Evolution & Extinction /
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
Web Sites about Evolution
Focussed on the Fossil Record
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
The Gaia Hypothesis@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
K.L. Bacon and G.T. Swindles (2016): Could a potential Anthropocene mass extinction define a new geological period? In PDF, The Anthropocene Review, 3: 208–217.
BBC Earth timeline.
Major mass extinctions.
! Luann Becker (2002): Repeated Blows (in PDF). Scientific American. Impacts of large meteorites and major extinctions of life.
Michael J. Benton (2010): The origins of modern biodiversity on land. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B.
Michael J. Benton, The Palaeobiology and Biodiversity Research Group, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK: Reprints by Michael J. Benton (PDF files).
B.A. Black et al. (2012):
and consequences of volatile release from the Siberian Traps. In PDF,
Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 317-318: 363-373.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B. Blonder et al. (2014): Plant Ecological Strategies Shift Across the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary. In PDF, PLoS Biol, 12.
! D.P.G. Bond and S.E. Grasby (2016): On the causes of mass extinctions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
! D.P.G. Bond and P. Wignall (2014): Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions: An update. PDF file, in: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
! D.P.G. Bonda and S.E. Grasby (2016): On the causes of mass extinctions. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, See also here (in PDF).
The Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts: Stratigraphy I: Impacts and Extinctions.
M.C. Boulter et al. (1988): Patterns of plant extinction from some palaeobotanical evidence. In PDF.! S.E. Bryan and L. Ferrari (2013): Large igneous provinces and silicic large igneous provinces: Progress in our understanding over the last 25 years. In PDF, GSA Bulletin. See also here.
! D.J. Button et al. (2017): Mass extinctions drove increased global faunal cosmopolitanism on the supercontinent Pangaea. In PDF, Nature Communications, 8. See also here.
! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing:
(PDF files). Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world.
Navigate from the content file.
There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Excellent!
Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.
M.R. Carvalho et al. (2021):
at the end-Cretaceous and the origin of modern Neotropical rainforests
Science, 372: 63–68. See also
"... Plant diversity declined by 45% at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary and did not recover for ~6 million years. ..."
Please take notice: Wie der Asteroid den Regenwald prägte. Wissenschaft.de, in German.
B. Cascales-Miñana et al. (2013): What is the best way to measure extinction? A reflection from the palaeobotanical record. Abstract.
! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2013): The plant fossil record reflects just two great extinction events. Abstract.
! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2012): Plant fossil record and survival analyses. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 71-82. See also here (abstract).
! Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond. Conference, University of Vienna, Austria (Sunday, July 9, 2000, to Wednesday, July 12, 2000). Go to: Preliminary Program and Abstracts (PDF format). To use this file, click on the name of the session, and when the full program listing appears, click on the title of a presentation to view the abstract.
The University of Chicago Chronicle: J. John Sepkoski, 50, dies at home in Hyde Park.
Philippe Claeys, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley: When the sky fell on our heads: Identification and interpretation of impact products in the sedimentary record. U.S. National Report to IUGG, 1991-1994, Rev. Geophys. Vol. 33 Suppl.; 1995. American Geophysical Union.
! Vincent Courtillot (2003): Evolutionary catastrophes: the science of mass extinction. PDF file, 188 pages, Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing).
Richard Cowen, Tracking the Course of Evolution: Extinctions, Mass Extinctions.
! T.J. Crowley and G.R. North (1988): Abrupt climate change and extinction events in earth history. In PDF, Science.
Mark Dalton, Cray Research,Inc., Los Alamos: Extinction pages. An index page without annotations.
Allen A. Debus, Fossil News: The Art of Paleocatastrophe. How paleoartists have portrayed catastrophic events in life´s past.Senatskommission für Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): Dynamische Erde – Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften. 10.3 – Krisen der Evolution und Dynamik der Biodiversität. In German.
R. Dirzo and P.H. Raven (2003): Global state of biodiversity and loss. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 28.
! dmoz, open directory project: Science: Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Extinction.
! A.M.T. Elewa (2008): Mass Extinction. In PDF. See also here (table of contents, Springer).! R.E. Ernst and N. Youbi (2017): How Large Igneous Provinces affect global climate, sometimes cause mass extinctions, and represent natural markers in the geological record. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 478: 30-52. See also here (in PDF).
Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, October 27-30, 2002, Denver, CO: Abstracts. Go to: Paleontology/Paleobotany V: Diversity Dynamics and Extinctions.
