Links for Palaeobotanists

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Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany
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Teaching Documents about Ecology
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Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research
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Teaching Documents about Cladistics and Phylogeny
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Introductions to Statistics
Meta Indexes of Online Education
Virtual Field Trips
! Plant Anatomy@
! Plant Evolution@
! Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@
Botany and Biology Institutions@
Selected Botanical Gardens and Herbaria@
Plant Photographs@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Botany@

Teaching Documents about Botany Education > Biology > Plant Biology.

Alexa (Alexa Internet, Inc., an Company). Alexa is a Web Information Company, perhaps best known for the Alexa Rank, the website ranking system which tracks over 30 million websites worldwide. See especially: The top ranked sites in category "Science". Go to:
! Botany.

! American Society of Plant Biologists: The Plant Cell Online, Taching Tools in Plant Biology: Why Study Plants?. Available as PowerPoint Slide Presentation (PPT) and in PDF. Also available in German (by Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

American Society of Plant Biologists, The Plant Cell Online: Leaf Development 1 and Leaf Development 2 (Cell proliferation and differentiation). Lecture notes, PDF files.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
For PowerPoint Slide Presentations see here.

John R. Anderson, Georgia Perimeter College Geology: The World of Geology, Prefix/Suffix Meanings. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! Lorna Ash & Heather Kroening, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Botany. Go to: Equisetum life cycle, Fern Life Cycle, Hydrasperman Reproduction, Life Cycle of an Angiosperm. See also here. Online and downloadable flash 4 movies. Excellent!

! Lorna Ash & Brett Poulin, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Introductory Biology. Go to: The Carbon Cycle, The Nitrogen Cycle. Online and downloadable flash movies. Excellent!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Awesome Library: Earth Sciences. Awesome Library organizes the Web with 19,000 carefully reviewed resources. See also: Botany.

E. Barley and K. Fitzpatrick, lecture presentation for Campbell Biology, ninth edition: Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants. Powepoint presentation.

F. A. Bazzaz, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA: Plant biology in the future. PNAS, May 8, 2001, vol. 98, no. 10; p.5441-5445.

! Alice Bergfeld (the English editor), Rolf Bergmann, University of Hamburg, and Peter v. Sengbusch, University of Bielefeld and Institut für Allgemeine Botanik, University of Hamburg: BOTANY Online - The Internet Hypertextbook. Botany online is based on the textbook "Botanik" by Peter von Sengbusch (Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 1989). Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

University of California, Berkeley: Botany lectures. Videos, Youtube. See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley: The Cleared Leaf Collection. An image gallery of modern leaves that have been bleached and stained to make their venation patterns more visible. Leaf shape, venation, and features of the margin, base and apex constitute important taxonomic and physiognomic characters. See also here.

The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Plantae, and Introduction to the Pteridopsida: the ferns. See also: Introduction to the Cycads.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley: Plant Biology - Evolution - Ecology.

James E. Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, Oklahoma: Plant Biology. Lecture notes.
! Die Botanik.
Lecture notes, in German.

Biology-Nation. This website provides resources for anyone with an interest in biology. (see also Whois Record). Many links lead to Wikipedia. Go to: Introduction to Botany.

Biology Online. Biology Online aims to educate and promote awareness of all things biology, offering free and easy access to information in the biological sciences. Go to:
Plant Biology.
Plant Biology.
Biology Articles > Botany.

The Biology Project, University of Arizona: Photosynthesis 1, and Photosynthesis 2.

Biopedia an openfree bioinfomation encyclopedia: Botany.

BookRags, a research location for students of any age: Botany.

The Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, MO: What is Botany? The areas of specialization in botany.

The Botanical Society of America St. Louis, MO: Botany for the Next Millennium. This report should be of great value to individuals in developing persuasive reasons for representation of botany in the research and educational missions of their institutions.

Botany.Com, the Encyclopedia of Plants: Leaf shapes.

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Evolutionary Theory. Lecture notes. Taxonomic classification and theory of evolution.

