Insect Evolution, Links for Palaeobotanists
Links for Palaeobotanists

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Web Sites about Evolution
Focussed on the Fossil Record
The Molecular Clock and/or/versus the Fossil Record
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Living Fossils
! Fossil Animal Plant Interaction@
! Teaching Documents about Evolution@
! Phylogeography@
! Focused on the Evolution of Plants@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@

Insect Evolution

! Ron Aiken, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada:
Insect Evolution and Paleontology. Lecture note, Powerpoint presentation.

! J. Asar et al. (2022): Early diversifications of angiosperms and their insect pollinators: were they unlinked? Free access. Trends in Plant Science, 27: 858-869. See also here.
Note figure 1: Emergence of crown angiosperms and insect pollinators.
Figure 2. Phylogeny of seed plants, depicting pollination modes of both extinct and extant lineages.

! R.G. Beutel et al. (2024): The evolutionary history of Coleoptera (Insecta) in the late Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic. Free access, Systematic Entomology.
Note figure 1: Family-level phylogeny (supertree) and timetree for Coleoptera.
Figure 2: Fossil record and phylogeny of early beetle groups.

! M.J. Benton et al. (2022): The Angiosperm Terrestrial Revolution and the origins of modern biodiversity. Free access, New Phytologist, 233: 2017–2035.
Note fig. 1: Evolution of hyperdiverse terrestrial life.
Fig. 3: Key stages in Earth history and angiosperm evolution through the Angiosperm Terrestrial Revolution.
Also worth checking out:
Flowering plants: an evolution revolution. (Univ. of Bristol, November 17, 2021).
How 'Flower Power' Quite Literally Transformed Earth Millions of Years Ago (by T. Koumoundouros, January 08,2022).

V. Blagoderov et al. (2007): How time flies for flies: diverse Diptera from the Triassic of Virginia and early radiation of the order. In PDF, American Museum Novitates.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B.B. Blaimer et al. (2023): Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Free access, Nature Communications, 14.
See also here.
Note figure 1: Family-level phylogeny of Hymenoptera.
Figure 2: Timeline and evolution of parasitoidismin Hymenoptera.

B.E. Boudinot et al. (2022): Permian parallelisms: Reanalysis of †Tshekardocoleidae sheds light on the earliest evolution of the Coleoptera. Open access, Systematic Entomology.
! Note fig. 8: A hypothesis for the early evolution of the Coleoptera.

! T.J. Bradley et al. (2015): Episodes in insect evolution. In PDF, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 49: 590-606.

! C. Cai et al. (2022): Integrated phylogenomics and fossil data illuminate the evolution of beetles. Open access, R. Soc. Open Sci. 9: 211771.
Note figure 2: Timescale of beetle evolution displayed as a family-level tree.
! "... Our divergence time analyses recovered a late Carboniferous origin of Coleoptera, a late Palaeozoic origin of all modern beetle suborders and a Triassic–Jurassic origin of most extant families, while fundamental divergences within beetle phylogeny did not coincide with the hypothesis of a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution ..."

S.C. Cappellari et al. (2013): Evolution: Pollen or Pollinators — Which Came First? Open access, Current Biology, 23.

! F.L. Condamine et al. (2016): Global patterns of insect diversification: towards a reconciliation of fossil and molecular evidence? Scientific Reports, 6.
See also here.

J. Criscione-Vastano and D.A. Grimaldi (2024): Remarkable Diversity of Beetles (Coleoptera) in the Late Triassic (Norian)“Solite Deposit” of Virginia and North Carolina. Open access, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 467: 1-137.

Bryan N. Danforth and J. Ascher, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Flowers and Insect Evolution. Abstract, PDF file, SCIENCE, VOL 283; 1999. See also

! The EDNA fossil insect database (named after Edna Clifford): EDNA aims to be a complete, fully interactive list of all the species of insect named from the fossil record, including site, geological age and reference for each holotype. Read the Help Searching for better search results.

! K.Y. Eskov: Geographical history of the insects. See also: History of Insects (Kluwer Academic Publishers).

Susan E. Fahrbach: What arthropod brains say about arthropod phylogeny.

