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Home / Teaching Documents, Lecture Notes and Tutorials / Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany


! What is Palaeobotany?@
! Articles in Palaeobotany@
! Articles about General Palaeobotany@
! Articles Focused on the Evolution of Plants@
Palaeobotanical Maps@

! Renowned Palaeobotanists@
! History of Palaeobotany@
! Classical Monographs and Textbooks in Palaeobotany@
! Progress in Palaeobotany and Palynology@

Early Triassic Floras@
! Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction@
Plant Anatomy@
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy@
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
! Stomatal Density@
! Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
! Leaf Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@
Fossil Charcoal@
Coal Petrology@
! Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@

Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany

Stephen T. Abedon, The Bacteriophage Ecology Group, Mansfield, Ohio State University, Columbus: Evolution of Plants. Brief lecture notes, still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Alexa (Alexa Internet, Inc., an Company). Alexa is a Web Information Company, perhaps best known for the Alexa Rank, the website ranking system which tracks over 30 million websites worldwide. See especially: The top ranked sites in category "Science". Go to:
! Paleobotany.

! Nan Crystal Arens, C. Strömberg and A. Thompson, Department of Integrative Biology, and Paleobotany Section, Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Virtual Paleobotany. The Virtual Paleobotanical Laboratory, a comprehensive treatment of the fossil record of land plants, is divided into 12 chapters, lab I through XII. Each lab has a title page, a page with questions around the group or subject of study, a list of literature and links for further reading and exploration, and a virtual gallery of images from the lab. The directory page is a generalized phylogeny that presents an overview hypothesis of relationships among the land plants. Excellent!

M.K. Bamford, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa: Methods for reconstructing past vegetation based on macroplant fossils. In PDF.

M.E. Barkworth, Utah State University: Notes for Plant Taxonomy. Some lecture notes (under construction). Go to:
Wondrous Events in Evolution.
(Powerpoint presentatation).

M.J. Benton and D.A.T. Harper (2009): Introduction to paleobiology and the fossil record. Provided by Google books.
! See also here. On this page you can view or download the figures from the book. Excellent!
! See especially: Fossil plants.

! Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley, Plantae, Fossil Record: Chart of First Appearances of Major Plant Groups. Each of the taxonomic plant groups in pink boxes can be clicked upon to take you to an introduction.

Museum of Paleontology, The University of California, Berkeley: Understanding Science: How Science Really Works. This is a free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works.

H.J.B. Birks and W. Tinner (2016): Past forests of Europe. In PDF, European Atlas of Forest Tree Species.

The Botanical Society of America: Online Image Collection. This is a collection of approximately 800 images available for instructional use. The site is run by a search engine database, designed and maintained by Scott Russell; slides scanned by Tom Jurik and Dave Webb. The copyright and any intellectual property rights for these images are retained by the individual donors. Visit "SET 11 - PALEOBOTANY".

Botany.Com, the Encyclopedia of Plants: Leaf shapes.

Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO: Web-based instruction. Annotated links to information on using the web to teach. Go to: CzPaleobotany. Go to: Cenozoic Elevation of the Rocky Mountains, Paleobotanical Methods. About fossil classification (nearest living relative, physiognomy and CLAMP) and climate and elevation analysis.

! Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Paleobotany Short-Course. Lecture notes, with downloadable Power Point presentations:
Paleobotany Overview; Life moves to land.
Diversification of land plants.
Rise and dominance of seed plants.
Origin and diversification of flowering plants.

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution. Go to:
What is Paleobotany?
Scroll down to: ! "Types of Fossilization".

! Stephen P. Broker, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: The Evolution of Plants. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The evolution of plants is briefly treated primarily in terms of a consideration of the concepts of time and change, and an appreciation of the great diversity of life on earth today (without images). Recommended for Biology, 9th and 10th grade level, and Botany, 11th and 12th grade level.

Benjamin Burger, Utah State University, Vernal, Utah:
Why study fossil plants?
Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany.
How did plants colonize the land, based on the fossil record?
How did the first seed plants (the Gymnosperms) evolve?
How did gymnosperms diversify during the early Mesozoic to become a modern dominate plant group?
How good is the fossil record of Cycads?
What is the significance of the fossil record of Ginkgo?
What is the fossil record of Horsetails?
Fossil Algae.
What is an Angiosperm?
Video lectures.

! Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge (developed by Nicola Peart and Ben Roberts, with feedback from Katy Jordan, Howard Griffiths and Beverley Glover): Plant Evolution Timeline. Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Alison Campbell et al., Biology & Earth Science, The University of Waikato, New Zealand: Evolution for Teaching. This website has been developed to provide a web based resource for use by secondary teachers, especially in the science fields of evolution and geological time. Go to: Plant and Animal Evolution.

Alison Campbell, Penelope Cooke, Kathrin Cass and Kerry Earl, School for Science and Engineering, The University of Waikato, New Zealand: Evolution for teaching. Go to: Frequently Asked Questions. See also: Plant Evolution.

Angelo Capparella and Martha Cook, llinois State University: Biological Diversity. Navigate from here (PowerPoint Presentations). The subject matter of the course will provide an overview of biological diversity emphasizing major innovations in structure and function, including ecology and physiology, as well as the phylogeny (evolutionary history) and systematics (e.g., taxonomy) of living organisms. Go to: Microscopy, or Origin of Plants, Bryophytes (in ppt).

Sean Carrington, Department of Biological & Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados: The Plant Kingdom. An introduction to the world of plants from an evolutionary perspective.
Have a look for handouts and PDF files, or
navigate from here.

Sean Carrington, Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Barbados: THE PLANT KINGDOM. An introduction to the world of plants from an evolutionary perspective. Now complete!

David D. Cass, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Earliest Evidence of Flowering Plants. 32 slides.

(?), University of Virginia, Charlottesville:
! Evolution of Land Plants.
Evolution of Seed Plants.
Powerpoint presentations.

! CLAMP Online (Climate Leaf Analysis Multivarite Program). This site is the result of an ongoing collaboration between the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, and the Open University UK.
How you can use foliar physiognomy (leaf architecture) to determine ancient climates from fossil leaves or explore the relationship that exists between leaf form and climate. CLAMP is a multivariate statistical technique that decodes the climatic signal inherent in the physiognomy of leaves of woody dicotyledonous plants. See especially:
! Teaching Materials.
Older CLAMP websites are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine:
Robert A. Spicer, The Warm Earth Environmental Systems Research Group: Plant Fossils as Climatic Indicators. Go to: Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Programe (CLAMP). An introduction to the use of leaf architecture for determining past climatic conditions.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1999): Plant Fossils: The History of Land Vegetation Fossils Illustrated. In PDF, (Boydell & Brewer Ltd).
See also here (Amazon) and there (Google books).

C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1995): Palaeozoic Palaeobotany of Great Britain, Introduction. PDF file, Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 9.

Peter R. Crane et al. (2004): Fossils and plant phylogeny. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1683-1699. See also here.

Cyberinfrastructure for Phylogenetic Research (CIPRES): Getting to the Roots of Plant Evolution: Genomics and the Reconstruction of the Tree of Life. Powerpoint presentation.

Melanie DeVore, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA:
! Life of the PreCambrian: Archean & Proterozoic.
! Plant Origin and Evolution.
Powerpoint presentations. Provided by D. Freile, New Jersey City University: Historical Geology.

Melanie DeVore, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Georgia College and State University: Plant Origin and Evolution. PowerPoint presentation (87.4 MB!).

! Botany and Paleobotany Dictionary.

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:

Florissant Fossil Beds, National Monument Colorado. Beneath a grassy mountain valley in central Colorado lies one of the richest and most diverse fossil deposits in the world. See especially:
! Curriculum Materials. A variety of lesson plans developed to help students gain an understanding of geology and paleontology at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. Most of the activities in PDF.

J. Folsom, The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, CA: Plant Trivia Timeline. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
here (PDF file). The Timeline gives world history from the viewpoint of a botanist. It is the story of plant discovery and use, and addresses the roles of plants in human civilization.

David Ford, Canopy Dynamics Lab, School of Environmental and Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA:
! Biol220 TAs. Botany lecture notes (Powerpoint presentations). See especially:
The Importance of Plants, their origins and ways of life.
Plant evolution timeline on Powerpoint slide 11, 18 and 22!

! Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville:
Fossil coniferophytes.
Cycads and Ginkgo
Ferns 1
Ferns 2
(Powerpoint presentatations).

! Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville: Phytogeographic Inferences from Paleobotany (Powerpoint presentatation).

Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: A Brief Introduction to PALEOBOTANY, and WHAT IS PALEOBOTANY? Navigate via: Notes for a Course in Paleobotany.

! Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: Plant Associations of the Mesophytic. Lecture Notes.

! David R. Greenwood, Environmental Science Program, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada: Fossil plants as environmental indicators. Lecture note, PDF file (3.6 MB). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Greenworks Organic-Software, Berlin, Germany: XfrogPlants V 2.0 Plant Library. XfrogPlants are 22 different 3D Plant Libraries, each containing 20 Species x 3 ages, and created using Xfrog procedural organic software. Samples of each plant in each library available, go to: Fossil Plants. Plant reconstructions. Excellent!

Yann Hauteville et al. (2005): Use of paleochemotaxonomy for tracing paleoflora and paleoclimatic changes during Jurassic. See also:
Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy. Contribution to palaeofloristic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Powerpoint presentations.

Alan Haywood, Leeds: Plants and Earth History. Powerpoint presentation.

Scott A. Heckathorn, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA:
Biodiversity lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See especially:
Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land.
Plant Diversity II:  The Evolution of Seed Plants.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! University of Heidelberg, Germany:
Aktuelle Themen in der pflanzlichen Biodiversitätsforschung (in PDF). Lecture notes, in German.
J. Griller, PDF page 1-18: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Moose".
A. Olbrich, PDF page 19-55: "Verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen der Farnpflanzen".
(?), PDF page 56-92: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Gymnospermen".
F. Haßfeld, PDF page 93-102: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Angiospermen".

! The International Fossil Plant Names Index (IFPNI).
An online registration of fossil plant names. IFPNI is headquartered at the Fundamental Botanical Library, National Institute of Carpology (Gaertnerian Institution), Moscow.

M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos, The Evolutionary History of Green Plants. This website illustrates the diversity of green plants, according to modern palaeobotanical and paleontological understanding.

M. Alan Kazlev and Toby White, Australia: Palaeos: The trace of Life on Earth. The Palaeos Site is dedicated to providing a detailed and - at least in parts - comprehensive overview of the history of life on Earth. Use the menu bars at the top and (in longer pages) bottom of the page to navigate. Go to: The Evolutionary History of Green Plants. All in a nutshell about green plant evolution-related topics, including textbook illustrations and the coverage of major phyla and kingdoms.

Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.

! Paul Kenrick & Peter R. Crane: The origin and early evolution of plants on land. PDF file, Nature 1997.

! Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster: Some recent palaeobotanical text books. This web page provides a selection of palaeobotanical text books published during the last years. With some helpful comments.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster: A History of Palaeozoic Forests. An introductory text with many helpful links directly related to the history of Palaeozoic forests. 7 chapters provide information about: The earliest land plants; Towards a tree-like growth habit; The earliest forests; The Carboniferous coal swamp forests; The floral change at the end of the Westphalian; Stefanian and Rotliegend floras; Is there a floral break in the Permian?
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Michael Knee, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University: General Plant Biology, Horticulture and Crop Science 300, Online Resources. Go to: ANTHOPHYTA I, Evolution of flowering plants, and Evolution.

! M. Kosnik and Allister Rees et al., University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project Databases (PGAP). The older database version is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

V.A. Krassilov (2003): Terrestrial palaeoecology and global change. PDF file (35.6 MB), Russian Academic Monographs No. 1, 464 p., (Pensoft), Sophia.

LoveToKnow: The LoveToKnow Free Online Encyclopedia is based on the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Go to: Palaeobotany.

! Li Wenyan & Lu Dadao (1998): Atlas of Fossil Plant Anatomy in China. 390 pages. Provided by VSP through the Google Books Partner Program. Registration procedure required. Use "More results from this book" or "Search this book" to navigate. Unfortunately, you can view two pages around your search result, but you can search again! Use Google Book Search to search the full text of books.

