Palaeobotanical Tools /
Photography and Scanning
Preparation and Conservation
Managing Fossil Collections
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
! Panorama Creation and Stitching Tools@
! Tutorials, Tips and Tricks to Adobe Photoshop@
Adobe Forum: Descreening scanned photos.
Jürgen Albrecht, Berlin: Grundlagen der Medientechnik (in German). Go to: Digitale Bildbearbeitung, and Unterschiedliche Scannerauflösung. See also here.
Department of Geological Sciences (High-Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Facility), University of Texas, Austin:
Folio. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
High-resolution X-ray CT (Computed Tomography) is a completely nondestructive technique for visualizing features in the interior of opaque solid objects, and for obtaining digital information on their 3-D geometries and properties. What is X-ray CT? Eexcerpted and adapted from: Denison, C., Carlson, W.D., and Ketcham, R.A. 1997. Three-dimensional quantitative textural analysis of metamorphic rocks using high-resolution computed X-ray tomography: Part I. Methods and techniques. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 15: 29-44.
A. Baacke (2013):
zwischen Kunst und Dokumentation. Thesis, in PDF,
Freie Universität Berlin (in German).
"The topics within this work are looked at from art-historical, art-theoretical, cultural and scientific perspectives. This document aims to expand the state of research by providing a wide-ranging look at the works of Bernd and Hilla Becher, Albert Renger-Patzsch, August Sander and Karl Blossfeldt".
Paul A. Barber and Philip J. Keane (2007): A novel method of illustrating microfungi. PDF file, Fungal Diversity, 27: 1-10.
Jacci Howard Bear, About.com: Scanning Resolution, Scaling, File Size. Getting a great scan by understanding resolution, bit depth, file formats and sizes, and scaling options.
! Stefan Bengtson, (Department of Palaeozoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm); In: Palaeontologia Electronica, Volume 3, Issue 1; 2000 (Coquina Press): Teasing Fossils out of Shales with Cameras and Computers. Simple yet effective methods are available (using Adobe Photoshop) to enhance photographic images of low-contrast and low-relief specimens, such as fossils in shales, without manipulating or retouching the photographs. By applying polarizing filters to camera and light-source(s) in a way analogous to crossing nicols in a petrographic microscope, dramatic results can be achieved where there is a difference in reflectance between fossil and matrix, as with many coalified fossils. Excellent!
! A. Bercovici et al. (2009): Improving depth of field resolution for palynological photomicrography. PDF file, Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol. 12.
V. Blagoderov et al. (2012): No specimen left behind: industrial scale digitization of natural history collections. In PDF, Zookeys, 2012, (209): 133-146.
Dee Breger (The Silicofossil Group, The Micropalaeontological Society TMS): Colouring-in micrographs - bringing images from the cloistered lab to the general public. See also: Gallery. Some false coloured images.
Edwin Brosens: Studio Photography: Fossils.
J. Buehl (2014): Toward an Ethical Rhetoric of the Digital Scientific Image: Learning From the Era When Science Met Photoshop, Technical Communication Quarterly, 23. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).
Richard Burke, eHow: How to Scan Images From Magazines or Books.
William D. Carlson (2006): Three-dimensional imaging of earth and planetary materials. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 249: 133-147. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Sue Chastain (2017), Thoughtco.com: How To Remove Moire Patterns From Scanned Photos in Photoshop and Elements.
Consumer Electronics HQ, Inc., Needham, MA: Digital Camera HQ. DigitalCamera-HQ.com's mission is to help consumers find the right digital camera for their needs and then direct them to the best online retailers selling these products.
! P. Crabb (2001): The use of polarised light in photography of macrofossils. In PDF, Palaeontology, 44: 659-664.
Alister Cruickshanks, Mineraltown.com: Photographing Fossils.
! J.A. Cunningham et al. (2014): A virtual world of paleontology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 347-357.
Michael W. Davidson, Mortimer Abramowitz, Olympus America Inc., and The Florida State University: Molecular Expressions, Introduction to Optical Microscopy, Digital Imaging, and Photomicrography.
Michael W. Davidson, Florida State University: An Introduction to Microscopy and Photography Through the Microscope. This page is divided into sections like: How to set up a microscope, photography through the microscope, sample preparation for microscopy, microscopy resources on the web, etc.
J. Delaney (2008): An Inconvenient Truth? Scientific Photography and Archival Ambivalence. In PDF Archivaria, 65 (The Journal of the Association of Canadian Archivists).
Scanning Tips and Related Sites.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
digitalkamera.de. Available in German and English.
Worth checking out:
Tips and Tricks,
Embed images with appropriate resolution in wordprocessor.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Digital Photography Review (by Askey.Net Consulting Ltd., edited and maintained by Philip & Joanna Askey). One of the most thorough resources for up-to-the-minute information about cameras, software and digital photographic information. Reviews, comparisons, forums, and buying guides for the digital photographer. Go to: "Buying Guide", "Digital Cameras Side-by-Side". Select two cameras on the left side, then click on the "Add" button to add them to your list, and finally compare side-by-side. Excellent!
The Exploratorium, San Francisco, The Learning Studio: Photography.
Electron Microscopy Core Laboratory (EMCL),
Biotechnology Program, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL:
Tips & Tricks.