B.D. Farrell and A.S. Sequeira (2004): Evolutionary rates in the adaptive radiation of beetles on plants. PDF file, Evolution 58: 1984-2001.
Still provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Fischer et al. (2018, starting on PDF page 27): The mid-Triassic Madygen Lagerstätte (Southwest Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). Abstract, 13th Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany. In: Terra Nostra, 2018/1.
Note fig. 1 on PDF page 28: Simplified model illustrating the mid-Triassic Madygen ecosystem with alluvial fan, alluvial plain, river delta and lacustrine environments.

! Fossil Record 2 (Department of Earth Sciences University of Bristol). This is a near-complete listing of the diversity of life through time, compiled at the level of the family. Go to:
! The fossil Record 2. Recoeding the history and diversity of live, 30 phyla, 122 classes, 701 orders and 5638 families. The data set lists basic data derived from The Fossil Record 2 (Benton, 1993), on the diversity, origination, and extinction of all life, continental life, and marine life from the Vendian to the present-day.

N.C. Fraser et al. (1996): A Triassic lagerstätte from eastern North America. PDF file, Nature, 380: 615–619. See also here.

O.F. Gallego et al. (2011): The most ancient Platyperlidae (Insecta, Perlida= Plecoptera) from early Late Triassic deposits in southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 48: 447-461. See also here (abstract).
Please take notice: Fig. 8, the reconstruction by Carsten Brauckmann and Elke Gröening. A plecopteran nymph over a Dicroidium leaf under the water surface.

R. Garwood and M. Sutton (2010): X-ray micro-tomography of Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: new insights into early insects. In PDF, Biology Letters.

! Michael W. Gaunt and Michael A. Miles (2002): An Insect Molecular Clock Dates the Origin of the Insects and Accords with Palaeontological and Biogeographic Landmarks. PDF file, Mol. Biol. Evol., 19: 748-761.

J.F. Genise et al. (2020): 100 Ma sweat bee nests: Early and rapid co-diversification of crown bees and flowering plants. Open access, PLoS ONE 15: e0227789.

! D. Grimaldi and M.S. Engel (2005): Evolution of the insects. In PDF, 770 pages! Cambridge Evolution Series.
Note the Evolution of the Insects book announcement. See also
! here (Google books).

S.-M. Gui et al. (2023): Evolution of Insect Diversity in the Permian and Triassic. Free access, Palaeoentomology, 006: 472–481.
"... we present a statistical study on taxonomic diversity of insects—at specific, generic and familial levels—throughout the Permian and Triassic, with subsampled tests on the reported global occurrences. Our result show that more than one insect extinction events, accompanied by significant diversity drop and turnovers of faunal compositional, occurred in the Permian and Triassic ..."

N.L. Gunter et al. (2016): If Dung Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) Arose in Association with Dinosaurs, Did They Also Suffer a Mass Co-Extinction at the K-Pg Boundary?. Open access, PLOS ONE, DOI:10.1371.

J.F. Harrison et al. (2010): Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B, 277: 1937-1946.

Hooper Virtual Paleontological Museum (HVPM): The Development of Insect Flight.

Y. Hsiao et al. (2023): Museomics unveil systematics, diversity and evolution of Australian cycad-pollinating weevils. Open access, Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 290: 20231385.
Note figure 1: Obligate pollination between Tranes weevils and Macrozamia cycads.
Figure 3: Fossil-calibrated chronogram for Australian cycad weevils.

International Palaeoentomological Society (IPS). The aims of the Society are to promote and advance the understanding of fossil insects and other non-marine arthropods.

C. Jouault et al. (2022): Multiple drivers and lineage-specific insect extinctions during the Permo–Triassic. Open access, Nature Communications, 13.

! J.A. Karr and M.E. Clapham (2015): Taphonomic biases in the insect fossil record: shifts in articulation over geologic time. In PDF, Paleobiology.

A.Y. Kawahara et al. (2019): Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Free access, PNAS, 116: 22657-22663.

R.S. Kelly and A. Nel (2018): Revision of some damsel-dragonflies (Odonata, Liassophlebiidae and Anglophlebiidae new family) from the Triassic/Jurassic of England and Antarctica. Journal of Paleontology, 92: 1035-1048.


