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Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany
Palaeobotanical Maps
Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies
What is Palaeontology or Palaeobiology?
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology
Teaching Documents about Ichnology
Teaching Documents about Ecology
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research
Teaching Documents about Botany
Teaching Documents about Biology
Teaching Documents about Evolution
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction
Teaching Documents about Classification and Nomenclature
Teaching Documents about Cladistics and Phylogeny
Teaching Documents about Palaeogeography
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology
Teaching Documents about Geochronological Methods
Introductions to Statistics
Meta Indexes of Online Education
Virtual Field Trips
! Triassic Climate@
! Focused on Palaeoclimate@
! Stomatal Density@
! Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
! Leaf Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates@
! The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings@
Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology)@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@

Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate

H. John B. Birks (2011): Stay or Go? A Q-Time Perspective. Powerpoint presentation.

John Birks University of Bergen and University College, London:
Pollen-climate transfer functions - problems and pitfalls.
Powerpoint presentation.

Donald L. Blanchard: Changing Paleoclimates and Mass Extinctions. 6 pages about a new model for cyclic changes in climate over geological time spans.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Bert Bolin, Egon T. Degens, Stephan Kempe, and Pieter Ketner 1979 (illustrated HTML at, SCOPE, The Scientific Committee On Problems of the Environment): The Global Carbon Cycle. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
For instance: The Possible Effects of Increased CO2 on Photosynthesis. by J. Goudriaan and Jr. G. L. Ajtay.

Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO: Web-based instruction. Annotated links to information on using the web to teach. Go to: CzPaleobotany. Go to: Cenozoic Elevation of the Rocky Mountains, Paleobotanical Methods. About fossil classification (nearest living relative, physiognomy and CLAMP) and climate and elevation analysis.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to: Cenozoic Elevation of the Rocky Mountains, Paleobotanical Methods. About fossil classification (nearest living relative, physiognomy and CLAMP) and climate and elevation analysis.

! Keith R. Briffa et al. (2007): Paleoclimate. PDF file. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Your Planet Earth (prepared by Jess Trofimovs and Howard Falcon-Lang).
A library of talks on earth sciences and evolutionary topics that may be of interest to earth sciences and education professionals as a basis for engagement and outreach shows in schools. Go to:
Climate Change. Powerpoint Presentation, for 14–15 year-olds.

British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK: Climate through time poster map. Click the climate through time online interactive version or download the Climate through time poster.

Monica Bruckner, Montana State University ( website hosted by Microbial Life, Educational Resources): Paleoclimatology: How Can We Infer Past Climates?

Joe Buchdahl, aric, Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester: aric provides world class research and education in atmospheric and sustainability issues to encourage responsible development. Global Climate Change Student Information Guide. The Global Climate Change Student Information Guide includes chapters on: the climate system; causes of climate change; empirical observation and climatic reconstruction; climate modelling; and palaeo- and contemporary climate change. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See also here. In PDF.

Rick Cheel, Department of Earth Sciences, Brock University: The Earth´s Atmosphere and Climate. Powerpoint presentation.

! CLAMP Online (Climate Leaf Analysis Multivarite Program). This site is the result of an ongoing collaboration between the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, and the Open University UK.
How you can use foliar physiognomy (leaf architecture) to determine ancient climates from fossil leaves or explore the relationship that exists between leaf form and climate. CLAMP is a multivariate statistical technique that decodes the climatic signal inherent in the physiognomy of leaves of woody dicotyledonous plants. See especially:
! Teaching Materials.
Older CLAMP websites are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine:
Robert A. Spicer, The Warm Earth Environmental Systems Research Group: Plant Fossils as Climatic Indicators. Go to: Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Programe (CLAMP). An introduction to the use of leaf architecture for determining past climatic conditions.

Climate Ark (a project of Ecological Internet, Inc). The ClimateArk is a Climate Change Portal and Search Engine.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University: The Climate System. Lecture notes.

! Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, DC: Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Panel on Effects of Past Global Change on Life, National Research Council; 272 pages, 1995. This "Open Book" presentation is a free, browsable, nonproprietary, fully and deeply searchable version of the publication.

! T.M. Cronin (1999): Principles of Paleoclimatology. In PDF.
"Principles of Paleoclimatology describes the history of the Earth´s climate — the ice age cycles, sea level changes, volcanic activity, changes in atmosphere and solar radiation — and the resulting, sometimes catastrophic, biotic responses".
See also here.