Madison Public Schools, Madison, NJ: Plant Evolution and Diversity. Powerpoint presentation.

! Steven Manchester, Florida Museum: Paleobotany. Powerpoint presentation.

Talline Martins and Heidi Hillhouse, Systematics Seminar, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin: Major Evolutionary Transitions, Transitional Fossils (Powerpoint presentatation). Including the evolution of vascular plants, Cooksonia as an example.
See also here.

Sebastian Molnar, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Evolution and the Origins of Life. A directory of introductions concerning evolution, with a bias to Plant Biology and Evolution. Excellent examples about how evolution works can be seen from the plant world. Go to: Angiosperm Origins and Evolution, or The Evolution of Polyploidy, and Summary: Polyploid Evolution, Plant Evolution: Overview.

Mount Allison University, Canada ( Recap of Archean Proterozoic Life (Powerpoint presentation).

Karl Niklas, (Section of Plant Biology, Cornell University), Access Excellance, BioForum 4, "Theoretical Issues in Plant Biology". Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
BioForum is a series of lectures, presented by California Academy of Sciences, in which scientists share their research results with high school biology teachers. Plant Evolution: Adaptation or Historical Accident? Is plant evolution largely adaptive or is it contingent on historical accidents? Dr. Niklas discuss in some detail a computer generated model dealing with the early evolution of land plants that can be used to predict how plant architecture must change to assure evolutionary success as the environment changes.

Kevin C. Nixon, L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University Ithaca, NY: Paleobotany in cladistics and cladistics in paleobotany: enlightenment and uncertainty. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Volume 90, Issues 3-4, February 1996, Pages 361-373.

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University: Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew: Plant Evolution. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Images of models to represent extinct plant forms with modern versions of 'primitive' plants, the entire display conveyed in dramatic fashion the dramatic change in plant form over the ages.

Department of Botany and Nature Protection, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland: Paleobotanika. Lecture notes (PDF file), in Polish.

Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago: Jurassic Floras and Climate.

M.E. Popa (2010): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. PDF file, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, 7: 279-283.

! William K. Purves, David Sadava, Gordon H. Orians, and H. Craig Heller Life, The Science of Biology (Seventh Edition). The Companion Site. Interactive summaries, the glossary, animated tutorials and lots of flahcards (review figures). Go to: Chapter 30: The Evolution of Seed Plants. study tools:
! Search for Paleobotany.

A.E. Radford, W.C. Dickison, J.R. Massey, & C.R. Bell (Harper and Row, New York): Vascular Plant Systematics. This book was written as a reference text for basic courses in taxonomy and as a source book of information, procedures and references for ecosystematics, biosystematics, phylosystematics and chemosystematics. Searching images you may navigate from here. See also:
! Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters: V. Leaves.

Ian Miller and Rose Prevec, Palaeontologia Electronica Volume 9, Issue 2 (2006): Palaeobotany in the Digital Age: Unearthing the Future of Taxonomy.

John M. Miller (, University of California, Berkeley: Origin of Angiosperms. See also here or navigate from essay contents.

Pearson Education, Inc.: Overview of Land Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Chris Romero (updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp, Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants. A set of powerpoint lectures can be downloaded from here.

A. Roth-Nebelsick et al.(2001): Evolution and Function of Leaf Venation Architecture: A Review. PDF file; Annals of Botany 87: 553-566. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Gar Rothwell and Ruth Stockey (instructors), Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR:
! Fossil History of Plants. Lecture notes, excellent

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University, Athens: Paleobotany. This course covers the evolutionary history of plants as revealed by the fossil record. Go to: Cutting a Coal Ball, and Coal Ball Peel Technique.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. See for instance: Class Sphenopsida (PDF file).
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne: Teacher Resources. This page contains downloadable resources for teachers to use in the classroom. Go to: ! Gondwana Greening. Easy to understand tutorial (PDF file, 2.9 MB). Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Scott Russell, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, Norman: Morphology of Vascular Plants. Lecture notes, chiefly PDF files, including palaeobotany topics.

Tyson Sacco, Cornell University: Trends in Green Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.

