis in southwestern China. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
Note figure 1a: Palaeogeographic configuration and the position of the South China Plate.
Figure 7: Schematic model illustrating possible relationships between the wildfires and floral changes during the P–T transition in southwestern China.

V.A. Hudspith et al. (2015): Latest Permian chars may derive from wildfires, not coal combustion. Reply, in PDF, Geology, 43.

V.A. Hudspith et al. (2014): Latest Permian chars may derive from wildfires, not coal combustion. In PDF, Geology, 42: 879-882. See also here (abstract).

Raymond B. Huey and Peter D. Ward: Hypoxia, Global Warming, and Terrestrial Late Permian Extinctions. Science, Vol 308, Issue 5720, 398-401; 2005.

! P. Hull (2015): Life in the aftermath of mass extinctions. In PDF, Current Biology. See also here (abstract).

P.M. Hull et al. (2015): Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems. In PDF, Nature, 528: 345-351.

! R.B. Irmis and J.H. Whiteside (2011): Delayed recovery of non-marine tetrapods after the end-Permian mass extinction tracks global carbon cycle. Abstract, Proc. R. Soc. B. See also here (in PDF).

! Y. Isozaki (2009): Integrated "plume winter" scenario for the double-phased extinction during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition: The G-LB and P-TB events from a Panthalassan perspective. PDF file, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36: 459-480.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.
! Note figure 1: The Phanerozoic biodiversity change punctuated by major mass extinction events.
Figure 9: Schematic diagrams of the integrated "plume winter" scenario.

David Jablonski, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago: Extinction: Past and present. PDF file, Nature 427: 589; 2004.

David Jablonski, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago: The interplay of physical and biotic factors in macroevolution. PDF file, In: A. Lister and L. Rothschild, eds., Evolution on Planet Earth: The impact of the physical environment. New York: Academic Press, 235-252; 2003.

M.M. Joachimski et al. (2022): Five million years of high atmospheric CO2 in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Geology, 6: 650–654.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC): Permian - Triassic.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.F. Kammerer et al. (2023): Rapid turnover of top predators in African terrestrial faunas around the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Current Biolgy, See also:
Fossils of a saber-toothed top predator reveal a scramble for dominance leading up to 'the Great Dying' (In PDF, Field Museum, May 22, 2023), or:
Schneller Herrscher-Wechsel in der Todes-Ära (in German, by Martin Vieweg,, May 22, 2023).

K.-P. Kelber: Beyond the Permian-Triassic extinction events: The highly diverse Lower Keuper flora (Ladinian, Triassic) of southern Germany. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

! K.-P. Kelber (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.

! D.V. Kent and G. Muttoni (2003): Mobility of Pangea: Implications for Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Paleoclimate. PDF file, In: Peter M. LeTourneau and Paul Eric Olsen: The great rift valleys of Pangea in eastern North America (Columbia University Press), New York.
See also here (in PDF).

Hans Kerp: Permian floras: where does it begin, where does it end? Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Hans Kerp, Abdallah Abu Hamad, Klaus Bandel & Birgit Niemann: A new Upper Permian flora from the Middle East with typical Triassic Gondwana elements. Abstract, The 15th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Naturalis, National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands, 12-13th November 2004.

Richard A. Kerr, Science magazine, April 2005: Gasping for Air in the Permian. Abstract. Thin air may have forced animals down from higher latitudes 250 million years ago, crowding them into the lowlands and possibly helping along the largest extinction in the history of the planet, according to a study of Science. See also here.

S. Kershaw (2017): Palaeogeographic variation in the Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites: A discussion of microbial and ocean processes after the end-Permian mass extinction. Journal of Palaeogeography.

D.L. Kidder and T.R. Worsley (2001): Storms in the Late Permian and early Triassic. Abstract, Geological Society of America, 33: 444.
See also here.

D. Klärner (2016), Frankfurter Allgemeine (FAZ): Die schicksalhaften Wälder. In German.
About P.A. Hochuli et al. (2016): Severest crisis overlooked ...