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. PDF file, Geobiology, 7: 200-226.

W.A. DiMichele, H.W. Pfefferkorn, and R.A. Gastaldo: RESPONSE OF LATE CARBONIFEROUS AND EARLY PERMIAN PLANT COMMUNITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., January 1, 2001; 29(1): 461-487.

D.H. Erwin (2009): Climate as a driver of evolutionary change. PDF file, Current Biology, 19: R575-R583.

Anjum Farooqui, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, India: Endemic Rainforest and its geological past in the Indian Peninsula. Powerpoint presentation.

Robert A. Gastaldo, Colby College: Plants as keys to past climatic conditions.

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1996): Out of the Icehouse into the Greenhouse: A Late Paleozoic Analog for Modern Global Vegetational Change. In PDF. See also here.

! S.D. Gedzelman, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, City College of New York: Climate and Climate Change. Lecture notes. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to: Climates of the Past and Climate Change (DOC file).

W.A. Green, Palaeontologia Electronica Volume 9, Issue 2 (2006): Loosening the CLAMP: An Exploratory Graphical Approach to the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program.

! David R. Greenwood, Environmental Science Program, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada: Fossil plants as environmental indicators. Lecture note, PDF file (3.6 MB). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

William Gutowski, Dept. of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA: Global Change. Go to: Paleoclimate. Powerpoint presentation.

! James E. Hansen, Columbia University, New York, NY: Presentations & Links. A link list of PowerPoints and PDFs.

! Alan M. Haywood, School of Earth & Environment, University of Leeds:
Modelling Ancient Earth Climate: Methods & Models.
Modelling Ancient Earth Climate.
Powerpoint presentations.

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA: The Cretaceous greenhouse climate. Powerpoint presentation.

Monte Hieb and Harrison Hieb, Plant Fossils of West Virginia: Global Warming.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Thomas R. Holtz: An Introduction to Paleoclimatology. See also here.

Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Moving Plants! Vegetation migration in response to climatic change.

Patricia Houle and Ping Zhu, Department of Earth Sciences, Florida International University: Global Climate Change: Science, Society, and Solution. This lecture notes address the core topics which are central to understanding global climate change in a way that is understandable and accessible. See especially:
Climate Change Basics. Powerpoint presentations.
! Navigate from here.

Huff, P.M., P. Wilf, and E.J. Azumah, 2003: Digital future for paleoclimate estimation from fossil leaves? Preliminary results. PDF file, Palaios, v. 18, p. 266-274.

Illinois State Museum, Springfield: Ice Ages. An easy-to-understand online exhibition describing the ice ages and how and why they occurred.

! The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): IPCC has been established by WMO and UNEP to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change. Go to:
Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. This is a comprehensive scientific assessment of past, present and future climate change.

Report on the International Workshop for a Climatic, Biotic, and Tectonic, Pole-to-Pole Coring Transect of Triassic-Jurassic Pangea. Held June 5-9, 1999 at Acadia University, Nova Scotia, Canada. Navigate from here. Biotic change in a Hot-House world. The biotic change in a Hot-House world theme deals with biological patterns at three scales: global biogeographic patterns characteristic of the Hot-House world; Triassic-Jurassic evolution; and the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Go to: Global Climate and Phytogeography.

Stephen T. Jackson, Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY: Climate change and biodiversity: Getting beyond predictions. In PDF.

! E. Jansen et al. (2007): Palaeoclimate. PDF file, in: Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.): Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Miriam Jones (presentation hosted by Katherine Leonard, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University): Paleoclimate Review. Powerpoint presentation.

M. Alan Kazlev, Kheper website, Australia: The Oxygen Atmosphere.

M.J. Kraus, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder: Using multiple paleosol proxies to interpret paleoclimate change: An earliest Eocene example from Wyoming. In PDF.
See also here (Powerpoint presentation).

Bruce S. Lieberman and Roger Kaesler (2010): Prehistoric Life Evolution and the Fossil Record. Book announcement (Wiley-Blackwell), including table of contents.
The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.
! Available in PDF from here. See especially:
PDF page 38: "Taphonomy."
PDF page 74: "Introduction to Evolution."
PDF page 123: "Extinctions: The Legacy of the Fossil Record."
PDF page 137: "The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences."
! PDF page 227: "Life, Climate, and Geology."
! PDF page 236: "Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind."
! PDF page 242: "Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology."