George E. Schatz, Missouri Botanical Garden: Malagasy/Indo-australo-malesian Phytogeographic Connections. From the printed version: Schatz, G.E. 1996: Malagasy/Indo-Australo-Malesian phytogeographic connections. In: W.R. Lourenço (ed.), Biogeography of Madagascar. Editions ORSTOM, Paris.

Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Erwin Beck, Klaus Müller-Hohenstein (2005): Sample pages, Plant Ecology. Keywords for this textbook are e.g. autecology, ecophysiology, ecosystem ecology, plant ecology, synecology. Worth checking out: Table of contents (PDF file). Go to: 4.1 Historic-Genetic Development of Phytocenoses and Their Dynamics (PDF file).

! Andrew C. Scott (website provided by Fossil plants, The nature of fossil plants, The uses of fossil plants.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A.C. Scott (1990): 3.10 Anatomical Preservation of Fossil Plants. PDF file, scroll to page 263! Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Article in: Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.): Paleobiology: A Synthesis. Navigate from the contents file (PDF).

! Judith E. Skog, International Association for Plant Taxonomy:
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 4. PDF file, Taxon (2003), 52: 341-341.
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 5. PDF file, Taxon (2005), 54: 175-176.
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 6. PDF file, Taxon (2005), 54: 827-827.

A.K. Srivastava and D. Agnihotri (2010): Dilemma of late Palaeozoic mixed floras in Gondwana. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).

! Wilson N. Stewart and Gar W. Rothwell (Second edition, 1993): Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants. Provided by Google books.

! R.A. Stockey, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: PALEOBIOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERM ORIGINS. This course explores recent advancements toward resolution of the evolutionary origin of flowering plants. Go to:
Presentation on Gnetophyta: An Enigmatic Group of Seed Plants (Author: Thorsten Hebben).

Ruth A. Stockey, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton: Paleobotany of Angiosperm Origins. Go to: Course Outline. Chiefly bibliographies and weblinks.

Paul K. Strother, Palaeobotany Laboratory, Weston Observatory, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Boston College, Weston, Massachusetts: Links to Resources in Paleobotany, go to: Lectures, "Cryptospores and the Origin of Land Plants" (Powerpoint presentation). Attention, 132 MB!

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! T.N. Taylor et al. (2009): Paleobotany: the biology and evolution of fossil plants (Google books, limited view).

Ellen Thomas, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University: Macroevolution. Lecture notes. Please, navigate from here. Worth checking out: Assignment: Plants (via wayback).

Greg Thorn, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario: Evolution of Plants (Powerpoint presentations). Navigate from here with information from the Syllabus. See e.g. Lecture 16: Evolution of Plants. The evolution of early angiosperms.

! Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): The Jurassic fossil plant record of the UK area. PDF file, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119: 59-72. See fig. 6 (after Cleal et al. 2001), how to distinguish bennettialean leaf shapes!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

School of Science and Engineering, University of Waikato, New Zealand: Evolution for Teaching. Earth´s History and Evolution. Teaching resources. Go to: Plant Evolution, Prokaryotes, Algae and Plants.

Kali Wallace, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder: Cenozoic Elevation of the Rocky Mountains. Go to: Paleobotanical Methods. Floral classification schemes and methods of climatic and atmospheric analysis are briefly described, e.g. fossil classification by the "nearest living relative" method or by physiognomy and CLAMP.

David T. Webb, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu: Plant Evolutionary Diversity. Lecture notes. See also: at Plant Evolution Review Article. PDF file, Graham et al. 2000.

Biology Department, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington: Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Evolution of plants,
Timeline of plant evolution,
Plant evolutionary developmental biology.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Timeline of plant evolution (under construction).

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Evolution of plants,
Timeline of plant evolution,
Plant evolutionary developmental biology.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Leaf.

Wikispaces, Tangient LLC, San Francisco, CA:
CDS Biology Website:
The Colonization of Land by Plants and Fungi. Powerpoint presentation.

Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press): The Evolution of Plants. Book announcement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
! PowerPoint illustrations. Illustrations from the book in PowerPoint format. See also:
! Biome maps. Downloadable full-color images from the book.

S.L. Wing and W.A. DiMichele (1995): Conflict between Local and Global Changes in Plant Diversity through Geological Time. PDF file, Palaios, 10: 551-564. See also here (abstract).

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