Charcoal & Coal Petrology /
Wildfire and Present Day Fire Ecology
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Douglas Allchin (1997): James Hutton and Coal. PDF file, Cadernos IG/UNICAMP, 7: 167-183.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists
The Australian Coal Industry´s Research Program (ACARP): Underground Coal. Go to: Rank of coal seam.
C.K. Boyce et al. (2009): X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology. X-ray Photoelectron Emission Spectro Microscopy (X-PEEM).
Canadian Society for Coal Science and Organic Petrology (CSCSOP). Their aim is to encourage and promote the practice, research and development of coal science in Canada and abroad through the practice of coal petrography and geochemistry.
! The Coal Association of Canada: Introduction to Coal.
! John C. Crelling, Coal Research Center and
Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale:
Petrographic Atlas of Coal and Carbon Compounds.
The main purpose of this atlas is to show what coals, cokes, chars, carbons, graphites,
and other natural and man-made carbonaceous materials look like under the optical
microscope. All photomicrographs were taken in
reflected white light with and without the use of a polarizer, an analyzer, and a
retarder plate. In some cases the photomicrographs were taken in fluorescent light
using ultra-violet illumination. Go to:
Coal Macerals Tutorial.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
I. Degani-Schmidt et al. (2015): Charcoalified logs as evidence of hypautochthonous/autochthonous wildfire events in a peat-forming environment from the Permian of southern Paraná Basin (Brazil). Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology, 146: 55–67. See also here (in PDF).
! C.F.K. Diessel (2010): The stratigraphic distribution of inertinite. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 81: 251–268. See also here (abstract).
! W.A. DiMichelle, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution,
and T.L. Phillips, University of Illinois:
of Hierarchially Structured Ecosystems to Long-Term
Climatic Change: A Case Study using Tropical Peat Swamps of Pennsylvanian Age.
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life.
Director Referate: Kohle. In German.
! Claus F.K. Diessel (2010): The stratigraphic distribution of inertinite. Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology, 81: 251-268.
Larissa Gammidge, Department of Geology, University of Newcastle, Australia:
Coal: an introduction. Scroll down to:
"Concept of Coal Rank".
The rank of a coal refers to the degree of coalification endured by the organic matter.
Atlas of coal macerals.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Coal Geology Division, Geological Society of America: Links to Other Coal Geology Webpages.
Geology.com (published by Hobart King).
News and information about geology and earth science. Go to:
Coal Through a Microscope.
B. Gieren (2006): Die Landpflanzenevolution im Phanerozoikum aus petrographischer und geochemischer Sicht. PDF file, in German. Thesis, Georg-August-Universität, Gõttingen.
David Glick, The Society for Organic Petrology (TSOP): References on Organic Petrology.
! S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40. See also here.
The Greening Earth Society (byDesign and PowervisioN): About Coal, Coal Mining, and Fossil Fuel. An anntotated link directory.
Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum (HVNHM), Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Ottawa: Carboniferous Forests. Easy to read publication. Life, death, and afterlife of a coal forest.
! Adrian Hutton et al. (1994): Chemical and Petrographic Classification of Kerogen/Macerals. Abstract, Energy Fuels, 1994, 8:1478–1488.
William W. Hambleton: Petrographic Study of Southeastern Kansas Coals. Go to: Petrography of the Mineral, Croweburg, and Bevier Coals, Description of Components. Plates available in PDF.
! V. Hudspith et al. (2012): Evaluating the extent to which wildfire history can be interpreted from inertinite distribution in coal pillars: An example from the Late Permian, Kuznetsk Basin, Russia. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 89: 3–25.
IEA Coal Research, London: The purpose of this site is to provide information about analysis of coal technology, supply and use.
llinois Department of Natural Resources, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign: Coal Section. Go to: Older and Out of Print Coal Publications. About Coal Resources, Coal Quality, Preparation and Utilization, Coal Economics, Environmental Aspects of Coal Mining and Utilization, etc. Most links are PDF files and can be either downloaded or viewed directly.
! Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN: Atlas of Coal Macerals. This Atlas of Coal Macerals presents the current classifications of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) together with examples of coal macerals. Photomicrographs of macerals were taken on polished sections under a reflected light microscope (with oil objective) in white or fluorescent light. Excellent!
International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCOP). The ICCP members are engaged in many different branches, fundamental and applied, of coal and organic petrology.
! International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP), 1998: The new vitrinite classification. PDF file, (ICCP System 1994), reprinted from Fuel 77, p. 349-358. See also here (Download website Indiana Geological Survey).
! International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP), 2001: The new inertinite classification. PDF file, (ICCP System 1994), reprinted from Fuel 80, p. 459-471. See also here (Download website Indiana Geological Survey).
International Humic Substances Society: The motto of IHSS is "To Advance the Knowledge, Research and Application of Humic Substances". For scientists with interest in humic substances in the coal, soil, and water sciences, and to provide opportunities for them to exchange ideas, skills, and viewpoints.
International Journal of Coal Geology (Elsevier). The International Journal of Coal Geology is committed to treating the basic and applied aspects of the geology and petrology of coal in a scholarly manner.
! K.L. Kennedy et al. (2013): Lower Devonian coaly shales of northern New Brunswick, Canada: plant accumulations in the early stages of Terrestrial colonization. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 83: 1202–1215. See also here.
Kentucky Coal Association: Coal Education.
Kentucky Educational Television (KET): COAL: Ancient Gift Serving Modern Man American Coal Foundation. Go to: Types of Coal, and Coal Terms Glossary.
Kentucky Geological Survey:
Coal Information. These web pages provide a simple guide about coal formation, mining, resources, and more, e.g. "What is coal?", How is coal formed?", "Kinds and types of coal: a summary", "Important properties and uses of coal", "Identification of Coal Components".
! Ann G. Kim (2010): 1.1. The Formation of Coal. PDF file, in: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective. Edited by Glenn B. Stracher, Anupma Prakash and Ellina V. Sokol (Elsevier).
Michelle Lamberson, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: The Society for Organic Petrology (TSOP). The Society for Organic Petrology (TSOP; pronounced "Tee'-sop") was established to consolidate and foster the organizational activities of scientists and engineers involved with coal petrology, kerogen petrology, organic geochemistry and related disciplines. Visit the WWW links related to TSOP activities.
Jian Liu and Anne Graham, Reference Department, IU Libraries (in collaboration with Lois Heiser, Geology Library, IU Libraries and Indiana Geological Survey, IU: Our Hoosier State Beneath Us: Coal. An easy to understand introduction with black and white illustrations.
! L. Marynowski et al. (2014): Molecular composition of fossil charcoal and relationship with incomplete combustion of wood. Abstract, Organic Geochemistry, 77: 22–31. See also here (in PDF).
L. Marynowski et al. (2011): Effects of weathering on organic matter Part II: Fossil wood weathering and implications for organic geochemical and petrographic studies. In PDF, Organic Geochemistry, 42: 1076-1088.
! L.C. McParland et al. (2010): Is vitrification in charcoal a result of high temperature burning of wood? Abstract, Journal of Archaeological Science, 37: 2679–2687. See also here (in PDF).
Melbourne Earth Sciences, Australia: Coal Resources. Lecture notes, in PDF.
Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, COAL. Link list page with picture rankings. The links give some information on coal and the analysis of its microscopic constituents.
M.P. Nelsen et al. (2016): Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production. Abstract.
! J.M.K. O´Keefe et al. (2013): On the fundamental difference between coal rank and coal type. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 118: 58-87.
Coal and Organic Petrology Laboratories, Pennsylvania State University: Coal and Organic Petrology Laboratories. Provides references about the optical and other physical properties of coals, inorganics, chemistry and molecular structure of coals, coal preparation, coal description and classification etc. Worth to visit: Links.
H.I. Petersen et al. (2013): Deposition, floral composition and sequence stratigraphy of uppermost Triassic (Rhaetian) coastal coals, southern Sweden. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 116–117: 117–134. See also here (abstract).