University of London External System, London, UK (This is is a division of the University of London that grants external degrees: Study in Economics, Management, Finance and Social Sciences (EMFSS), Biogeography. Go to: Chapter 4: Patterns in time. This PDF file briefly reviews the evolution of the flora and fauna of the earth and the role that plate tectonics, climate and sea level played in their evolution.

Michael E. Mann, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia: Insights into Climate Dynamics from Paleoclimate Data. Powerpoint presentation.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware. Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT. No registration required.
! See especially Search results "Climate". Excellent!
e.g. Global Warming Science, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Lecture notes. In PDF.

! V. Masson-Delmotte et al., (2013): Information from Paleoclimate Archives. PDF file, In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.

University of Michigan, Global Change Courses:
Past Climate Change and the Ice Ages. Powepoint presentation. See also:
! Global Change 1 Fall 2015 Schedule. Lecture notes.

The University of Michigan: Global Change, Physical Processes:
Global Change 1 Fall 2011 Schedule . Go to:
! Atmosphere Structure, Circulation, and Weather.

! Volker Mosbrugger, University of Tübingen (page hosted by Paläontologische Gesellschaft, powerpoint converted by R. Leinfelder): Klima und Leben. Keynote lecture, Geo2002, Würzburg (in German).

Richard A. Muller, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley: A Brief Introduction to History of Climate.

! National Center for Science Education (NCSE), Oakland, CA.
NCSE defends the integrity of science education against ideological interference. NCSE provides information dedicated to keeping evolution in the science classroom and creationism out. Go to:
! Climate Change. The National Center for Science Education is the only national organization devoted to defending the teaching of climate change in public schools.

! NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, Colorado. What is Paleoclimatology? Introduction to paleoclimatology. Worth to visit: Paleoclimatology Slide Sets.

NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO: The Climate TimeLine. Designed as an online tool allowing users to examine climate change and variability at different time scales. You can also navigate from the Climate TimeLine Fact Sheet. This website has been developed through a CIRES Innovative Research Grant, through the NOAA Paleoclimatology Program which is part of the National Climatic Data Center. See also: An Overview of Climate Processes.

W.R. Norris, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM:
The Challenges of Life on Land. Lecture notes, powerpoint presentation. See also here (in PDF).

Aileen A. O´Donoghue, St. Lawrence University (SLU), Canton, New York:
SOAR: Stimulating Opportunities After Retirement. Go to:
Past Climates. Powerpoint presentation.

Paul E. Olsen and Jessica H. Whiteside: PRE-QUATERNARY MILANKOVITCH CYCLES AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY. PDF file, Encyclopedia of paleoclimatology and ancient environments, p. 826-835.

The Open University , UK (the world´s first successful distance teaching university): The Open University provides high-quality university education to all. Go to: Global warming. An introduction.

! Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO: Paleoclimate. Powerpoint presentation.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Heiko Pälike, EdShare, University of Southampton: Global Climate Circles. Lecture notes about climate change, climate cycles, palaeoclimate, Oceanography and geology. See for instance:
Global Climate Cycles L7: Proxies (III): Biological. Powerpoint presentation.

Judith Totman Parrish and Paul Koch, (Paleo21): Paleoclimatology in the 21st Century.

Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to: Introduction to the Atmosphere, and Introduction to the Hydrosphere. study tools:
! Search for Paleoclimate.

L. Bruce Railsback, Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens: An Atlas of Speleothem Microfabrics. Stalagmites, stalactites, and other mineral deposits known as speleothems contain chemical and mineralogical clues to past rainfall and temperatures.

RealClimate (a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists).
! See especially: Paleoclimate.
! Don´t miss to search e.g. for "Triassic".
Visit the link directory Paleo-data and Paleo Reconstructions (including code).

! Allister Rees, GEON SDSC Meeting Webcast Archive, San Diego Supercomputer Center: Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. GEON SDSC Meeting, webcast live: Go to: Dinosaurs and More: Integration of the DINO and PGAP Databases (August 22, 2005). Biomes, climates and floral development from the Permian to the Jurassic.