V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2009): Paleofloristic evidence of climate change near and beyond the Permian-Triassic boundary. PDF file, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 284: 326-336.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2005): Seedferns and horsetails from the Anisian plant locality Kühwiesenkopf / Monte Prà della Vacca (Dolomites, N-Italy). Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2005): Triassic plant fossils from N-Italy: a general overview. Abstract, in PDF: Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): Floral Assemblages and Patterns of Insect Herbivory during the Permian to Triassic of Northeastern Italy. PLoS ONE. 11. See also here (in PDF).

S. Lindström and S. McLoughlin (2007): Synchronous palynofloristic extinction and recovery after the end-Permian event in the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica: Implications for palynofloristic turnover across Gondwana. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 145: 89-122. See also here.

Barry Lomax et al. (2001): Rapid (10-yr) recovery of terrestrial productivity in a simulation study of the terminal Cretaceous impact event. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 192 (2001): 137-144.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.V. Looy et al. (2021): Proliferation of Isoëtalean Lycophytes During the Permo-Triassic Biotic Crises: A Proxy for the State of the Terrestrial Biosphere. In PDF, Front. Earth Sci. 9: 615370. See also here (open access).

Cindy V. Looy, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ecological success of Early Triassic isoetaleans. A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergi from the Early Triassic.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. V. Looy1, W. A. Brugman1, D. L. Dilcher2, and H. Visscher1. 1Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University; 2Paleobotany Laboratory, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville: The delayed resurgence of equatorial forests after the Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis. PNAS Online, Vol. 96, Issue 24, 13857-13862, November 23, 1999.

J. Lu et al. (2022): Diachronous end-Permian terrestrial ecosystem collapse with its origin in wildfires. Open sccess, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 594.

C. Mays et al. (2022): End-Permian burnout: The role of Permian–Triassic wildfires in extinction, carbon cycling, and environmental change in eastern Gondwana. In PDF, Palaios, 37: 292–317.
See also here.
! Note figure 14: Artist’s reconstruction of the humid temperate but fire-adapted glossopterid biome during the end-Permian extinction interval (c. 252.1 Ma). Note the vegetative regeneration along the scorched trunks of the canopy-forming Glossopteris.
"... we conclude that elevated wildfire frequency was a short-lived phenomenon; recurrent wildfire events were unlikely to be the direct cause of the subsequent long-term absence of peat-forming wetland vegetation, and the associated ‘coal gap’ of the Early Triassic. ..."

C. Mays et al. (2021): Lethal microbial blooms delayed freshwater ecosystem recovery following the end-Permian extinction. Open access, Nature Communications, 12: 5511.

! C. Mays et al. (2020): Permian–Triassic non-marine algae of Gondwana—Distributions, natural affinities and ecological implications. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 212.

! C. Mays et al. (2019): Refined Permian–Triassic floristic timeline reveals early collapse and delayed recovery of south polar terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, GSA Bulletin. See also here.
Note figure 11: Timeline of Permian–Triassic floral and palynological bioevents, geochemical and sedimentological features, and stages in terrestrial ecosystem evolution, recorded from eastern Australian basins.

C. Mays and S. McLoughlin (2019): Caught between mass extinctions - the rise and fall of Dicroidium. In PDF.

! J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here

! J.C. McElwain and S.W. Punyasena (2007): Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22: 548-557. See also here (abstract).

D.D. Mckenna et al. (2015): The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology, 40: 835–880.

! S. McLoughlin (2021): Gymnosperms: History of Life: Plants: Gymnosperms. In PDF, p. 476-500; In: Elias, S. & Alderton, D. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Geology, Amsterdam, Elsevier. See also here.
! Note fig. 8: One model for the evolution of seed plants showing the stratigraphic ranges and relative abundance of the major groups.

! K.M. Meyer et al. (2011): δ13C evidence that high primary productivity delayed recovery from end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 302.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (abstract).

