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Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany
Palaeobotanical Maps
Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies
What is Palaeontology or Palaeobiology?
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology
Teaching Documents about Ichnology
Teaching Documents about Ecology
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research
Teaching Documents about Biology
Teaching Documents about Evolution
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction
Teaching Documents about Classification and Nomenclature
Teaching Documents about Cladistics and Phylogeny
Teaching Documents about Palaeogeography
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology
Teaching Documents about Geochronological Methods
Introductions to Statistics
Meta Indexes of Online Education
Virtual Field Trips
! Plant Anatomy@
! Plant Evolution@
! Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@
Botany and Biology Institutions@
Selected Botanical Gardens and Herbaria@
Plant Photographs@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Botany@
! Trees@

Teaching Documents about Botany Education > Biology > Plant Biology.

Alexa (Alexa Internet, Inc., an Company). Alexa is a Web Information Company, perhaps best known for the Alexa Rank, the website ranking system which tracks over 30 million websites worldwide. See especially: The top ranked sites in category "Science". Go to:
! Botany.

! American Society of Plant Biologists: The Plant Cell Online, Taching Tools in Plant Biology: Why Study Plants?. Available as PowerPoint Slide Presentation (PPT) and in PDF. Also available in German (by Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

American Society of Plant Biologists, The Plant Cell Online: Leaf Development 1 and Leaf Development 2 (Cell proliferation and differentiation). Lecture notes, PDF files.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
For PowerPoint Slide Presentations see here.

John R. Anderson, Georgia Perimeter College Geology: The World of Geology, Prefix/Suffix Meanings. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! A. Antonelli et al. (2023): Vascular plant description over time and space. Free access, New Phytologist, 240: 1327-1702.
Note figure 2: Vascular plant description over time and space.
Figure 3: Global distribution and diversity of vascular plants.

! E.M. Armstrong et al. (2023): One hundred important questions facing plant science: an international perspective. Open access, New Phytologist, 238: 470–481.
"... we present the outcome of a global collaboration to identify emerging plant research themes.
[...] Over 600 questions were collected from anyone interested in plants, which were reduced to a final list of 100 ..."

Hank Art et al., Williams College, Biology Dept., Williamstown MA: Field botany. Go to: Evolutionary Botany. Powerpoint download and links to aricles. See especially:
Early Land Plants.
Fossil Angiosperms.
Introduction to the Angiosperms.
Powerpoint presentations.

! Lorna Ash & Heather Kroening, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Botany. Go to: Equisetum life cycle, Fern Life Cycle, Hydrasperman Reproduction, Life Cycle of an Angiosperm. See also here. Online and downloadable flash 4 movies. Excellent!

! Lorna Ash & Brett Poulin, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Introductory Biology. Go to: The Carbon Cycle, The Nitrogen Cycle. Online and downloadable flash movies. Excellent!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Awesome Library: Earth Sciences. Awesome Library organizes the Web with 19,000 carefully reviewed resources. See also: Botany.

E. Barley and K. Fitzpatrick, lecture presentation for Campbell Biology, ninth edition:
Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land.
Powerpoint presentation, Chapter 29, Jane B. Reece et al., for Cambell Biology, Ninth Edition (by Victor Wong, Houston Community College, USA).
Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants. Powerpoint presentation.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Dave Barrington, The Barrington Lab at the University of Vermont:

An Overview of Land Plant Evolution. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.
See also here and there.

F. A. Bazzaz, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA: Plant biology in the future. PNAS, May 8, 2001, vol. 98, no. 10; p.5441-5445.

! Alice Bergfeld (the English editor), Rolf Bergmann, University of Hamburg, and Peter v. Sengbusch, University of Bielefeld and Institut für Allgemeine Botanik, University of Hamburg: BOTANY Online - The Internet Hypertextbook. Botany online is based on the textbook "Botanik" by Peter von Sengbusch (Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 1989). Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

University of California, Berkeley: Botany lectures. Videos, Youtube. See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley:
The Cleared Leaf Collection. Excellent!
An image gallery of modern leaves that have been bleached and stained to make their venation patterns more visible. Leaf shape, venation, and features of the margin, base and apex constitute important taxonomic and physiognomic characters.
You can search the collection from the
Paleontology Collections Photos page or
the collection at the Modern Cleared Leaf Photos page.
Don't miss the helpful
! Manual of Leaf Architecture. In PDF.

The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Plantae, and Introduction to the Pteridopsida: the ferns. See also: Introduction to the Cycads.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley: Plant Biology - Evolution - Ecology.

! The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley:
Understanding Science. Understanding Science provides a free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works. An excellent resource, especially for teachers!
Don't miss to go to the Resource library.

! Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin:
Von Nacktpflanzen und Schuppenbäumen. Ein Streifzug durch die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Pflanzen (in German). Easy to understand introduction.

James E. Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, Oklahoma: Plant Biology. Lecture notes.
! Die Botanik.
Lecture notes, in German.

! Biology Junction.
Biology Junction has a dedicated team of specialists whose mission in life is to turn AP Biology from what some would call a lackluster science lecture series into a more proactive learning experience. Introduction to Biology. Go to:
! Introduction to Biology Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

Biology-Nation. This website provides resources for anyone with an interest in biology. (see also Whois Record). Many links lead to Wikipedia. Go to: Introduction to Botany.

Biology Online. Biology Online aims to educate and promote awareness of all things biology, offering free and easy access to information in the biological sciences. Go to:
Plant Biology.
Plant Biology.
Biology Articles > Botany.

The Biology Project, University of Arizona: Photosynthesis 1, and Photosynthesis 2.

Biopedia an openfree bioinfomation encyclopedia: Botany.

Karen Bledsoe, Western Oregon University:
Plant anatomy. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

BookRags, a research location for students of any age: Botany.

L. Borisjuk et al. (2023): Seeing plants as never before. Open access, New Phytologist, 238: 1775–1794; doi: 10.1111/nph.18871.
Note figure 1: Setup of an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Figure 6: From sample preparation to chemical imaging using Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
"... an overview of current imaging methods, which rely variously on either nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) or infrared (IR) spectroscopy ..."

The Botanical Society of America:
! Teaching Botany Online. Excellent!

The Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, MO: What is Botany? The areas of specialization in botany.

The Botanical Society of America St. Louis, MO: Botany for the Next Millennium. This report should be of great value to individuals in developing persuasive reasons for representation of botany in the research and educational missions of their institutions.

Botany.Com, the Encyclopedia of Plants:
Leaf shapes.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

C. Kevin Boyce, Earth and Planetary Sciences at Stanford University: ‘The fossil record shows how plants shaped Earth — they sculpted ecosystems from rivers to rain’. (by Srijana Mitra Das, The Times of India, November 04, 2023).

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: Welcome to the Botanical Education site. Here you find information on courses and blogs created by Jamie Boyer, e.g.
! Plant Diversity. About the diversity, morphologies, life histories, and evolution of plants, as well as information about bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae/protists.

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: Welcome to the Botanical Education site! Here you find information on courses and blogs created by Jamie Boyer, e.g.
! Plant Structure. About the the cellular and sub-cellular aspects of plants, the important cellular processes of mitosis and meiosis, the vegetative root and shoot systems, as well as reproductive processes.

! Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden:
What is Paleobotany?. Also worth checking out:
Plant Evolution & Paleobotany. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Paleobotany Short-Course. Lecture notes.
Paleobotany Overview; Life moves to land.
Plant classification.
Rise of Seed Plants.
Rise of flowering plants.

Encyclopaedia Britannica:
Evolution and paleobotany.

Neil Buckley, Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY: Bio 102 General Biology II Class Notes. Powerpoint presentations. Go to:
An overview of Plant Evolution. Key Moments in the life of Kingdom Plantae.
Websites still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Benjamin Burger, Utah State University, Vernal, Utah:
Why study fossil plants?
Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany.
How did plants colonize the land, based on the fossil record?
How did the first seed plants (the Gymnosperms) evolve?
How did gymnosperms diversify during the early Mesozoic to become a modern dominate plant group?
How good is the fossil record of Cycads?
What is the significance of the fossil record of Ginkgo?
What is the fossil record of Horsetails?
Fossil Algae.
What is an Angiosperm?
Video lectures.

Angela Caines, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, College of Chemical and Life Sciences, University of Maryland: Plant Biology for NonScience Majors. Lecture notes.

The Canadian Nature Photographer, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
This website provides a resource for learning about nature photography, art and great places to visit and photograph Nature both in Canada and around the world. Worth checking out:
Photoshop Workbook 1 and Photoshop Workbook 2 (in PDF).
! Robert Berdan (2020): The Microscopic Beauty of Plants and Trees. How to prepare and photograph plant sections for viewing with a microscope.

Sean Carrington, Department of Biological & Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados: The Plant Kingdom. An introduction to the world of plants from an evolutionary perspective.
Have a look for handouts and PDF files,
or navigate from here.
Websites still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! (a consortium of Lebanese universities that have collected some of the best content sites of the web): Science > Botanical Sciences > Plants and their Structure. Go to: Plants and their Structure. General plant organization, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, phloem, epidermal cells, etc.