Allister Rees, Fred Ziegler and David Rowley, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT (PGAP). Including a Jurassic and Permian slideshow sampler (QuickTime), paleogeographic maps (downloadable pdf files), and a bibliography of PGAP Publications (with links to abstracts).

Peter M.A. Rees et al.: Jurassic phytogeography and climates: new data and model comparisons. PDF file.

Daniel H. Rothman, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA: Global biodiversity and the ancient carbon cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 98, Issue 8, 4305-4310, April 10, 2001.

Daniel H. Rothman, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA: Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the last 500 million years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 7, 4167-4171, April 2, 2002.

William F. Ruddiman (U. of Virginia): Earth's Climate Past and Future (zip files).

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers School of Arts and Sciences : Cenozoic Tectonic and Climate. Powerpoint Presentation, 9 MB.

Sabine Schmidt, Gravity Research Group, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany: Die Erde (in German).

The Science Education Resource Center (SERC), Carleton College, (supported through National Science Foundation grants): Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations: Using Images, Animations, and Models Effectively, Paleoclimate: Climate Change Through Time. This website provides access to a spectrum of visualizations and supporting material that can be used effectively to teach students about paleoclimate through geologic time. Visualizations include simple animations, GIS-based animated maps, paleogeographic maps, as well as numerous illustrations and photos.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Christopher R. Scotese, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas: Climate History. Geology, Evolution upset: Oxygen-making microbes came last, not first.

Timothy Shanahan, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas, Austin: Climate: Past, Present and Future. Go to: Lecture 17: Tectonic-scale Climate Change. Powerpoint presentation.

! R.A. Spicer (1992): Fossils as Environmental Indicators, Climate from Plants. PDF file.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Sanpisa Sritrairat, Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY: Paleoclimate Review. Powerpoint presentation.

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm:
Natural science in schools, Mission: Climate Earth. Teaching material, in PDF.

Alan Strahler, Boston University, and Arthur Strahler: Introducing Physical Geography, Table of Contents. This Student's Companion was written to help you develop a well-organized and systematic approach to learning the material presented in Physical Geography: Science and Systems of the Human Environment. Go to: Midlatitude and High-Latitude Climates, and Low Latitude Climates.

Eugene S. Takle and Richard C. Seagrave, The Global Learning Resource Network, Iowa State University: GLOBAL CHANGE. About the long-term characteristics of the atmosphere: why the atmosphere is what it is, how it got that way, and what is necessary to make significant changes in its structure and composition. Go to: Evolution of the Earth's Atmosphere.

! United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): Vital Climate Graphics. This set of graphics focuses on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of climate change. Go to: Introduction to climate change.

U.S. National Geophysical Data Center: Climate Timeline Tool. Descriptions with graphics of the general climatic conditions during different periods of time.

Mittsy Voiles and Al Stenstrup: What Information Do Paleobotanists Use to Study Ancient Climates? PDF file, Global Change Education Resource Guide, L.L. Mortensen (ed.), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring. Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (Teacher Education for Sustainability. I. Global Change Education).

! J.K. Warren (2010): Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 98: 217–268. Worth checking out, excellent!

Robert S. Webb, NOAA ESRL Climate Analysis Branch (formerly the Climate Diagnostics Center) Boulder, Colorado: An Introduction to Global Climate Change. Powerpoint presentation.

Michael Wegner, Köln, Palaeoclimate (in German).

Helmut Weissert Geologie, ETH Zürich: Evolution der Biosphäre. Bilder aus der Erdgeschichte. PDF file, in German.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Amy Wesselman, Owen County High School, East Owenton, KY: Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Go to:
Climate and Biomes. Lecture notes, in PDF.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware. Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT. No registration required. Go to:
Kelin Whipple and Ben Crosby: Surface Processes and Landscape Evolution. The course (PDF files) offers an introduction to quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes, and examines the interaction of climate, tectonics, and surface processes in the sculpting of Earth´s surface.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: Climate Change.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Snowball Earth.

Peter Wilf: When are leaves good thermometers? A new case for Leaf Margin Analysis. PDF file, Paleobiology, 23(3), 1997, pp. 373–390.

Yuri D. Zakharov et al. (2009): Permian to earliest Cretaceous climatic oscillations in the eastern Asian continental margin (Sikhote-Alin area), as indicated by fossils and isotope data. PDF file (3 MB), GFF, 131: 25-47. See also here.

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