Per Michaelsen (2002): Mass extinction of peat-forming plants and the effect on fluvial styles across the Permian-Triassic boundary, northern Bowen Basin, Australia. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 179: 173-188.
See likewise here. Models of fluvial styles in fig. 7 (on PDF page 10).

Richard Monastersky, Science News, 1996 (website by Find Article): Global crisis: the fungi stand alone - mass extinction at the end of the Permian period.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

A.J. Newell et al. (2010): Disruption of playa-lacustrine depositional systems at the Permo-Triassic boundary: evidence from Vyazniki and Gorokhovets on the Russian Platform Journal of the Geological Society, London, 167: 695-716.

! K.J. Niklas (2015): Measuring the tempo of plant death and birth. Open access, New Phytologist.

Michael J. Novacek and Elsa E. Cleland (2001): The current biodiversity extinction event: Scenarios for mitigation and recovery. Abstract, PNAS, 98: 5466-5470.

! H. Nowak et al. (2020): Palaeophytogeographical Patterns Across the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Open access, Front. Earth Sci.

H. Nowak et al. (2019): No mass extinction for land plants at the Permian–Triassic transition. In PDF, Nature Communications.
"... In the current state, there is no convincing evidence for a global mass extinction among land plants at the end of the Permian. Considering previous studies, it appears that none of the major mass extinctions in the animal fossil record was mirrored by a mass extinction in plants ... . The fossil record of land plants is marked by almost uninterrupted periods of diversification or relatively stable diversity. ..."
See also here (Südtirolnews, in German) and there (salto bz, in German).

Dennis W. Nyberg, University of Illinois at Chicago:
Biology of Populations and Communities. Lecture notes. Navigate from EXAM 1, 2, or 3 Material (chiefly PDF files). Go to:
Ecological Restoration.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Claire O'Connell, The Irish Times, January 15, 2017: "Our climate is changing at a faster pace than ever before in geological history". Interview with J. Jennifer McElwain, University College Dublin, School of Biology and Environmental Science.

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2020): The triassic period. In PDF, Geologic Time Scale 2020, Volume 2: 903-953. See also here.
! Note the generalized synthesis of selected Triassic stratigraphic scales in Figs. 25.5-25.7!

W.G. Parker (2011): Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs and Our Modern Biota. Book Review, 0pen access, BioScience, 61: 570–571. See also here.
Note the Triassic landscape reconstruction on the cover.

! J.L. Payne and B. Van de Schootbrugge (2007): Life in Triassic oceans: links between planktonic and benthic recovery and radiation. PDF file; In: P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll (eds.), The Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Triassic timescale, inorganic carbon isotope record, global diversity, and significant evolutionary events.
"... The Triassic Period was an interval of transition for benthic and planktonic marine ecosystems in terms of taxonomic composition, ecological structure, nutrient requirements, and biogeochemical cycles. ..."

J.L. Payne et al. (2006): The Pattern and Timing of Biotic Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction on the Great Bank of Guizhou, Guizhou Province, China. In PDF, Palaios, 21: 63-85.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.L. Payne et al. (2004): Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction. In PDF, Science, 305, Issue 5683: 506-509. See also here (abstract).

Y. Pei et al. (2021): Late Anisian microbe-metazoan build-ups in the Germanic Basin: aftermath of the Permian–Triassic crisis. Open access, Lethaia.

! H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004): The complexity of mass extinction. Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.

Hermann W. Pfefferkorn, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA: Commentary: Recuperation from Mass Extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96.

A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 216.

S.B. Pruss and D.J. Bottjer (2004): Late Early Triassic microbial reefs of the western United States: a description and model for their deposition in the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211: 127-137.

Sara Brady PRUSS, Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA, & David J. BOTTJER, Earth Sciences, Univ of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA: LOWER TRIASSIC MICROBIALITES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS FOLLOWING THE END-PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION. Abstract, Geological Society of America, 2004 Denver Annual Meeting (November 7-10, 2004).