! P. Kenrick et al. (2012): A timeline for terrestrialization: consequences for the carbon cycle in the Palaeozoic. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367: 519-536.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Kundrata et al. (2020): X-ray micro-computed tomography reveals a unique morphology in a new click-beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) from the Eocene Baltic amber. Open access, Scientific Reports, 10.

! C.C. Labandeira (2018, starting on PDF page 65): The global transition from a Mesozoic-aspect to a post-Mesozoic-aspect world: major patterns of ecological and evolutionary change in plant–insect interactions. Abstract, 13th Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany. In: Terra Nostra, 2018/1.

! C.C. Labandeira (2014): Table 1. The twenty-five most significant amber deposits and their evolutionary phases. In PDF. In chronological order, from youngest (top) to oldest (bottom). From:
"Amber". Pp. 163-215 in Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization: Presented as a Paleontological Society Short Course at the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Vancouver, British Columbia, October 18, 2014 (LaFlamme, M., Schiffbauer, J. D. and Darroch, S. A. F.). Paleontological Society.

Conrad C. Labandeira (2010): The Pollination of Mid Mesozoic Seed Plants and the Early History of Long-proboscid Insects. PDF file, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97: 469-513. See also here.

Conrad C. Labandeira (2010): The Pollination of Mid Mesozoic Seed Plants and the Early History of Long-proboscid Insects. In PDF, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97: 469-513.
See also here and there.

C. Labandeira (2007): The origin of herbivory on land: initial patterns of plant tissue consumption by arthropods. Open access, Insect science, 14: 259-275.

Conrad C. Labandeira et al. (2007): Pollination drops, pollen, and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. PDF file, Taxon, 56:663-695.

C. Labandeira (2005): Recent and exciting developments in understanding fossil insects and their terrestrial relatives. In PDF, American Paleontologist.

! C.C. Labandeira (2002): The history of associations between plants and animals. PDF file, in: Herrera, CM., Pellmyr, O. (eds.). Plant-Animal Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach. London, Blackwell, 26-74, 248-261. See also here (Google books).

Conrad C. Labandeira and Gunter J. Eble, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology, Washington, DC: THE FOSSIL RECORD OF INSECT DIVERSITY AND DISPARITY (PDF file).

! C.C. Labandeira (2001): Rise and diversification of insects. PDF file, Palaeobiology II (eds. D.E.G. Briggs & P.R. Crowther), pp. 82-88. Blackwell Science, London.

! Conrad C. Labandeira (1998), Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Enhanced: How Old Is the Flower and the Fly? Including an extensive annotated link directory. Science 1998; 280: 57-59.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Conrad C. Labandeira: EARLY HISTORY OF ARTHROPOD AND VASCULAR PLANT ASSOCIATIONS.- Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 1998 26: 329-377. Full Online Access via Annual Reviews, Go to Annual Reviews Search Page (Biomedical Sciences), Search for "Labandeira" (Field Author, Last Name).

! C.C. Labandeira and J.J. Sepkoski (1993): Insect diversity in the fossil record. PDF file, Science, 26: 310-315.
See also here.

M.B. Lara et al. (2023): Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic Insects: State of the Art on Paleoentomological Studies in Southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 60: 418–449.
See likewise here.

M.B. Lara et al. (2023): Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic insects: state of the art on paleoentomological studies in southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 60: 418–449.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Early Mesozoic geological and climatic map showing the fossil insect localities in South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile).
"... updated review of fossil insect faunas in this paper will help settling the bases for future taxonomic, diversity, and ecological studies during a time that comprised the evolutionary history of insects through two key episodes of the geological record: the end–Permian mass extinction (EPME, ~252 Ma) and the Carnian Pluvial Event ..."

Min Li et al. (2012): Higher Level Phylogeny and the First Divergence Time Estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) Based on Multiple Genes. In PDF.

C.M. Liutkus et al. (2010): Use of fine-scale stratigraphy and chemostratigraphy to evaluate conditions of deposition and preservation of a Triassic Lagerstätte, south-central Virginia. In PDF, J. Paleolimnol. 44: 645-666.