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Plant Classification. Evolutionary ordering of plant groups.

Neil Buckley, Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY: Bio 102 General Biology II Class Notes. Powerpoint presentations. Go to:
Tree of Life Significant events in Plant Evolution. Key Moments in the life of Kingdom Plantae.

Benjamin Burger, Utah State University, Vernal, Utah:
Why study fossil plants?
Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany.
How did plants colonize the land, based on the fossil record?
How did the first seed plants (the Gymnosperms) evolve?
How did gymnosperms diversify during the early Mesozoic to become a modern dominate plant group?
How good is the fossil record of Cycads?
What is the significance of the fossil record of Ginkgo?
What is the fossil record of Horsetails?
Fossil Algae.
What is an Angiosperm?
Video lectures.

Angela Caines, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, College of Chemical and Life Sciences, University of Maryland: Plant Biology for NonScience Majors. Lecture notes.

Sean Carrington, Department of Biological & Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados: The Plant Kingdom. An introduction to the world of plants from an evolutionary perspective.
Have a look for handouts and PDF files, or
navigate from here.

! (a consortium of Lebanese universities that have collected some of the best content sites of the web): Science > Botanical Sciences > Plants and their Structure. Go to: Plants and their Structure. General plant organization, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, phloem, epidermal cells, etc.

Bane Cheek, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, Florida: An Introduction to Cycad Reproduction.

Regine Claßen-Bockhoff (2001): Plant Morphology: The Historic Concepts of Wilhelm Troll, Walter Zimmermann and Agnes Arber. Free PDF file, Annals of Botany, 88: 1153-1172.

Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Go to: Botany.

Cyberinfrastructure for Phylogenetic Research (CIPRES): Getting to the Roots of Plant Evolution: Genomics and the Reconstruction of the Tree of Life. Powerpoint presentation.

J.A.T. da Silva (2016): In defense of the use of italic for latin binomial plant names. In PDF, Polish Botanical Journal, 61: 1–6.

V.M. Dörken, FB Biologie, Universität Konstanz: Morphologie und Anatomie des Blattes. In German.

Stephen R. Downie and Kenneth R. Robertson, Life Sciences at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champagne: Systematics of Plants. This course introduces the principles and methods of identifying, naming, and classifying flowering plants. It includes a survey of selected flowering plant families and provides information on their interrelationships. Go to: Digital Flowers.

Beth Ellis et al. (2009): Manual of Leaf Architecture. Book announcement.
! See also here.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:

Debbie Folkerts, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama: Kingdom Plantae: Gymnosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

David Ford, Canopy Dynamics Lab, School of Environmental and Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA:
! Biol220 TAs. Botany lecture notes (Powerpoint presentations). See especially:
The Importance of Plants, their origins and ways of life.
Plant evolution timeline on Powerpoint slide 11, 18 and 22!

Govindjee, Department of Plant Biology , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana: Photosynthesis Education. An introduction to photosynthesis, that can be defined as the physico-chemical process by which photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae and some types of bacteria) use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds.

Stephen Grace, University of Arkansas, Little Rock: Introduction to Botany. Introduction to basic principles of botany, including the structure, metabolism, development, reproduction, and evolution of plants. Go to: Lecture Topics.

Bruce W. Grant and Itzick Vatnick, Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE). This is a project of the Education and Human Resources Committee of the Ecological Society of America: Environmental Correlates of Leaf Stomata Density. The technique of making clear nail polish impressions of leaf stomata.

Devens Gust, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe (page hosted by ASU Photosynthesis Center, Arizona State University, Tempe): Why Study Photosynthesis?
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Scott A. Heckathorn, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA:
Biodiversity lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! University of Heidelberg, Germany:
Aktuelle Themen in der pflanzlichen Biodiversitätsforschung (in PDF). Lecture notes, in German.
J. Griller, PDF page 1-18: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Moose".
A. Olbrich, PDF page 19-55: "Verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen der Farnpflanzen".
(?), PDF page 56-92: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Gymnospermen".
F. Haßfeld, PDF page 93-102: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Angiospermen".