! M.R. Rampino and Y. Eshet (2017): The fungal and acritarch events as time markers for the latest Permian mass extinction: An update. In PDF, Geoscience Frontiers. Open Access funded by China University of Geosciences (Beijing).
"The fungal event, evidenced by a thin zone with >95% fungal cells (Reduviasporonites) and woody debris, found in terrestrial and marine sediments, and the acritarch event, marked by the sudden flood of unusual phytoplankton in the marine realm. These two events represent the global temporary explosive spread of stress-tolerant and opportunistic organisms on land and in the sea just after the latest Permian disaster".

! P.M. Rees (2002): Land-plant diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Geology, 30: 827-830. See also here (abstract).

Rees, P.M., McGowan, Alistair J., & Ziegler, Alfred M.: PATTERNS OF GLOBAL PLANT DIVERSITY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE IN THE PERMIAN AND TRIASSIC.- Abstract, Summit 2000, 2000 GSA Annual Meeting, Reno, Nevada; The Geological Society of America (GSA).
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B.L. Rego et al. (2012): Within- and among-genus components of size evolution during mass extinction, recovery, and background intervals: a case study of Late Permian through Late Triassic foraminifera. In PDF, Paleobiology, 38: 627-643.

! Gregory J. Retallack et al. (2011): Multiple Early Triassic greenhouse crises impeded recovery from Late Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).

G.J. Retallack et al. (2005): The Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. PDF file, Antarctic Science, 17: 241-258.
See also here.

! G.J. Retallack and E.S Krull (1999): Landscape ecological shift at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. In PDF, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G.J. Retallack (1999): Postapocalyptic greenhouse paleoclimate revealed by earliest Triassic paleosols in the Sydney Basin, Australia. Abstract, GSA Bulletin, 111: 52-70. See also here (in PDF.)

! G.J. Retallack et al. (1996): Global coal gap between Permian-Triassic extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants. In PDF, Abstract, Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 108: 195–207.
See also here and there.
"... It is a curious fact that no coal seam of Early Triassic has yet been discovered, and those of Middle Triassic age are rare and thin. ..."
"... we favor explanations involving extinction of peat-forming plants at the Permian-Triassic boundary, followed by a hiatus of some 10 m.y. until newly evolved peat-forming plants developed tolerance to the acidic dysaerobic conditions of wetlands. ..."

! G.J. Retallack (1995): Permian-Triassic Life Crisis on Land. Abstract, Science, 267: 77-80. See also here (in PDF).

! A. Rojas et al: (2021): A multiscale view of the Phanerozoic fossil record reveals the three major biotic transitions. Open access, Communications Biology, 4.
"... we demonstrate that Phanerozoic oceans sequentially harbored four global benthic mega-assemblages. Shifts in dominance patterns among these global marine mega-assemblages were abrupt (end-Cambrian 494 Ma; end- Permian 252 Ma) or protracted (mid-Cretaceous 129 Ma), and represent the three major biotic transitions in Earth’s history. ..."

Peter D. Roopnarine et al. (2007): Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 274: 2077-2086. See also here.

S. Ros-Franch et al. (2014): Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record. In PDF.

M. Ruta et al. (2013): Decoupling of morphological disparity and taxic diversity during the adaptive radiation of anomodont therapsids. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 280. See also here.
Note figure 4: Spindle diagrams highlighting the bottleneck effect of the end-Permian extinction on diversity and disparity.

Sarda Sahney and Michael J Benton (2008): Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time. Proc. R. Soc. B, 275: 759-765. See also here (PDF file).

R. Saito (2015): Biotic and Ocean-redox Changes in the Aftermath and Recovery Following the End-Permian Mass Extinction. Table of contents and abstract, in PDF.

R. Saito et al. (2013): A terrestrial vegetation turnover in the middle of the Early Triassic. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 105: 152-159. see also here (in PDF).