! Catalogue of Life (by Species 2000, Leiden The Netherlands).
The most complete authoritative list of the world's species - maintained by hundreds of global taxonomists.
Go to: Kingdom Plantae.

Bane Cheek, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, Florida: An Introduction to Cycad Reproduction.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Citable reviews in the life sciences (Wiley). Go to:
Plant science.

Regine Claßen-Bockhoff (2001): Plant Morphology: The Historic Concepts of Wilhelm Troll, Walter Zimmermann and Agnes Arber. Free PDF file, Annals of Botany, 88: 1153-1172.

Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Go to: Botany.

! J.S. Cope et al. (2012): Plant species identification using digital morphometrics: A review. In PDF, Expert Systems with Applications, 39: 7562-7573.
See also here.
"... We review the main computational, morphometric and image processing methods
[...] We discuss the measurement of leaf outlines, flower shape, vein structures and leaf textures, and describe a wide range of analytical methods in use.

Cyberinfrastructure for Phylogenetic Research (CIPRES). Building the Tree of Life: A National Resource for Phyloinformatics and Computational Phylogenetics. CIPRES is a collaboration of many american museums and institutions. Go to:
! Getting to the Roots of Plant Evolution (Powerpoint presentation). See also the Exercise Handout (PDF file).
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.J. Dallwitz Australia (DELTA – DEscription Language for TAxonomy).
Descriptions, illustrations, interactive identification, and information retrieval from DELTA databases.

D. J. Daniels, Glendale High School, Glendale, Arizona: Advanced Placement Biology 2000, D. J. Daniels´ Glendale High Biology Page, Land Plants, Evolution and Diversity.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

J.A.T. da Silva (2016): In defense of the use of italic for latin binomial plant names. In PDF, Polish Botanical Journal, 61: 1–6.

B. De Rybel et al. (2016): Plant vascular development: from early specification to differentiation. Abstract, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 2016: 30-40. see also here and there (in PDF).

! The Digital Encyclopedia of Ancient Life (DAoAL). Managed by the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York.
The original goal of the DAoAL project was to provide free resources to help individuals identify and better understand fossil species from particular regions and time intervals. Go to:
! Embryophytes (land plants) (by E.J. Hermsen, 2019).
Note the Virtual collection of plant fossils (3D models of fossil specimens).

V.M. Dörken, FB Biologie, Universität Konstanz: Morphologie und Anatomie des Blattes. PDF file, in German.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Stephen R. Downie and Kenneth R. Robertson, Life Sciences at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champagne: Systematics of Plants. This course introduces the principles and methods of identifying, naming, and classifying flowering plants. It includes a survey of selected flowering plant families and provides information on their interrelationships. Go to: Digital Flowers.

Beth Ellis et al. (2009): Manual of Leaf Architecture. Book announcement. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See also here and there.

C. Elliott-Kingston et al. (2021): Creating a university evolution garden: An integrated learning approach for teaching land plant evolution. Open access, Plants People Planet, 3: 761-774.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:

! European Commission: European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. Excellent!
! Don´t miss the Atlas Download Page. Plenty of downloadable PDFs, e.g. about Past forests of Europe, an ecological overview, about forest classifications and European forest tree species.

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes.
Now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Anjum Farooqui, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, India: Endemic Rainforest and its geological past in the Indian Peninsula. Powerpoint presentation.

Debbie Folkerts, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama: Kingdom Plantae: Gymnosperms. Powerpoint presentation.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

David Ford, Canopy Dynamics Lab, School of Environmental and Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA:
! Biol220 TAs. Botany lecture notes (Powerpoint presentations). See especially:
The Importance of Plants, their origins and ways of life.
Plant evolution timeline on Powerpoint slide 11, 18 and 22!

W.A. Friedman (2020): Darwin in the garden: Engaging the public about evolution with museum collections of living objects. Open access, Plants, People, Planet, 2: 294–301.
"... Polls continue to show distressingly high percentages of people around the world do not accept that evolution has occurred.
[...] It is time for botanical gardens and arboreta around the world to commit to leveraging their living collections of museum objects to explain and demonstrate the roles of mutation, variation, and selection in the evolutionary process. In doing so, much could be accomplished to increase scientific literacy at a societal level.

J.C. Ghildiyal (ed.; 2019):
Pteridology, Gymnosperms and Palaeobotany. Lecture notes, in PDF, Uttarakhand Open University, India.
With many black and white illustrations.
Palaeobotany part starts on PDF page 254.

E.M. Gifford and A.S. Foster (1988): Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants. In PDF, 3rd edition, (New York: Freeman). See also here.