E.J.T. Loewen et al. (2024): New Canadian amber deposit fills gap in fossil record near end-Cretaceous mass extinction. In PDF, Current Biology. See here as well.
"... we report a diverse amber assemblage from the Late Cretaceous (67.04 ± 0.16 Ma) of the Big Muddy Badlands, Canada. The new deposit fills a critical 16-million-year gap in the arthropod fossil record
Amber chemistry and stable isotopes suggest the amber was produced by coniferous (Cupressaceae) trees in a subtropical swamp ..."

E.D. Lukashevich (2023): Where the Immatures of Triassic Diptera Developed. Free access, Diversity, 15, 582.

E.D. Lukashevich et al. (2010): The oldest occurrence of immature Diptera (Insecta), Middle Triassic, France. PDF file, Ann. soc. entomol. Fr. (n.s.), 46: 4-22.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! D.D. Mckenna et al. (2015): The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology, 40: 835–880.

! B. Misof et al. (2014): Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution. In PDF, Science. See also here.

Sebastian Molnar, R. Redfield's Research Lab, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Evolution. Go to: Plant Insect Resistance.

M. Montagna et al. (2019): Recalibration of the insect evolutionary time scale using Monte San Giorgio fossils suggests survival of key lineages through the End-Permian Extinction. Abstract, Proc. R. Soc. B, 286.

Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Go to: ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE TERRESTRIAL INSECTS (by V.V. Zherikhin).

K.S. Nam et al. (2017): An extraordinary palaeontinid from the Triassic of Korea and its significance. Sci. Rep., 7.

P. Nel et al. (2018): Diversification of insects since the Devonian: a new approach based on morphological disparity of mouthparts. Open access, Scientific Reports, 8.

D.B. Nicholson et al. (2015): Changes to the fossil record of insects through fifteen years of discovery. PLoS ONE, 10.

! D.B. Nicholson et al. (2014): Fossil evidence for key innovations in the evolution of insect diversity. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B 281. See also here.

G.L. Osés et al. (2016): Deciphering the preservation of fossil insects: a case study from the Crato Member, Early Cretaceous of Brazil. PeerJ., 4: e2756.

J.N. Peláez et al. (2022): Evolution and genomic basis of the plant-penetrating ovipositor: a key morphological trait in herbivorous Drosophilidae. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B 289: 20221938.

! R. Pérez-de la Fuente, et al. (2012): Early evolution and ecology of camouflage in insects. In PDF, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109: 21414-21419. See also here.
Note fig. 2: Reconstruction of H. diogenesi gen. et sp. nov.

! D. Peris and F.L. Condamine (2024): The angiosperm radiation played a dual role in the diversification of insects and insect pollinators. Open access, Nature Communications, 15.
Note figure 2: Accumulated diversification of insect families through geological time.
Figure 3: Correlation trends of different analysed drivers for origination (in blue) and extinction (in red) rates on insect diversity for two periods of time: the Angiosperm Terrestrial Revolution timeframe (100–50Ma), and for the Angiosperm Dominance period (50–0Ma).
"... Macroevolutionary studies of insect and plant diversities support the hypothesis that angiosperms diversified after a peak in insect diversity in the Early Cretaceous. Here, we used the family-level fossil record of insects as a whole, and insect pollinator families in particular, to estimate diversification rates and the role of angiosperms on insect macroevolutionary history ..."

! D. Peris and F.L. Condamine (2023): The dual role of the angiosperm radiation on insect diversification. Free access, bioRxiv.
See also here.
"... We found that, among the six tested variables, angiosperms had a dual role that has changed through time with an attenuation of insect extinction in the Cretaceous and a driver of insect origination in the Cenozoic. ..."

A.A. Prokin and A.S. Bashkuev (2020): Trialarva coburgensis gen. et sp. nov., a remarkable fossil holometabolan larva (Insecta: Coleoptera) from the Triassic of Germany. Abstract, PalZ. See also ">here (in PDF).

A.A. Prokin and A.S. Bashkuev (2020): Trialarva coburgensis gen. et sp. nov., a remarkable fossil holometabolan larva (Insecta: Coleoptera) from the Triassic of Germany. Abstract, PalZ. See also here (in PDF).

A.A. Prokin et al. (2013): New beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Coptoclavidae, Caraboidea, Polyphaga) from the Upper Triassic of Germany. In PDF.