U. Schaltegger et al. (2008): Precise U-Pb age constraints for end-Triassic mass extinction, its correlation to volcanism and Hettangian post-extinction recovery. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267: 266-275.
See also here.

E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2014): Vegetation history across the Permian–Triassic boundary in Pakistan (Amb section, Salt Range). Gondwana research, 27: 911-924.
See also here, and there (in PDF).

E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2020): Regime shifts in an Early Triassic subtropical ecosystem. Frontiers in Earth Science, 8: 588696. See also here (in PDF).
"... The Permian–Triassic, the Griesbachian–Dienerian, and the middle–late Smithian boundary stand out with abrupt shifts between lycophyte-dominated vegetation and gymnosperm-dominated vegetation. ..."

! E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2012): Palynology of the Lower Triassic succession of Tulong, South Tibet - Evidence for early recovery of gymnosperms. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 339-341: 12-24.

E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2011): Terrestrial ecosystems during and following the end-Permian mass extinction - or from spore spike to spore spike. In PDF, Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2011.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Schobben et al. (2013): Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Gondwana Research.

! M.A. Sephton et al. (2015): Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis? In PDF, Geology, 43: 159–162.

M.A. Sephton et al. (2015): Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis?. In PDF. See also here.

! M.A. Sephton et al. (2005): Catastrophic soil erosion during the end-Permian biotic crisis. In PDF.

D.E. Shcherbakov et al. (2021): Disaster microconchids from the uppermost Permian and Lower Triassic lacustrine strata of the Cis-Urals and the Tunguska and Kuznetsk basins (Russia). Abstract, Geological Magazine.
"...Microconchids dispersed extensively and rapidly in the aftermath of the Permian–Triassicmass extinction into both marine and continental basins at low and moderately high latitudes, which were notably different in salinity, temperature, depth and redox conditions. ..."

! D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): Insect recovery after the Permian/Triassic crisis. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 125-131.

! X. Shi (2016): Fossil plants and environmental changes during the Permian-Triassic transition in Northwest China. Doctoral dissertation, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, China University of Geosciences Wuhan. See also here (abstract).

! G.R. Shi and J.B. Waterhouse (2010): Late Palaeozoic global changes affecting high-latitude environments and biotas: an introduction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298: 1-16.

W. Shu et al. (2023): Stepwise recovery of vegetation from Permian–Triassic mass extinction in North China and implications for changes of palaeoclimates. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria.
Likewise note the poster PDF.

! W. Shu et al. (2022): Permian-Middle Triassic floral succession in North China and implications for the great transition of continental ecosystems. Abstract, GSA Bulletin 2022; doi:
"we provide a detailed account of floral evolution from the Permian to Middle Triassic of North China based on new paleobotanical data and a refined biostratigraphy. Five floral transition events are identified
[...] The record begins with a Cisuralian gigantopterid-dominated rainforest community, and then a Lopingian walchian Voltziales conifer-ginkgophyte community that evolved into a voltzialean conifer-pteridosperm forest community.
[...] found in red beds that lack coal deposits due to arid conditions. The disappearance of the voltzialean conifer forest community may represents the end-Permian mass extinction of plants
[...] The first post-crisis plants are an Induan herbaceous lycopsid community, succeeded by the Pleuromeia-Neocalamites shrub marsh community. A pteridosperm shrub woodland community dominated for a short time in the late Early Triassic along with the reappearance of insect herbivory. Finally, in the Middle Triassic, gymnosperm forest communities gradually rose to dominance in both uplands and lowlands ..."

C.A. Sidor et al. (2013): Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, PNAS, 110: 8129-8133.

! D. Silvestro et al. (2015): Revisiting the origin and diversification of vascular plants through a comprehensive Bayesian analysis of the fossil record. In PDF, New Phytologist, 207: 425-436.

C.P.A. Smith et al. (2021): Exceptional fossil assemblages confirm the existence of complex Early Triassic ecosystems during the early Spathian. Open access, Scientific Reports, 11.