The Plant Histology Facility, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Plant anatomy: online microscopy.
These freely accessible virtual slides can be explored interactively by zooming-and-panning in real-time. A HTML5-based virtual microscope allows the examination of large and small tissues or cell types in the same specimen within the context of the whole plant organ.

Govindjee, Department of Plant Biology , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana:
The Photosynthesis Page Govindjee. Note especially:
! Teaching Material.

Stephen Grace, University of Arkansas, Little Rock: Introduction to Botany. Introduction to basic principles of botany, including the structure, metabolism, development, reproduction, and evolution of plants. Go to: Lecture Topics.

Bruce W. Grant and Itzick Vatnick, Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE). This is a project of the Education and Human Resources Committee of the Ecological Society of America: Environmental Correlates of Leaf Stomata Density. The technique of making clear nail polish impressions of leaf stomata.

Devens Gust, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe (page hosted by ASU Photosynthesis Center, Arizona State University, Tempe): Why Study Photosynthesis?
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Scott A. Heckathorn, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA:
Biodiversity lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! University of Heidelberg, Germany:
Aktuelle Themen in der pflanzlichen Biodiversitätsforschung (in PDF). Lecture notes, in German.
J. Griller, PDF page 1-18: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Moose".
A. Olbrich, PDF page 19-55: "Verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen der Farnpflanzen".
(?), PDF page 56-92: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Gymnospermen".
F. Haßfeld, PDF page 93-102: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Angiospermen".

! L.J. Hickey&xnbsp;(1973): Classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. In PDF, American journal of botany, 60: 17-33.
See also here.
! Note figure 1-40: Leaf orientation features: Orientation and form of whole leaf, shape of apex and base, gland position, and marginal configuration.
! Figure 41-62: Types of venation.
! Figure 63-87: Orders of venation and vein configuration.
! Figure 88-107: Ultimate venation and areolation.

C Michael Hogan, Encyclopedia of Earth: What is a Plant?

! Rolf Holderegger and Ariel Bergamini, Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt WSL, Biodiversität & Naturschutzbiologie (ETH Zürich):
Biologie der Moose und Farne, 1. Moose.
Lecture notes (in German).

Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Our Everchanging Climate, Moving Plants! Vegetation migration in response to climatic change.

J.R. Hoppe, Systematische Botanik und Ökologie, Universität Ulm: Allgemeine Botanik für Anfänger, and
! Morphologie, Anatomie und Systematik der Höheren Pflanzen.
Lecture notes (PDF files), in German.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.R. Hoppe, Systematische Botanik und Ökologie, Universität Ulm, Germany: Morphologie, Anatomie und Systematik der höheren Pflanzen. (in German). See also: Allgemeine Botanik, Teil II, e.g. Blatt.

Raymond B. Huey et al.: Plants Versus Animals: Do They Deal with Stress in Different Ways? PDF file, INTEG. AND COMP.BIOL., 42: 415–423 (2002).

Marty Huss: Angiosperm Life Cycle. Powerpoint presentation.

Plant Biology 260 at the University of Illinois: Plant Biology 260 introduces the principles and methods of identifying, naming, and classifying flowering plants. It includes a survey of selected flowering plant families and provides information on their interrelationships. The links provided in the Lecture Syllabus lead to supplementary information offered by other on-line systematic courses at other universities.

! M.E. James et al. (2023): Replicated Evolution in Plants. Open access, Annual Review of Plant Biology, 74: 697-725.
"...Similar traits and functions commonly evolve in nature. Here, we explore patterns of replicated evolution across the plant kingdom and discuss the processes responsible for such patterns.
[...] The term replicated evolution can be used to encompass both convergence and parallelism ..."

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew:
! Plants of the World Online.
Browse 1,424,000 global plant names, 202,500 detailed descriptions, and 372,400 images. Excellent!

! Kimball´s Biology Pages (by John W. Kimball). The pages represent an online biology textbook. Go to: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms.

John W. Kimball: Kimball´s Biology Pages. The pages represent an online biology textbook. Go to: Plants.

Michael Knee, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University, Columbus: General Plant Biology Online Resources. Lecture notes.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois: The Seed Plants: Gymnosperms & Angiosperms. Lecture note, Powerpoint presentation.
This expired link is still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.E. Koning, Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, Connecticut: Why Study Plants?
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Ross Koning, Biology Department, Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic: Biology of Plants. This course is an introduction to botany and stresses anatomy, morphology, natural history, and evolution among organisms called plants. Go to: The Naked Seeds of Pinus. See also here.
All links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Elena Kramer, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge MA: Plant Development and Differentiation (provided as PDF files). A comprehensive lecture course on the developmental biology of plants from fertilization through all phases of vegetative and reproductive growth.