C Michael Hogan, Encyclopedia of Earth: What is a Plant?

! Rolf Holderegger and Ariel Bergamini, Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt WSL, Biodiversität & Naturschutzbiologie (ETH Zürich):
Biologie der Moose und Farne, 1. Moose.
Lecture notes (in German).

Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Our Everchanging Climate, Moving Plants! Vegetation migration in response to climatic change.

! J.R. Hoppe, Systematische Botanik und Ökologie, Universität Ulm: Allgemeine Botanik für Anfänger, and
Morphologie, Anatomie und Systematik der Höheren Pflanzen. Lecture notes (PDF files), in German.

J.R. Hoppe, Systematische Botanik und Ökologie, Universität Ulm, Germany: Morphologie, Anatomie und Systematik der höheren Pflanzen. (in German). See also: Allgemeine Botanik, Teil II, e.g. Blatt.

Mike Huddleston, North Lake Biology: Botany. Powerpoint presentation. See also here.

Raymond B. Huey et al.: Plants Versus Animals: Do They Deal with Stress in Different Ways? PDF file, INTEG. AND COMP.BIOL., 42: 415–423 (2002).

Marty Huss: Angiosperm Life Cycle. Powerpoint presentation. (a non-profit making, private website, serving the international academic community):
Open Education Directory.
Open Courseware. Annotated links to publicily-available courseware. See especially to:
Health and Life Sciences,
Earth Sciences.

Plant Biology 260 at the University of Illinois: Plant Biology 260 introduces the principles and methods of identifying, naming, and classifying flowering plants. It includes a survey of selected flowering plant families and provides information on their interrelationships. The links provided in the Lecture Syllabus lead to supplementary information offered by other on-line systematic courses at other universities.

John W. Kimball: Kimball´s Biology Pages. The pages represent an online biology textbook. Go to: Plants, andw Gas Exchange in Plants.

! Michael Knee, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University, Columbus: General Plant Biology Online Resources. Lecture notes.

Elena Kramer, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge MA: Plant Development and Differentiation (provided as PDF files). A comprehensive lecture course on the developmental biology of plants from fertilization through all phases of vegetative and reproductive growth.

E. Levetin and K. McMahon: Plants and Society, Fifth Edition. See also here. Go to:
2. Introduction to Plant Life: Botanical Principles.
! Plant Systematics and Evolution. In PDF.
For other chapters navigate from here.

Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima: Plant Biology at OSU Lima.

Friedrich A. Lohmueller, The Botanical System of the Plants.

James R. Manhart, Texas A&M Bioinformatics Working Group, Texas A&M University: Taxonomy of Flowering Plants. Lecture notes. See also here.

Faculty of Science, Mansoura University: Powerpoint Botany Lectures .

! The Experimental Study Group, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT, (with assistance of Brian White and Genentech Access Excellence): The MIT Biology Hypertextbook. This hypertextbook is designed to supplement the course materials of 7.01 (MIT Introductory Biology) and give you additional tools to learn introductory molecular biology. The Biology Hypertextbook is organized by chapter. Each chapter has a directory page, which is the table of contents.

Talline Martins and Heidi Hillhouse, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin: Major Evolutionary Transitions, go to: Transitional Fossils. Powerpoint presentation. See also here.

Stephen Marvel, Department of Biological Sciences, Lock Haven University, Lock Haven, PA: Botany. Lecture notes.

Martin C. Mathes, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA: General Botany. This course is designed to give the students a broad background in the traditional subject matter of botany. This includes topics on organisms in the plant kingdom as well as organisms not in the plant kingdom but which affect the growth ecology or evolution of plants (e.g., selected bacteria, fungi, and selected protists).