H. Song et al. (2018): Decoupled taxonomic and ecological recoveries from the Permo-Triassic extinction. Open access, Science Advances, 4.

H. Song et al. (2014): Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian-Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath.

E.A. Sperling et al. (2022): Breathless through Time: Oxygen and Animals across Earth’s History. Free access, The Biological Bulletin, 243.
Note figure 1: The four broad stages of atmospheric oxygen and life through Earth history, with oxygen in log scale as percent of present atmospheric levels (% PAL).
Figure 5: Reconstructed marine animal biodiversity dynamics and atmospheric oxygen through the Phanerozoic.
Figure 7: The chronology of the worst mass extinction in Earth history.

M.B. Steiner et al. (2003): Fungal abundance spike and the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Supergroup (South Africa). In PDF.

! Vince Stricherz, UW Today (University of Washington, Seattle, WA): Low oxygen likely made "Great Dying" worse, greatly delayed recovery.
About some results of Peter Ward and Raymond Huey, University of Washington.
"... nearby populations of the same species were cut off from each other because even low-altitude passes had insufficient oxygen to allow animals to cross from one valley to the next. ..."
"... it appears the greatly reduced oxygen actually created impassable barriers that affected the ability of animals to move and survive ..."

Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic Life on Land: The Great Transition. Google books.

Y. Sun et al. (2012): Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse. In PDF, Science, 338.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (in PDF) and there (abstract). Also worth to check out:
N. Goudemand et al. (2013): Comment on "Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse". Science 339 (6123), 1033.
Y. Sun et al. (2013): Response to Comment on "Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse". See also here (in PDF).

R. Tewari et al, (2015): The Permian-Triassic palynological transition in the Guryul Ravine section, Kashmir, India: implications for Tethyan-Gondwanan correlations. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 149: 53-66.

! B.A. Thomas and C.J. Cleal (2021): Pteridophytes as primary colonisers after catastrophic events through geological time and in recent history. Open access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments.
"... This paper brings together information on the reasons for pteridophyte success in colonising barren land, and examples taken from both the historic and geological records. ..."

Richard J. Twitchett (2007): Lilliput effect in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 252: 132-144.

Richard J. Twitchett, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.): Incompleteness of the Permian-Triassic fossil record: a consequence of productivity decline? Abstract.

Dieter Uhl et al. (2010): Evidence of paleowildfire in the early Middle Triassic (early Anisian) Voltzia Sandstone: The oldest post-Permian macroscopic evidence of wildfire discovered so far. Abstract, PDF file, Palaios, 25: 837-842. See also here.

V. Vajda et al. (2020): End-Permian (252 Mya) deforestation, wildfires and flooding—An ancient biotic crisis with lessons for the present. Free access, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 529.

! Vivi Vajda and Stephen McLoughlin (2007): Extinction and recovery patterns of the vegetation across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary - a tool for unravelling the causes of the end-Permian mass-extinction. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 144: 99-112. See fig. 3!
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2009): Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. In PDF.

Han van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al.: Vegetation successsion through the end-Permian ecologic crisis. (Powerpoint presentatation).

C. Virgili (2008): The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 34: 123-158.

Henk Visscher et al. (2011): Fungal virulence at the time of the end-Permian biosphere crisis? Abstract, Geology, 39.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
Fungi helped destroy forests during mass extinction 250 million years ago. By Robert Sanders, UC Berkely News Center, August 5, 2011.
Forest-killing fungi could multiply in a warming world. By Bob Berwyn, August 8, 2011.

! Henk Visscher, Henk Brinkhuis, David L. Dilcher, William C. Elsik, Yoram Eshet, Cindy V. Looy, Michael R. Rampino, and Alfred Traverse: The terminal Paleozoic fungal event: Evidence of terrestrial ecosystem destabilization and collapse. PNAS, Vol. 93, Issue 5, 2155-2158, March 5, 1996.