J. Prokop et al. (2023): Diversity, Form, and Postembryonic Development of Paleozoic Insects. Free access, Annual Review of Entomology, 68: 401-429.
Note figure 1: Timeline for the early fossil record of hexapods. (a) Major Paleozoic localities and their paleogeographical positions.

J. Prokop et al. (2016): Hidden surface microstructures on Carboniferous insect Brodioptera sinensis (Megasecoptera) enlighten functional morphology and sensorial perception. Sci. Rep. 6, 28316.
! "... The broader application to the study of scarce insect fossils was accelerated recently with use of ESEM, which makes it possible to study uncoated specimens using this non-invasive technique ...".

! Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn and Donald L.J. Quicke (eds.) 1980: History of Insects (Kluwer Academic Publishers). Some chapters are free!

! D. Ren et al. (2009). A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies. In PDF, Science, 326: 840-847. See also here.

S.S. Renner (2023): A time tree for the evolution of insect, vertebrate, wind, and water pollination in the angiosperms. Free access, New Phytologist, 240: 464–465.
This article is a Commentary on Stephens et al. (2023), 240: 880–891.

J. Rust (2007): Die Bedeutung von Fossilien für phylogenetische Rekonstruktionen. In PDF, go to PDF page 75. In: Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.R. Schachat and C.C. Labandeira (2021): Are Insects Heading Toward Their First Mass Extinction? Distinguishing Turnover From Crises in Their Fossil Record. In PDF, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 114: 99–118. See also here.

S.R. Schachat et al. (2018): The importance of sampling standardization for comparisons of insect herbivory in deep time: a case study from the late Palaeozoic. In PDF, R. Soc. open sci.

S.R. Schachat et al. (2014): Plant-Insect Interactions from Early Permian (Kungurian) Colwell Creek Pond, North-Central Texas: The Early Spread of Herbivory in Riparian Environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 175.

J.W. Schneider and R. Rößler (2023): The Early History of Giant Cockroaches: Gyroblattids and Necymylacrids (Blattodea) of the Late Carboniferous. Free access, Diversity, 15.
! Note figure 1: Stratigraphy of the oldest known winged insects (red star), oldest known blattoid insects (green star), and important Late Paleozoic entomofaunas.
Figure 2: Late Carboniferous, Moscovian to Gzhelian, Euramerican orogenic belts and basins.

A.S. Sequeira and B.D. Farrell (2001): Evolutionary origins of Gondwanan interactions: How old are Araucaria beetle herbivores? PDF file, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 459-474. See also here.
This expired link is still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): Insect recovery after the Permian/Triassic crisis. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 125-131. See also here.

D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): On Permian and Triassic Insect Faunas in Relation to Biogeography and the Permian–Triassic Crisis. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, 42: 15-31.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.E. Shcherbakov (2000): Permian Faunas of Homoptera (Hemiptera) in Relation to Phytogeography and the Permo-Triassic Crisis. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, Vol. 34, Suppl. 3, 2000, pp. S251–S267.

! D.M. Smith and J.D. Marcot (2015): The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles. Proc. R. Soc., B, 282. See also here (in PDF).

S. Sroka and A.H. Staniczek (2022): Evolution of filter-feeding in aquatic insects dates back to the Middle Triassic: New evidence from stemgroup mayflies (Insecta: Ephemerida) of Grès à Voltzia, Vosges, France. Abstract, Papers in Palaeontology, 8: 1-17. Worth checking out:
245-million-year-old fossils provide new insights into the evolution and feeding strategies of aquatic insects (by Meike Rech, idw, August 25, 2022).

! R.E. Stephens et al. (2023): Insect pollination for most of angiosperm evolutionary history. Open access, New Phytologist, 240: 880–891.
"... Most contemporary angiosperms (flowering plants) are insect pollinated, but pollination by wind, water or vertebrates occurs in many lineages.
[...] We use a robust, dated phylogeny and species-level sampling across all angiosperm families to model the evolution of pollination modes
[...] Angiosperms were ancestrally insect pollinated, and insects have pollinated angiosperms for c. 86% of angiosperm evolutionary history ..."