Dana Krempels, Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL: Evolution and Biodiversity. Lecture Notes.
Available from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

E. Levetin and K. McMahon: Plants and Society, Fifth Edition. See also here. Go to:
2. Introduction to Plant Life: Botanical Principles.
! Plant Systematics and Evolution. In PDF.
For other chapters navigate from here.

Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima: Plant Biology at OSU Lima.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Friedrich A. Lohmueller, The Botanical System of the Plants.

! W.J. Lucas et al. (2013): The Plant Vascular System: Evolution, Development and Functions. In PDF, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 55: 294-388. See also here.

! H. Ma et al. (2023): The global biogeography of tree leaf form and habit. Open access, Nature Plants,

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison:
! Teaching Images.
This collection of resources was originally organized to serve the needs of the students and instructors of the introductory course General Botany.

! MAdLand — Molecular Adaptation to Land: Plant Evolution to Change.
The MAdLand community has made contributions to publicly available data resources for plant (evolutionary) biology and expanded the list of organismal systems accessible for research. Note the statement of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) for the established Priority Programme SPP 2237. Worth checking out:
MAdLand Publications.
The interactive and downloadable Plant Evolution Poster.
Exhibition posters "Grün, Steine, Erde. Unsere Welt im Wandel" (in German, by M. Schreiber and S. Gould).

James R. Manhart, Texas A&M Bioinformatics Working Group, Texas A&M University:
Taxonomy of Flowering Plants. Lecture notes. See also
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Faculty of Science, Mansoura University:
Powerpoint Botany Lectures (at the end of the website).
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! The Experimental Study Group, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT, (with assistance of Brian White and Genentech Access Excellence): The MIT Biology Hypertextbook. This hypertextbook is designed to supplement the course materials of 7.01 (MIT Introductory Biology) and give you additional tools to learn introductory molecular biology. The Biology Hypertextbook is organized by chapter. Each chapter has a directory page, which is the table of contents.

Talline Martins and Heidi Hillhouse, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin: Major Evolutionary Transitions, go to: Transitional Fossils. Powerpoint presentation. See also here.

Stephen Marvel, Department of Biological Sciences, Lock Haven University, Lock Haven, PA: Botany. Lecture notes.

Martin C. Mathes, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA: General Botany. This course is designed to give the students a broad background in the traditional subject matter of botany. This includes topics on organisms in the plant kingdom as well as organisms not in the plant kingdom but which affect the growth ecology or evolution of plants (e.g., selected bacteria, fungi, and selected protists).

Richard M. McCourt, Department of Botany Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia; R. L. Chapman, Mark Buchheim and Brent D. Mishler, Tree of Life Project: Green plants. Green plants as defined here includes a broad assemblage of photosynthetic organisms that all contain chlorophylls a and b, store their photosynthetic products as starch inside the double-membrane-bounded chloroplasts in which it is produced, and have cell walls made of cellulose. They include all organisms commonly known as green algae and land plants, including liverworts, mosses, ferns and other nonseed plants, and seed plants.

Microbe Notes.
Microbe Notes is an educational niche blog/website related to microbiology. Go to:
! Top and Best Biology Websites/Blogs of 2024 for Study Notes (by Sagar Aryal 2023).

Edgar Moctezuma, Plant Biology for Non-Science Majors, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, College of Life Sciences, University of Maryland:
Pollination. Powerpoint presentation.

! Terence M. Murphy, Thomas L. Rost and Michael G. Barbour (2015), University of California, Davis, CA:
Plant Biology. Lecture notes, in PDF. Please take notice: Book announcement.
See for instance: Bryophytes.
The Early Tracheophytes.

Gilbert J. Muth, Biology Department, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA: Biological Foundations Home Page. Biological Foundations is the botany section of the a three quarter sequence in general biology for biology majors and pre-professional students. It contains 38 lectures with a supporting glossary, photographs, photomicrographs, diagrams, animations, video clips, self test and set of references. Navigate from here, or there.
Plant´s Tissue Systems.
Systems in Plants.
Powerpoint presentations.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), Warrenton, VA.
Recommended Resources.
NABT has created a searchable table of online Peer-Recommended Resources. You can filter by category and audience to get just what you need when you need it. Note escecially:
! Evolution.
! Ecology/Environment.
! General Biology.

National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII). NBII is a broad, collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation´s biological resources. Search: Botany.

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi:
NCERT Books for Class 11 Biology PDF.
Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants. In PDF.

! NASA, Earth Observatory. The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet. The focus is on Earth's climate and environmental change. Use the full-text search engine, or go to: Data and Images. To view a particular dataset, select one of the data types in this column, e.g. Vegetation, or Landcover Classification.

