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Seed Plants in General


Federico Exequiel Arce and y Alicia Isabel Lutz (2010): Fructificaciones de la Formación Los Rastros, Triásico Superior, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina (in Spanish). PDF file, Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, 27: 32-42. Triassic fructifications (Umkomasia, Peltaspermum, Andersonia, Matatiella, Telemachus) from Argentina and elsewhere in Gondwana. See also here.

The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Spermatophytes: The seed plants.

britannica.com: Gymnosperm.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Canadian Encyclopedia:
Seed Plants.

! M.W. Chase et al. (1993): Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL. In PDF, Annals of the Missouri Bot. Gard., 80.

Shu-Miaw Chaw et al. (2000): Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers. PDF file, PNAS, 97. See also here.

M.J. Donoghue and J.A. Doyle (2000): Seed plant phylogeny: Demise of the anthophyte hypothesis? Current Biology, 10.

! M.J. Donoghue (1989): Phylogenies and the analysis of evolutionary sequences, with examples from seed plants. PDF file, Evolution, 43.

! Christopher J. Earle (server space has been provided by the Department of Botany, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany): The Gymnosperm Database. Currently the database provides basic information for all species and higher-ranked taxa of the gymnosperms, i.e., conifers, cycads, and their allies. You may navigate from the Gymnosperm Database Site Map All Taxa on the Gymnosperm Database.

The Groningen Institute of Archaeology: Digital Seed Atlas of the Netherlands. The Digital Seed Atlas of the Netherlands is part of The Digital Plant Atlas, an international project that makes a unique contribution to the identification of seeds, fruits, roots, tubers, bulbs, stem fragments, leaves, flowers, buds and resins. The plant parts are illustrated with high-quality colour photographs and accompanied by a scale and their scientific name.

Gerhard Leubner Lab, University Freiburg, Germany: Seed Evolution. Go to: Angiosperm seed evolution and species diversification.

Gerhard Leubner, The Seed Biology Place, Molecular Plant Sciences, University Freiburg, Germany: Seed evolution. Origin and evolution of the seed habit. See also: Seed dictionary English-German.

A. Linkies et al. (2010): The evolution of seeds. PDF file, New Phytologist.

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany.
History of Palaeozoic Forests, EARLIEST SEED PLANTS. Link list page with rankings and brief explanations. Images of Moresnetia, Moresnetia zaleskyi, Elkinsia. See also: CALLIPTERIDS. Images of Autunia conferta, Rhachiphyllum schenkii.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany.
History of Palaeozoic Forests, THE EARLY FORESTS AND THE PROGYMNOSPERMS. Link list page with rankings and brief explanations. Images of Archaeopteris, Tetraxylopteris schmidtii, Callixylon, Archaeopteris gaspensis, Archaeopteris halliana, Archaeopteris hibernica.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The New York Botanical Garden, Herbarium: Catalog of North American Gymnosperms. Approximately 10,000 records of gymnosperms (without cycadopytes and gnetophytes) from North America north of Mexico are available for searching and are arranged according to family.

Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Land Plants Online. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.M. Pettitt and C.B. Beck (1968): Archaeosperma arnoldii: a cupulate seed from the Upper Devonian of North America. In PDF, Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich., 22: 139–154.

C. Prestianni et al. (2013): Were all devonian seeds cupulate? A reinvestigation of Pseudosporogonites hallei, Xenotheca bertrandii, and Aglosperma spp. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci. 174, 832–851.

K.M. Pryer et al. (2001): Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants. Abstract, Nature, 409: 618-622.
! See also here (in PDF).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Spermatophyte.
Samenpflanzen (in German).












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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
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Last updated October 11, 2017