J. Szwedo and A. Nel (2011): The oldest aphid insect from the Middle Triassic of the Vosges, France. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56: 757-766.

E. Tihelka and C. Cai (2023): Editorial: A fossil view of insect evolution: integrating paleontological evidence to explore the origins of insect biodiversity. Free access, Front. Earth Sci., 11:1270883. doi: 10.3389/feart.2023.1270883.

! Tree of Life. The Tree of Life Web Project (ToL) is a collaborative effort of biologists from around the world. On more than 4000 World Wide Web pages, the project provides information about the diversity of organisms on Earth, their evolutionary history (phylogeny), and characteristics. Go to: Insecta.

! C.J. van der Kooi and J. Ollerton (2020): The origins of flowering plants and pollinators. Free access, Science, 368: 1306-1308.
See also here (in PDF).

! John VanDyk, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University: Iowa State Entomology Index of Internet Resources. The directory and search engine of insect-related resources on the Internet. The intent of this site is to maintain a collaborative database of useful sites and organize them in a usable manner. In this way, this site serves as a "jumping-off point" for all entomology sites.

T.J.B. van Eldijk et al. (2018): A Triassic-Jurassic window into the evolution of Lepidoptera. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4. See also here.

! I.M. Vea and D.A. Grimaldi (2016): Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts. Sci Rep., 6.

The Virtual Fossil Museum (Paleo Ring): An educational resource dedicated to fossils. Insect evolution. See also: Insects.

! B. Wang et al. (2022): Ecological radiations of insects in the Mesozoic. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 37.
See also here.
Note figure 2: The origins of some key insects and plants according to fossil evidence.
Figure 3. Geological range of insect mimesis, debris-carrying camouflage, and eusocial behavior.

M. Wang et al. (2013): Under Cover at Pre-Angiosperm Times: A Cloaked Phasmatodean Insect from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota. In PDF, See also here.

P. Ward et al. (2006): Confirmation of Romer´s Gap as a low oxygen interval constraining the timing of initial arthropod and vertebrate terrestrialization. In PDF, PNAS, see also here.

T. Wappler et al. (2015): Plant-insect interactions from Middle Triassic (late Ladinian) of Monte Agnello (Dolomites, N-Italy) - initial pattern and response to abiotic environmental perturbations. PeerJ.

! B.M. Wiegmann et al. (2009): Holometabolous insects (Holometabola). PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here), and there (Google books).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Evolution of insects.
! Category:Evolution of insects.
Insekten: Fossilbeleg (in German).
Kategorie:Insekten (in German).

Edward O. Wilson (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA), and Bert Hölldobler (Theodor-Boveri-Institut für Biowissenschaften (Biozentrum) der Universität, Würzburg, Germany): The rise of the ants: A phylogenetic and ecological explanation. PDF file, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS), 102(21): 7411-7414; 2005.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Isaak S. Winkler and Charles Mitter (2008): The phylogenetic dimension of insect-plant interactions: a review of recent evidence. PDF file. See also here.

! J.M. Wolfe et al. (2016): Fossil calibrations for the arthropod Tree of Life. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 160: 43-110. See also here
and there (in PDF).

YAHOO Groups: Paleogeoarthropoda. Paleogeoarthropoda is referring to all non-marine arthropods (i.e., from brackish, freshwater, and terrestrial environments), including chelicerata (xiphosura, eurypterida and "arachnids"), euthycarcinoidea, myriapoda, hexapoda (insecta and others), and some crustaceans. To join, click "Join Group" and follow instructions to become a pending member.

X. Zhao et al. (2021): Early evolution of beetles regulated by the end-Permian deforestation. Free access, eLife. See also here (in PDF).
"... Our results suggest that xylophagous (feeding on or in wood) beetles probably played a key and underappreciated role in the Permian carbon cycle ..."

! D. Zheng et al. (2018): Middle-Late Triassic insect radiation revealed by diverse fossils and isotopic ages from China. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4.

D. Zheng et al. (2017): The first Late Triassic Chinese triadophlebiomorphan (Insecta: Odonatoptera): biogeographic implications. Scientific Reports.

! V.V. Zherikhin: Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. See also: History of Insects (Kluwer Academic Publishers).

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