National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII).
NBII is a broad, collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation's biological resources. Go to:
Botany: The History of a Science.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B.D. Ness (ed., 2002): Magill's Encyclopedia of Science: Plant Life, Volume 2. In PDF. See also here.

New Castle Community School Corporation, New Castle, IN (USA).
! Plants and the Colonization of the Land. Easy to understand lecture notes, Powerpoint presenation.

New Phytologist, Forum: Remote control – cell and organ communication within plants. PDF file.

! Daniel L. Nickrent, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois: Elements of Plant Systematics. Lecture notes. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Go to: A Look at the History of Plant Classification.

! K.J. Niklas and U. Kutschera (2010): The evolution of the land plant life cycle. Free access, New Phytologist, 185: 27-41.

Stephanie Nunez, Libie Motchan and Karim Moftah: Forensic Botany. Powerpoint presentation.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Peter Ommundsen, Selkirk College, Canada: Pronunciation of Biological Latin. Including taxonomic names of plants and animals. See also here (PDF file).

Open Door Web Site: Biology. A reference source for both students and teachers. The site is constructed by teachers with the aim of making the web site available on-line for their students. Go to: Topic Chapters.

! Oxford Bibliographies.
Oxford Bibliographies offers exclusive, authoritative research guides. Combining the best features of an annotated bibliography and a high-level encyclopedia, this cutting-edge resource directs researchers to the best available scholarship across a wide variety of subjects. Go to:
Fossils (by Kevin Boyce).
Evolution of Land Plants (by Charles C. Davis and Sarah Mathews).
Evolution of Fungi (by David Hibbett).
Bryophyte Ecology (by Heinjo During).

Larry Orr (ASU) and Govindjee (UIUC): Photosynthesis and the Web: 2008. This review presents relevant information on photosynthesis-related web sites. Go to the mirrored website. See also:
What is Photosynthesis? Articles that discuss photosynthesis at varying degrees of complexity.

Pearson Education, Inc.: Overview of Land Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! (by Max Antheunisse and Jan Koeman). is a completely non-commercial website. On top you see 2 search boxes at the right. The white one is for entering scientific names, the grey one for vernacular ones.

! Plant Ontology Consortium (POC). The main objective of the POC is to develop, curate and share controlled vocabularies (ontologies) that describe plant structures and growth and developmental stages, providing a semantic framework for meaningful cross-species queries across databases. Go to: Search, or visit the
Plant Ontology Tutorials (Quicktime movies or Powerpoint slides).

! William K. Purves, David Sadava, Gordon H. Orians, and H. Craig Heller Life, The Science of Biology (Seventh Edition). The Companion Site. Interactive summaries, the glossary, animated tutorials and lots of flahcards (review figures). Go to: Chapter 30: The Evolution of Seed Plants. study tools:
! Search for Botany.

A.E. Radford, W.C. Dickison, J.R. Massey, C.R. Bell, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Vascular Plant Systematics. This book was actually written as a reference text for basic courses in taxonomy and as a source book of information, procedures and references for ecosystematics, biosystematics, phylosystematics and chemosystematics. Now available: The morphological glossary. In this glossary the authors have arranged the terms into structural parts and general characters and character states.

! L. Ragnia and T. Greb (2018): Secondary growth as a determinant of plant shape and form. Open access, Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 79: 58-67.

Peter H. Raven, Ray F. Evert, and Susan E. Eichhorn (W. H. Freeman & Company): Biology of Plants. A kingdom presentation of botany (book companion) organized around 3 themes: plant growth and development carried out by chemical interactions, evolutionary relationships guiding understanding of form and function in organisms, and ecology as a way of emphasizing our dependence on plants. Approx. 400 illustrations from the text, flash cards, web links, videos and animations. Portions of this site requires Shockwave and QuickTime. Go to: Chapter 12 - The Process of Evolution. Excellent!

Peter H. Raven et al. (2005), Biology of Plants, Seventh Edition, Freeman & Company: Web Links: Related Web Sites. An annotated link directory. Navigate via Table of Contents.

Mary Ann Reihman, Biological Sciences, Natural Sciences and Mathematics, California State University, Sacramento: Biology lecture notes. Go to: Comparison of Cycadophyte Misc. Gymnosperms (Bennettitales).

James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland: Advanced Plant Taxonomy. Systems of classification for magnoliophyta, history of systematic botany, approaches to biological classification, taxonomic hierarchy, types of data.