Rosemary Prevec, Geology Department Rhodes University, South Africa (website by Science in Africa): The power of plants: how ancient forests drive SA´s economy. About Glossopteris forests and coal. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! D. Riedel (2009): Kohle ist nicht gleich Kohle. PDF file, in German.
E. Salmon et al. (2009): Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balance and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam. PDF file, Organic Geochemistry, 40: 500-509.
! A.C. Scott (2002): Coal petrology and the origin of coal macerals: a way ahead? In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 50: 119-134.
! A.C. Scott (1998): The legacy of Charles Lyell: advances in our knowledge of coal and coal-bearing strata. In PDF, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 143: 243-260. See also here.
Stanley P. Schweinfurth, U.S. Geological Survey: Coal - A Complex Natural Resource. An overview of of factors affecting coal quality and use in the United States. With a contribution on coal quality and public health by Robert B. Finkelman. Best page to navigate would be from the site map site.
S. Sen et al. (2016): Discussion on the concepts in paleoenvironmental reconstruction from coal macerals and petrographic indices. In PDF, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 73. See also here (abstract).
S. Sen (2016): Review on coal petrographic indices and models and their applicability in paleoenvironmental interpretation. Abstract, Geosciences Journal. See also here.
P.K. Singh and A.S Naik (2015): Coal microscopy as a tool to understand the beneficiation problems of Indian Gondwana coals. In PDF, e-Journal of Science & Technology (e-JST).
B. Slater (2011): Fossil focus: Coal swamps. n PDF, Palaeontology Online. See also here.
The Society for Organic Petrology (TSOP).
TSOP was established to consolidate and foster the
organizational activities of scientists and engineers
involved with coal petrology, kerogen petrology, organic geochemistry and
This site is hosted by the Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences,
University of British Columbia,
Vancouver. Worth checking out:
University Research Groups. See also:
TSOP Newsletters as PDF files.
Spektrum Akademischer Verlag:
Lexikon der Chemie, Macerale.
Lexikon der Geowissenschaften, Maceral (in German).
D.C. Steart et al. (2007):
Cobham Lignite Bed: the palaeobotany of two petrographically contrasting lignites from
either side of the Paleocene-Eocene carbon isotope excursion. PDF file,
Acta Palaeobotanica 47: 109-125.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Cathy D. Stewart, Steelynx, Michigan Library Consortium: Coal and Coking on the Internet. Coal and Coking at Some US Non-Profit Organizations.
! I. Suárez-Ruiz et al. (2012): Organic Petrology: An Overview. PDF file, in: A.I. Al-Juboury(ed.): Petrology - New Perspectives and Applications.
! I. Suárez-Ruiz et al. (2012): Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 1, geological applications. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 99: 54-112.
! Sykorova, I. et al. (2005): Classification of huminite. PDF file, (ICCP System 1994) reprinted from International Journal of Coal Geology 62, p. 85-106. See also here (Download website Indiana Geological Survey).
Toyo Takakuwa, Sumitomo Coal Mining Co, Tokyo: Coal Links Worldwide.
! U.S. Geological Survey: GEO-DATA Explorer (GEODE). The site lets you zoom in on maps and add layers showing different data sets. The site's international collections emphasize the distribution of natural resources such as oil, coal, and natural gas.
S. Villalba Breva et al. (2012): Peat-forming plants in the Maastrichtian coals of the Eastern Pyrenees. In PDF, Geologica Acta, 10.
A.T. Wheeler (2016): Palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the Witbank coal deposits (Karoo Basin South Africa). In PDF, Thesis, University of Pretoria.
! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Maceral. See also here (in German).
Also worth checking out: Inkohlung.
The World Coal Institute (WCI), London. The WCI is a global industry association comprising the major international coal producers and stakeholders. Go to: What is coal? See also Coal Statistics.
The Science and Mathematics Teaching Center, University of Wyoming:
Wyoming Coal Website.
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