! Henk Visscher, Cindy V. Looy, Margaret E. Collinson, Henk Brinkhuis, Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Wolfram M. Kürschner, and Mark A. Sephton: Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis. Abstract, PNAS, August 31, 2004; vol. 101, no. 35: 12952-12956.

Wang Zi-qiang (1996): Recovery of vegetation from the terminal Permian massextinction in North China. Abstract, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 91: 121-142.

T. Wappler et al. (2015): Plant-insect interactions from Middle Triassic (late Ladinian) of Monte Agnello (Dolomites, N-Italy) - initial pattern and response to abiotic environmental perturbations. PeerJ.

P.D. Ward (2006): Impact from the Deep. Scientific American.

P. Ward et al. (2006): Confirmation of Romer´s Gap as a low oxygen interval constraining the timing of initial arthropod and vertebrate terrestrialization. In PDF, PNAS, see also here.

J.H. Whiteside et al. (2015): Extreme ecosystem instability suppressed tropical dinosaur dominance for 30 million years. In PDF, PNAS.

P. Widmann et al. (2020): Dynamics of the Largest Carbon Isotope Excursion During the Early Triassic Biotic Recovery. Open access, Front. Earth Sci., 8.

P.B. Wignall and D.P.G. Bond (2023): The great catastrophe: causes of the Permo-Triassic marine mass extinction. Free access, National Science Review, nwad273,
Note figure 1: Summary of geochemical, environmental and faunal events across the Permo-Triassic boundary.
! Figure 2: Lopingian and Early Triassic palaeogeographic maps showing the occurrences of common marine groups (ammonoids, bivalves, brachiopods, conodonts, corals (rugose and tabulate), foraminifers, ostracods).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Fern spike.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Triassic events
Category:Triassic life
Category:Triassic first appearances
Category:Triassic animals
! Category:Triassic plants

P.B. Wignall (2008): The end-Permian crisis, aftermath and subsequent recovery. In PDF, Origin and Evolution of Natural Diversity: ...

! A.M.E. Winguth (2016): Changes in productivity and oxygenation during the Permian-Triassic transition. Geology, 44: 783–784.

H. Wu et al. (2012): Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cycles of the early Triassic Daye Formation, South China and their geochronological and paleoclimatic implications. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 22: 748-759.
See also here.

! Q. Wu et al. (2024): The terrestrial end-Permian mass extinction in the paleotropics postdates the marine extinction. Free access, Science Advances, 10.
Note figure 1: Location of study area.
Figure 2: Correlations of the EPME [end-Permian mass extinction] between terrestrial and transitional coastal sections in Southwest China.
! Figure 5: Global correlation of the EPME.
Figure 6: Schematic illustration of the terrestrial EPME process.
"...We present high-precision zircon U-Pb geochronology by the chemical abrasion–isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry technique on tuffs from terrestrial to transitional coastal settings
[...] our results suggest that the terrestrial extinction occurred diachronously with latitude, beginning at high latitudes during the late Changhsingian and progressing to the tropics by the early Induan, spanning a duration of nearly 1 million years ..."

! Q. Wu et al. (2021): High-precision U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change, and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology. See also here.
"... The great loss of highly diverse and abundant Cathaysian floras and the widespread invasion of the Angaran floras under arid climate conditions in the North China block happened during the late Cisuralian to Guadalupian, but its exact timing is uncertain due to the long hiatus. ..."

Shucheng Xie et al. (2011): Cyanobacterial blooms tied to volcanism during the 5 m.y. Permo-Triassic biotic crisis: Reply. In PDF, Geology. See especially:
Shucheng Xie et al. (2010): Cyanobacterial blooms tied to volcanism during the 5 m.y. Permo-Triassic biotic crisis.