Tim Revell, Mt. San Antonio College, Walnut, CA.
Bio 2 - Plant and Animal Biology. Go to:
Plant Classification (Nonvascular). Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! Mark Ridley (2004): Evolution (Third edition). In PDF. 786 pages, Blackwell Publishing company. See likewise here (Google books), or there.
Note especially:
Chapter 1.3, "A short history of evolutionary biology", Start at PDF-page 33.
! Part 5, Macroevolution. Chapter 18, "The History of Life", Start at PDF-page 558.
About plant evolution note:
Chapter 3, "The Evidence for Evolution", Start at PDF-page 43.
Chapter 14, "Speciation", Start at PDF-page 416.
Chapter 19, "Evolutionary Genomics", Start at PDF-page 591.

Department of Life Science, Riverside City College, Riverside, CA: Botany lecture notes. Powerpoint presentations. e.g. to:
Introduction to the Plant Kingdom: Bryophytes.

Chris Romero (updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp, Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants. A set of powerpoint lectures can be downloaded from here.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. Go to: Class Sphenopsida (PDF file).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey:
Information Sheets.
See especially: Plant structure – leaves, stems and roots (PDF file).
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Scott Russell, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, Norman: Morphology of Vascular Plants. Lecture notes, chiefly PDF files, including palaeobotany topics.
These expired websites are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

Ed Schilling, Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee: Socio-economic Impact of Plants. Powerpoint presentation.

! F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner (2018): The Plant Stem. A Microscopic Aspect. Open access!

Science Encyclopedia (Net Industries). History of botany.

R. Sharma et al. (2019): Distribution of phytoliths in plants: a review. Open access, Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes, 3: 123-148.

! Viridiplantae

! Plant Anatomy. Auto-generated by ScienceDirect using heuristic and machine-learning approaches to extract relevant information.

K.P. Sharanya, Department of Botany, NSS College Pandalam:
Cycads. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! S.H. Shiu and M.D. Lehti-Shiu (2024): Assessing the evolution of research topics in a biological field using plant science as an example. In PDF, SH Shiu, MD Lehti-Shiu Plos Biology, 22. e3002612. 10.1371/journal.pbio.3002612.
See likewise here.
"... Using plant biology as an example, we used machine learning and language models to classify plant science citations into topics representing interconnected, evolving subfields. The changes in prevalence of topical records over the last 50 years reflect shifts in major research trends
[...] Unlike other early topics, topic 78 (paleobotany and plant evolution studies, the last topic in Fig 3B) experienced a resurgence in the early 2000s due to the development of new approaches and databases and changes in research foci ..."

! M.G. Simpson (2010): Evolution and diversity of green and land plants. PDF file, p. 55–72. In: Simpson MG, (ed.): Plant systematics. 2nd ed., Cambridge (MA): Academic Press.

SlideServe: Introduction to Seed Plants: Gymnosperms (Powerpoint presentatation).

George Sly, Union High School, Dugger, Indiana (Classrooms of the 21th Century): Teaching Tropical Rainforest Biology.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Jackie Snow, Belton, TX (National Math + Science Initiative):
Botany: Part II Growth & Development. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

T. Speck and O. Speck (2019): Quo vadis plant biomechanics: Old wine in new bottles or an up-and-coming field of modern plant science? Open access, American Journal of Botany, 106: 1399-1403.

David Straney, University of Maryland: Plant Biology for Non-science Majors. Lecture notes.

StudyLib. StudyLib is a platform that provides individuals and legal persons to use their resources as a virtual web server. Go to: Science / Biology / Botany / Plants.
See especially:
Introduction to Plants: Evolution, Characteristics and Life Cycle (Powerpoint presentation).

Ken Sytsma, Department of Botany , UW-Madison, Madison, WI:
Plant Geography. This course will examine the distributions of plants (and other organisms) from the perspectives of both ecology (biomes, climate, vegetation) and history (floristics, phylogenetics, paleobotany).
! Go to the PowerPoint Lectures (PDF files).
See especially:
Origin and Biogeography of Ancient Floras: Paleozoic (in black and white).
The same in color.
Origin and Biogeography of Ancient Floras: Mesozoic (in black and white).
The same in color.

Lincoln Taiz and Eduardo Zeiger (this website is a companion to their textbook Plant Physiology, Third Edition, published by Sinauer Associates): Plant Physiology Online. There are four main categories of content on the site: Web Topics, that adds to the coverage in the textbook; Web Essays, original articles on various topics related to each chapter; Study Questions, chiefly short answer-style questions, and finally suggested readings for further study.

Greg Thorn, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, Canada:
! Evolution of Plants . Lecture notes, e.g.:
Evolution of the Angiosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

Greg Thorn, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario: Evolution of Plants (Powerpoint presentations). Navigate from here with information from the Syllabus. See e.g. Lecture 16: Evolution of Plants. The evolution of early angiosperms.