Richard M. McCourt, Department of Botany Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia; R. L. Chapman, Mark Buchheim and Brent D. Mishler, Tree of Life Project: Green plants. Green plants as defined here includes a broad assemblage of photosynthetic organisms that all contain chlorophylls a and b, store their photosynthetic products as starch inside the double-membrane-bounded chloroplasts in which it is produced, and have cell walls made of cellulose. They include all organisms commonly known as green algae and land plants, including liverworts, mosses, ferns and other nonseed plants, and seed plants.

Gilbert J. Muth, Biology Department, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA: Biological Foundations Home Page. Biological Foundations is the botany section of the a three quarter sequence in general biology for biology majors and pre-professional students. It contains 38 lectures with a supporting glossary, photographs, photomicrographs, diagrams, animations, video clips, self test and set of references. Navigate from here, or there.

National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII). NBII is a broad, collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation´s biological resources. Search: Botany.

! NASA, Earth Observatory. The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet. The focus is on Earth's climate and environmental change. Use the full-text search engine, or go to: Data and Images. To view a particular dataset, select one of the data types in this column, e.g. Vegetation, or Landcover Classification.

! B.D. Ness (ed., 2002): Magill's Encyclopedia of Science: Plant Life, Volume 2. In PDF. See also here.

New Phytologist, Forum: Remote control – cell and organ communication within plants. PDF file.

! Daniel L. Nickrent, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois: Elements of Plant Systematics. Lecture notes. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Go to: A Look at the History of Plant Classification.

Stephanie Nunez, Libie Motchan and Karim Moftah: Forensic Botany. Powerpoint presentation.

Peter Ommundsen, Selkirk College, Canada: Pronunciation of Biological Latin. Including taxonomic names of plants and animals. See also here (PDF file).

Open Door Web Site: Biology. A reference source for both students and teachers. The site is constructed by teachers with the aim of making the web site available on-line for their students. Go to: Topic Chapters.

Larry Orr (ASU) and Govindjee (UIUC): Photosynthesis and the Web: 2008. This review presents relevant information on photosynthesis-related web sites. Go to the mirrored website. See also:
What is Photosynthesis? Articles that discuss photosynthesis at varying degrees of complexity.

Pearson Education, Inc.: Overview of Land Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Plant Ontology Consortium (POC). The main objective of the POC is to develop, curate and share controlled vocabularies (ontologies) that describe plant structures and growth and developmental stages, providing a semantic framework for meaningful cross-species queries across databases. Go to: Search, or visit the
Plant Ontology Tutorials (Quicktime movies or Powerpoint slides).

! William K. Purves, David Sadava, Gordon H. Orians, and H. Craig Heller Life, The Science of Biology (Seventh Edition). The Companion Site. Interactive summaries, the glossary, animated tutorials and lots of flahcards (review figures). Go to: Chapter 30: The Evolution of Seed Plants. study tools:
! Search for Botany.

A.E. Radford, W.C. Dickison, J.R. Massey, C.R. Bell, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Vascular Plant Systematics. This book was actually written as a reference text for basic courses in taxonomy and as a source book of information, procedures and references for ecosystematics, biosystematics, phylosystematics and chemosystematics. Now available: The morphological glossary. In this glossary the authors have arranged the terms into structural parts and general characters and character states.

Nandini Rajamani, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama: Lecture notes.

Peter H. Raven, Ray F. Evert, and Susan E. Eichhorn (W. H. Freeman & Company): Biology of Plants. A kingdom presentation of botany (book companion) organized around 3 themes: plant growth and development carried out by chemical interactions, evolutionary relationships guiding understanding of form and function in organisms, and ecology as a way of emphasizing our dependence on plants. Approx. 400 illustrations from the text, flash cards, web links, videos and animations. Portions of this site requires Shockwave and QuickTime. Go to: Chapter 12 - The Process of Evolution. Excellent!

Peter H. Raven et al. (2005), Biology of Plants, Seventh Edition, Freeman & Company: Web Links: Related Web Sites. An annotated link directory. Navigate via Table of Contents.