Geological Society of America, Geological Society of London. Earth System Processes - Global Meeting (June 24-28, 2001) Edinburgh: Technical Sessions. Abstracts. Go to: Controls on Phanerozoic Diversifications and Extinctions: Long-Term Interactions Between the Physical and Biotic Realms, and Critical Transitions in Earth History and Their Causes, and Critical Transitions in Earth History and Their Causes (Posters).! The Geological Society of London:
G. Escarguel et al. (2011): Biodiversity is not (and never has been) a bed of roses! In PDF, Comptes Rendus Biologies.
D.H. Erwin (2008): Extinction as the loss of evolutionary history. PDF file, PNAS, 105: 11520-11527. See also here (abstract).
Mike Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to: THE BIOSPHERE AND MASS EXTINCTIONS.
Brian Fisher Johnson (2009), Earth magazine, The American Geological Institute: Deciphering mass extinctions. What the planet´s past mass extinctions tell us about the future of life on Earth.
Michael Foote, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago: Origination and Extinction through the Phanerozoic: A New Approach. Analyzing the observed first and last appearances of marine animal and microfossil genera. PDF file, The Journal of Geology, 2003, volume 111, p. 125–148.
! The Full Wiki Project (an independent publishing company based in Sydney, Australia): Extinction events: Reference.
J.C. Gall (2009): Terre et Vie: des histoires imbriquées (in French, with an abridged English version p. 106). PDF file, Comptes Rendus Palevol, 8: 105-117.
Geolor, Geoteach.Com: List of Short Exercises. Exercises cover a variety of earth science topics with accompanying references.
S. Goderis et al. (2021): Globally distributed iridium layer preserved within the Chicxulub impact structure. Free access, Sci. Adv., 7: eabe3647.
W.A. Green et al. (2011): Does extinction wield an axe or pruning shears? How interactions between phylogeny and ecology affect patterns of extinction. In PDF, Paleobiology, 37: 72-91. See also here.
J.M. Gutak and D.A. Ruban (2013):
versus events in the geologic past: how
does the scale matter? In PDF.
! Photograph of an upright stem on PDF page 5!
Christa-Ch. Hofmann, Institute of Palaeontology, University of Vienna: Pollen and spores tell nearly everything...- and often nothing. Abstract, The International Plant Taphonomy Meeting 2002, Bonn, Goldfuss Museum, Institute of Paleontology, Germany. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B. Hönisch et al. (2012):
Geological Record of
Ocean Acidification. In PDF,
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
S.M. Holland and M.E. Patzkowsky (2015): The stratigraphy of mass extinction. Abstract.
Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum (named for now retired Dr.
Ken Hooper, a Carleton University micropaleontologist)
Department of Earth Sciences,
Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada).
The principle objective of this museum is to provide a state-of-the-art summary of items of
geological interest, emphasizing areas currently being studied by students and research faculty.
For some special topics you may navigate from here or from there (The archives).
! The End-Permian Mass Extinction.
! Extinctions: Cycles of Life and Death Through Time.
! Mass Extinctions Of The Phanerozoic Menu.
! Evolution & Extinction.
R.B. Huey et al. (2002): Plants versus animals: do they deal with stress in different ways? PDF file, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42: 415-423.
! P.M. Hull et al. (2020): On impact and volcanism across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. In PDF, Science, 367: 266–272. See also here (abstract) and there (in German).
P.M. Hull et al. (2016): Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems. In PDF, Nature 528: 345–351. See also here (abstract).
! P. Hull (2015): Life in the aftermath of mass extinctions. In PDF, Current Biology. See also here (abstract).
! P.M. Hull and S.A.F. Darroch (2013): Mass extinctions and the structure and function of ecosystems. PDF file, in: A.M. Bush, S.B. Pruss, and J.L. Payne (eds.): Ecosystem Paleobiology and Geobiology, The Paleontological Society Short Course, October 26, 2013. The Paleontological Society Papers, 19.
D. Jablonski (2005): Mass extinctions and macroevolution. In PDF, Paleobiology, 31: 192-210.
David Jablonski, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago: The interplay of physical and biotic factors in macroevolution. PDF file, In: A. Lister and L. Rothschild, eds., Evolution on Planet Earth: The impact of the physical environment. New York: Academic Press, 235-252; 2003.
David Jablonski, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago: Extinction: Past and present. PDF file, Nature 427: 589; 2004.
! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
! G. Keller and A.C. Kerr (2014): Foreword. From Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
Richard A. Kerr (2011):
the "Dinosaur Killer" Unfairly Charged?
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M. Konzalová (1994): Some remarks from paleobotany and paleontology to adaptation of plants to the stress condition and survival. PDF file, Geolines, 1.
V. Krassilov and A. Shuklina (2007): Terrestrial biotic crises: paleobotanical record and interpretation. In PDF.
Cyril Langlois, ENS de Lyon: Évolution et crises biologiques. PDF file, in French.
S. Lidgard et al. (2009): The search for evidence of mass extinction. In PDF, Natural history, 118: 26-32.
Bruce S. Lieberman and Roger Kaesler (2010):
Evolution and the Fossil Record. Book announcement (Wiley-Blackwell),
including table of contents.