Tinu Thakore´s Site, Herricks High School, New Hyde Park, NY: Living Environment Course Resources. Powerpoint and PDF files, e.g.
What is Science.

! Topics For Seminar.
Topics For Seminar PPT's contents and Seminar Reports are collected from various public domains available free on the internet.
! Biology Topics for Presentation & Research.
100+ Interesting Biology Presentation Topics with PPT.

Botany Department, University of Toronto:
Families of Vascular Plants. An introduction to the families of vascular plants with emphasis on morphological variation in relation to identification and significant aspects of breeding systems, dispersal syndromes, and other features of their biology. Go to:
Gymnosperms. Heterospory and seeds.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Tropicos. (The Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri).
The Tropicos nomenclatural database system links over 1.38M scientific names with over 6.9M specimens and over 1.61M digital images. TutorVista provides online tutoring to students across the world. Go to: Plant Anatomy.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Center for Biological Informatics of the U.S. Geological Survey: Botany. An all-encompassing guide to the world of botany, linking to resources and articles on such topics as paleobotany, species identification, pathology, and applied sciences like agronomy and forestry.

P.E. Verslues et al. (2023): Burning questions for a warming and changing world: 15 unknowns in plant abiotic stress. Open access, The Plant Cell, 35: 67–108.
"... We present unresolved questions in plant abiotic stress biology as posed by 15 research groups with expertise spanning eco-physiology to cell and molecular biology ..."

Roy Volkwyn and Jocelyn Collins, Internet BioEd Project, Western Cape Schools Network and Botany Department, University of the Western Cape, South Africa: Angiosperm Anatomy, Resources, and Plant Tissues, Resources.

Peter von Sengbusch, Botanik online: Evolutionsforschung - Wie schützen sich Pflanzen vor überschüssiger genetischer Information? In German. From: Albrecht, S. und Beusmann, V (eds): Ökologie transgener Nutzpflanzen. (Campus), Frankfurt, 1995.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Biology Department, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington:
Biology 102. Lecture notes.
Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.

Wayne's Word. An Online Textbook Of Natural History (Wayne P. Armstrong, alias Mr. Wolffia, Palomar College):
Botany. Lecture notes.

Amy Wesselman, Owen County High School, East Owenton, KY: Botany. Lecture notes. See for instance:
Overview of Plants & Plant Structure.
Growth & Development.
Powerpoint presentations, created by Jackie Snow, Belton, TX.

Wichita Falls Independent School District (WFISD), Wichita Falls, TX:
Plant anatomy. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: Botany. Contributed by Eric Guinther et al.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Leaf.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: History of paleontology, and Paleobotany and the origin of the word paleontology. See also: History of Botany.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Blattpolymorphismus (in German).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Evolution of plants
! Timeline of plant evolution.
Evolutionary history of plants.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Plant anatomy.
Verthyllung (in German).

Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: Study Guide to the Science of Botany. A free online textbook.

Wikispaces, Tangient LLC, San Francisco, CA (note the Wikipedia entry):
CDS Biology Website:
! The Colonization of Land by Plants and Fungi. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Hugh D. Wilson, Department of Biology Herbarium (TAMU), Texas A&M University (with support from the Texas A&M Center for the Study of Digital Libraries):
BOTANY 201 - TAXONOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS Lecture Notes - Fall 1998.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Carl R. Woese, Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: On the evolution of cells. PDF file, PNAS vol. 99 no. 13. See also here, and there.

Steven J. Wolf, Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Stanislaus: Flowering Plants. Lecture notes about plant taxonomy and systematics, history of plant taxonomy, identification keys used to identify plants, plant nomenclature, etc.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Steven J. Wolf, Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Stanislaus: Introduction to Botany. Lecture notes.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

WonderQuest with April Holladay (USA today): For answers about the world around us. Go to: Question Index, Plants. USA today weekly science columns.

! World Flora Online (WFO).
World Flora Online is the international initiative to achieve Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and provides a global overview of the diversity of plant species.

! The World of Teaching.
Over 1000 powerpoint presentations made by teachers are available for download.
Free Biology powerpoints. Go to:
Botany, Photomicrographs, Plant Tissues Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation. Photomicrographs, Plant Tissues. Powerpoint presentation.

Wade B. Worthen, Biology Department, Furman University Greenville, SC:
The Diversity of Life, Plants. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! T.H. Yeats and J.K.C. Rose (2013): The formation and function of plant cuticles. In PDF, Plant physiology, 163: 5–20. See also here.

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Last updated June 13, 2024

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