Mary Ann Reihman, Biological Sciences, Natural Sciences and Mathematics, California State University, Sacramento: Biology lecture notes. Go to: Comparison of Cycadophyte Misc. Gymnosperms (Bennettitales).

James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland: Advanced Plant Taxonomy. Systems of classification for magnoliophyta, history of systematic botany, approaches to biological classification, taxonomic hierarchy, types of data.

Chris Romero (updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp, Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants. A set of powerpoint lectures can be downloaded from here.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. Go to: Class Sphenopsida (PDF file).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey:
Information Sheets.
See especially: Plant structure – leaves, stems and roots (PDF file).
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Scott Russell, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, Norman: Morphology of Vascular Plants. Lecture notes, chiefly PDF files, including palaeobotany topics.

Ed Schilling, Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee: Socio-economic Impact of Plants. Powerpoint presentation.

Science Encyclopedia (Net Industries). History of botany.

SlideServe: Introduction to Seed Plants: Gymnosperms (Powerpoint presentatation).

George Sly, Union High School, Dugger, Indiana (Classrooms of the 21th Century): Teaching Tropical Rainforest Biology.

David Straney, University of Maryland: Plant Biology for Non-science Majors. Lecture notes.

Lincoln Taiz and Eduardo Zeiger (this website is a companion to their textbook Plant Physiology, Third Edition, published by Sinauer Associates): Plant Physiology Online. There are four main categories of content on the site: Web Topics, that adds to the coverage in the textbook; Web Essays, original articles on various topics related to each chapter; Study Questions, chiefly short answer-style questions, and finally suggested readings for further study.

Greg Thorn, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario: Evolution of Plants (Powerpoint presentations). Navigate from here with information from the Syllabus. See e.g. Lecture 16: Evolution of Plants. The evolution of early angiosperms.

Tinu Thakore´s Site, Herricks High School, New Hyde Park, NY: Living Environment Course Resources. Powerpoint and PDF files, e.g.
What is Science.

Center for Biological Informatics of the U.S. Geological Survey: Botany. An all-encompassing guide to the world of botany, linking to resources and articles on such topics as paleobotany, species identification, pathology, and applied sciences like agronomy and forestry.

Roy Volkwyn and Jocelyn Collins, Internet BioEd Project, Western Cape Schools Network and Botany Department, University of the Western Cape, South Africa: Angiosperm Anatomy, Resources, and Plant Tissues, Resources.

Peter von Sengbusch, Botanik online: Evolutionsforschung - Wie schützen sich Pflanzen vor überschüssiger genetischer Information? In German. From: Albrecht, S. und Beusmann, V (eds): Ökologie transgener Nutzpflanzen. (Campus), Frankfurt, 1995.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Leaf.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: History of paleontology, and Paleobotany and the origin of the word paleontology. See also: History of Botany.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Blattpolymorphismus (in German).

Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: Study Guide to the Science of Botany. A free online textbook.

Wikispaces, Tangient LLC, San Francisco, CA:
CDS Biology Website:
The Colonization of Land by Plants and Fungi. Powerpoint presentation.

Hugh D. Wilson, Department of Biology Herbarium (TAMU), Texas A&M University (with support from the Texas A&M Center for the Study of Digital Libraries): BOTANY 201 - TAXONOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS Lecture Notes - Fall 1998

Carl R. Woese, Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: On the evolution of cells. PDF file, PNAS vol. 99 no. 13. See also here, and there.

Steven J. Wolf, Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Stanislaus: Flowering Plants Lecture notes about plant taxonomy and systematics, history of plant taxonomy, identification keys used to identify plants, plant nomenclature, etc.

Steven J. Wolf, Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Stanislaus: Introduction to Botany. Lecture notes.

WonderQuest with April Holladay (USA today): For answers about the world around us. Go to: Question Index, Plants. USA today weekly science columns. Photomicrographs, Plant Tissues. Powerpoint presentation.

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Last updated March 13, 2017

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