The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.
! Available in PDF from here. See especially:
PDF page 38: "Taphonomy."
PDF page 74: "Introduction to Evolution."
! PDF page 123: "Extinctions: The Legacy of the Fossil Record."
! PDF page 137: "The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences."
PDF page 227: "Life, Climate, and Geology."
PDF page 236: "Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind."
PDF page 242: "Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology."
Ronald J. Litwin, Robert E. Weems, and Thomas R. Holtz, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver (Maintained by Eastern Publications Group Web Team): Dinosaurs: Facts and Fiction.
! R. Lockwood (2008): Beyond the "Big Five" - Extinctions as Experiments in the History of Life. In PDF. In: From Evolution to Geobiology: Research Questions Driving Paleontology at the Start of a New Century, Paleontological Society Short Course, October 4, 2008. Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 14, Patricia H. Kelley and Richard K. Bambach. (Eds.).
E.N. Lughadha et al. (2020): Extinction risk and threats to plants and fungi. Open access, Plants, People, Planet, 2: 389–408.
J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here
P.J. Mayhew et al. (2008): A long-term association between global temperature and biodiversity, origination and extinction in the fossil record. In PDF, Proc Biol Sci., 275: 47-53.
! Jennifer C. McElwain and Surangi W. Punyasena (2007): Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22: 548-557. See also here (abstract).
Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin:
Climate change and mass extinction: What
can we learn from 200 million year old
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G.R. McGhee et al. (2013): A new ecological-severity ranking of major Phanerozoic biodiversity crises. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 370: 260-270.
! G.R. McGhee et al. (2004): Ecological ranking of Phanerozoic biodiversity crises: ecological and taxonomic severities are decoupled. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211: 289-297.
N. MacLeod (2014): The geological extinction record: History, data, biases, and testing. Abstract, from: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
S. Miller (2014): The public impact of impacts: How the media play in the mass extinction debates. PDF file, in: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
Stephen A. Nelson, Department of Geology, Tulane University. New Orleans, LA: Natural Disasters, Meteorites, Impacts, and Mass Extinction.
Michael J. Novacek and Elsa E. Cleland (2001): The current biodiversity extinction event: Scenarios for mitigation and recovery. Abstract, PNAS, 98: 5466-5470.
! Paul E. Olsen, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY: Dinosaurs and the History of Life. Go to: Lecture 23 - The Impact Theory of Mass Extinction. The general pattern of extinctions.
W. Oschmann (2006): Evolution und Sterben der Dinosaurier. In PDF, Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 93, 345, 117-143. PDF file, in German.
! J.L. Payne and M.E. Clapham (2012): End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century? In PDF, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40: 89-111. See also here (New York Times feature).
PBS, Alexandria, Virginia (PBS is a private, non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the US 349 public television stations): Evolution. This online course is intended to deepen the understanding of evolution with extensive content-rich materials, interactive exercises, primary source readings and in depth exploration of scientific concepts. Go to: Extinction.
Peripatus Homepage (?): Extinction.
David Perlman, San Francisco Chronicle: Mass extinction comes every 62 million years, UC physicists discover.
Shanan E. Peters, University of Wisconsin-Madison: Sepkoski´s Online Genus Database. The purpose of this database is to allow users to easily search and summarize Sepkoski's global genus compendium on the basis of Evolutionary Fauna, Phylum, or Class.
! Shanan E. Peters (2008): Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record. PDF file, Nature, Vol. 454.
! Alex L. Pigot et al. (2012): Speciation and Extinction Drive the Appearance of Directional Range Size Evolution in Phylogenies and the Fossil Record. In PDF.
! N. Pinter and S.E. Ishman (2008): Impacts, mega-tsunami, and other extraordinary claims. In PDF, GSA today.
A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 216.
P David Polly, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN:
Historical Geology. Life through time.
Lecture notes. Topics are paleontology, geologic time, biological evolution,
plate tectonics, ancient environments, and climate change,
principles of interpreting earth history from geological data, etc. Go to:
Lecture 21: Mesozoic 2: Terrestrial environments and extinction. Lecture slides (PDF file).
! G. Racki (2019): Big 5 mass extinctions. In PDF. Chapter accepted to "Encyclopedia of Geology", 2. ed., Elsevier, 2020.
G. Racki (2014): Dmitri Sobolev and other forgotten forerunners of mass extinction science and volcanic catastrophism. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.
! G. Racki (2012): The Alvarez impact theory of mass extinction; limits to its applicability and the "great expectations syndrome". In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. See also here (abstract).
M. Rakocinski et al. (2020): Volcanic related methylmercury poisoning as the possible driver of the end- Devonian Mass Extinction. In PDF, Scientific Reports, 10: 7344.