C. Xiong et al. (2021): Plant resilience and extinctions through the Permian to Middle Triassic on the North China Block: A multilevel diversity analysis of macrofossil records. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 223.
See also here.
"... After this, coal swamps disappeared, most widespread genera became extinct or shrank in distribution area, red beds became common, and surviving plants were walchian conifers, peltasperms and other advanced gymnosperms, indicating an overall drying trend in climate. A further extinction event happened at the transition between the Sunjiagou and Liujiagou formations (and lateral equivalents), with the highest species extinction and origination rates at regional scale. ..."

Z. Xu et al. (2022): Early Triassic super-greenhouse climate driven by vegetation collapse. In PDF, Europe PMC.
See also here.
Note figure 3, the climate graph.
"... Our reconstructions show that terrestrial vegetation collapse during the PTME, especially in tropical regions, resulted in an Earth system with low levels of organic carbon sequestration and chemical weathering, leading to limited drawdown of greenhouse gases. This led to a protracted period of extremely high surface temperatures, during which biotic recovery was delayed for millions of years. ..."

! Z. Xu et al. (2022): End Permian to Middle Triassic plant species richness and abundance patterns in South China: Coevolution of plants and the environment through the Permian–Triassic transition. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews.
See also here.
"... Plant abundance recovery began earlier than the resumption of coal formation which only initiated in the Anisian following its disappearance during the EPPC. Only in the Late Triassic did the flora recover to a level comparable to that seen in the Permian. ..."

F. Yang et al. (2022): Collapse of Late Permian chert factories in the equatorial Tethys and the nature of the Early Triassic chert gap. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 600.
See also here.
"... we suggest that warming-induced expansion of the oceanic dissolved silica inventory (and decrease in burial efficiency) alone cannot maintain a multi-million-year chert gap. Instead, a loss of siliceous biomass during the end-Permian crisis is the primary cause of the Early Triassic chert demise. ..."

H.F. Yin and H.J. Song (2013): Mass extinction and Pangea integration during the Paleozoic– Mesozoic transition. Sci. China Ser., D, 56: 1791–1803. See also here (in PDF).

! H. Yin et al. (2007): The protracted Permo-Triassic crisis and multi-episode extinction around the Permian-Triassic boundary. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Yu et al. (2015), starting on PDF page 48: Vegetation changeover across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Southwest China. Extinction, survival, recovery and palaeoclimate: a critical review. In PDF, abstract, Agora Paleobotanica, A tribute to Bernard Renault, Autun.

! J. Yu et al. (2015): Vegetation changeover across the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Southwest China: Extinction, survival, recovery and palaeoclimate: A critical review. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here (summary by David De Vleeschouwer).

J. Yu et al. (2010): Annalepis, a pioneering lycopsid genus in the recovery of the Triassic land flora in South China. In PDF, Comptes Rendus Palevol., 9: 479-486. See also here.

! P. Zhang et al. (2023): Significant floral changes across the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic transitions induced by widespread wildfires. Open access, Front. Ecol. Evol., 11: 1284482. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1284482.
Note figure 2: Global paleogeography during Permian-Triassic (A) and Triassic-Jurassic (B) transitions, including the location of the Large Igneous Province and wildfires around the world.
Figure 3: Extinction mechanisms. (A, B), Summary of the volcanically triggered extinction mechanisms inferred from the geochemical, sedimentary, and paleontological record of the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic mass extinctions and their recorded effects on biota in the ocean/lake.

F. Zhang et al. (2018): Multiple episodes of extensive marine anoxia linked to global warming and continental weathering following the latest Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Science Advances, 4. See also here .

X. Zhao et al. (2021): Early evolution of beetles regulated by the end-Permian deforestation. Free access, eLife. See also here (in PDF).
"... Our results suggest that xylophagous (feeding on or in wood) beetles probably played a key and underappreciated role in the Permian carbon cycle ..."

! D. Zheng et al. (2018): Middle-Late Triassic insect radiation revealed by diverse fossils and isotopic ages from China. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4.

Z. Zhu et al. (2019): Altered fluvial patterns in North China indicate rapid climate change linked to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Open access, Scientific Reports, 9.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated April 03, 2024

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