Michael R. Rampino (2010): Mass extinctions of life and catastrophic flood basalt volcanism. PDF file, PNAS, 107: 6555-6556. See also here.
! D.M. Raup, PNAS Online: The Role of Extinction in Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol 91, 6758-6763. See also here (PDF).
! D.M. D.M. Raup and J.J. Sepkoski Jr. (1982): Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record. PDF file, Science.
E. Stiles et al. (2020): Cretaceous–Paleogene plant extinction and recovery in Patagonia. Open access, Paleobiology, 46: 445–469.
Gregory J. Retallack (2011): Exceptional fossil preservation during CO2 greenhouse crises? Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
! R.A. Rohde and R.A. Muller (2005): Cycles in Fossil Diversity. In PDF, Nature, 434, 208-210. See also here and there (abstract).
Dmitry A. Ruban (2012): Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new? In PDF, Geologos, 18: 37-42.
Robert Sanders, Public Affairs, NEWS RELEASE, 4/22/99; University of California at Berkeley: New evidence links mass extinction with massive eruptions that split Pangea supercontinent and created the Atlantic 200 million years ago.
Sarda Sahney et al. (2010): Rainforest collapse triggered Carboniferous tetrapod diversification in Euramerica. PDF file, Geology, 38: 1079-1082. See also here, and there (abstract).
S.R. Schachat and C.C. Labandeira (2021): Are Insects Heading Toward Their First Mass Extinction? Distinguishing Turnover From Crises in Their Fossil Record. In PDF, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 114: 99–118. See also here.
! J.J. Sepkoski (1998): Rates of speciation in the fossil record. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 353: 315-326.
P.W. Signor III and J.H. Lipps (1982):
bias, gradual extinction patterns and catastrophes in the fossil record.
In PDF, Geological Society of America.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J.D. Sigwart et al. (2018): Measuring Biodiversity and Extinction—Present and Past. Open access, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 58: 1111–1117. See also here (in PDF).
D. Silvestro et al. (2016): Fossil biogeography: a new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from palaeontological data. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B, 371. See also here.
Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Blast from the Past!
S.V. Sobolev et al. (2011): Linking mantle plumes, large igneous provinces and environmental catastrophes. In PDF.
R.V. Solé and M. Newman (2002): Extinctions and Biodiversity in the Fossil Record. In PDF, Volume 2, The Earth system: biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change, pp. 297-301; Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change.
H. Song et al. (2021):
of temperature change for mass
extinctions. Open access,
Nature Communications, 12.
Note fig. 1: Temperature change and extinction rate over the past 450 million years.
S.M. Stanley (2016):
of the magnitudes of major marine mass
extinctions in earth history. In PDF,
freely available online through the PNAS open access option.
See also here.
"... that the great terminal Permian crisis eliminated only about 81% of marine species, not the frequently quoted 90–96%. Life did not almost disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been asserted."
H. Svensen et al. (2009): Contact metamorphism, halocarbons, and environmental crises of the past. PDF file, Environ. Chem., 6: 466-471.
! R.J. Twitchett et al. (2006): The palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology and palaeoenvironmental analysis of mass extinction events. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232: 190-213.
David Ulansey, California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco: Mass Extinction Underway. A number of reports, articles, and Web sites dealing with what many now call the sixth extinction. Visit the Mass Extinction Links.
V. Vajda et al. (2016): Disrupted vegetation as a response to Jurassic volcanism in southern Sweden. In PDF, from: Kear, B. P., Lindgren, J., Hurum, J. H., Milàn, J. & Vajda, V. (eds): Mesozoic Biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic Territories. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 434.
! Vivi Vajda and Stephen McLoughlin (2007): Extinction and recovery patterns of the vegetation across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary - a tool for unravelling the causes of the end-Permian mass-extinction. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 144: 99-112.
P.B. Wignall and B. van de Schootbrugge (2016): Middle Phanerozoic mass extinctions and a tribute to the work of Professor Tony Hallam. In PDF, Geological Magazine. See also here (abstract).
! Steve C. Wang and Andrew M. Bush (2008): Adjusting global extinction rates to account for taxonomic susceptibility. Abstract, Paleobiology,34: 434-455. See also here (in PDF).
! P.B. Wignall (2001): Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 53: 1-33.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Extinction event.
Peter Wilf et al. (2006): Decoupled Plant and Insect Diversity After the End-Cretaceous Extinction. PDF file, Science, 313.
David B. Williams (2010), Earth magazine, The American Geological Institute: Do impacts trigger extinctions? Impact theory still controversial.
S.A. Wooldridge (2008):
extinctions past and present:
a unifying hypothesis. In PDF,
Biogeosciences Discussions, 5: 2401-2423. See also:
Interactive comment on "Mass extinctions past and present: a unifying hypothesis" by SA Wooldridge.
> Biology > Extinction >
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