This information is gleaned from the Microscopy and Confocal
list-servers as well as from independent contributions. Go to:
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Follio.com (maintained by Vubo Ltd., U.K.):
Manipulation & How To Avoid Copyright Infingement.
This website looks at the legalities involved in image manipulation, mainly focusing on US law but also reviewing laws around the world. It looks at how these laws are interpreted by different people and shares some example cases.
Giraud Foster & Norman Barker, Ancient Microworld:
Photo Gallery. Some
Click on an image to view an enlarged version. See also:
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
FotoNet 2.0 (in German). Don´t miss the link directories about image processing.
M. Frese et al. (2017):
of Jurassic fossils from the Talbragar Fish Bed using fluorescence, photoluminescence,
and elemental and mineralogical mapping.
PLoS ONE 12(6): e0179029.
"... Closer inspection of a plant leaf (Pentoxylon australicum White, 1981) establishes fluorescence as a useful tool for the visualisation of anatomical details that are difficult to see under normal light conditions".
E. Frow (2012): Drawing a Line: Setting Guidelines for Digital Image Processing in Scientific Journal Articles Social Studies of Science, 42: 369-392.
Wayne Fulton: A few scanning tips. The purpose is to offer some scanning tips and hints, help with fundamentals and other basic scanning information to help you get the most from your scanner. See also here. And finally: Moiré Interference. Manual descreen methods. Scanning images in magazines/books/newspapers.
Anaglyph (3D) Imaging and Field Geology.
How anaglyphs are made and the
about 3D camera configuration.
U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Department of the Interior: 3-D Tours Featuring Park Geology.
! Alan Hadley, U.K.:
CombineZ5 (still available,
because it works with older versions of windows), and
CombineZ Movie (CZM).
The purpose of these free programs is to increase depth of focus by combining pictures, but
each picture should be in focus at a different depth into the scene. The programs are especially
useful to microscope users (e.g. palynomorphs) and macro photographers. Excellent!
CZM is the latest version, it can process movies, take pictures, and has more macro
commands but still has all of the functionality of CombineZ5.
See also here (about Interactive Digital Photomontage), and a review of Helicon Focus and CombineZ5 software (by John Hollenberg, Digital Outback Photo).
Øyvind Hammer, Stefan Bengtson, Tom Malzbender, and Dan Gelb: Imaging Fossils Using Reflectance Transformation and Interactive Manipulation of Virtual Light Sources. Palaeontologia Electronica, Volume 5, Issue 1, 2002. Also available in PDF.
J.T. Haug et al. (2011): Autofluorescence imaging, an excellent tool for comparative morphology. In PDF, Journal of Microscopy.
! C. Haug et al.: New Methods to Document Fossils from Lithographic Limestones of Southern Germany and Lebanon. PDF file, Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 12. About composite imaging. See also here.
T.A. Hegna and R.E. Johnson (2016): Preparation of Fossil and Osteological 3D-Printable Models from Freely Available CT-Scan Movies. In PDF, Journal of Paleontological Techniques, 16: 1-10.
T.A. Hegna (2010): Photography of Soft-Bodied Crustaceans via Drying, Whitening, and Splicing. PDF file, Journal of Crustacean Biology.
Richard Hill, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona: Experiments in scanning fossils. Examples. The trick is to select small areas in the scanning software and then use the highest resolution.
! David Hollander (2010): Scientific Photography. In PDF. Useful hints!
Intas Science Imaging Instruments GmbH, Göttingen, Germany (in German). Microscope cameras and others.
! Wayne Itano, Boulder, Colorado: Photographing Fossils. In PDF. Workshop given 2005 at the Western Interior Paleontological Society Founders Symposium, Golden, Colorado. See also here.
! T.P. Jones and Nick P. Rowe (eds.), Google Books:
Fossil plants and spores:
Published by Geological Society, 1999,
396 pages. Excellent! Go to page 41:
T.S. Karim et al. (2016): Digitization workflows for paleontology collections. Palaeontologia Electronica.
H. Kerp and B. Bomfleur (2011):
of plant fossils - New techniques, old tricks. In PDF,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 166: 117-151.
See also here (abstract with reduced figures and plates).
Kodak, (Eastman Kodak Company), Rochester, New York. Go to: Scientific Imaging Systems Products by Use. Whether you're interested in capturing molecular details, the big picture, or something in between, Kodak's digital imaging systems and film products for scientific imaging are specifically designed for such key research applications.
S.H. Leach (2016): Scientific Imagining: Studio Based Research into Genre Images of Science and How Art Might Interpret Modern Science. In PDF, thesis, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University, Melbourne.
Jay Longson et al. (2010): Adapting Traditional Macro and Micro Photography for Scientific Gigapixel Imaging. PDF file, Fine International Conference on Gigapixel Imaging for Science.
H. Mallison (2012): Digitizing Methods for Paleontology: Applications, Benefits and Limitations. In PDF.
Sean T. McHugh, Cambridge in Colour, Digital Photography Tutorials. Go to: Sharpening Using an "Unsharp Mask".
D. Morse et al, (2009): Improving search in scanned documents: Looking for OCR mismatches. In PDF.
Philip Greenspun, Switzerland (Project MAC):
and Black and White Photography Resources,
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Park Service (NPS), U.S. Department of the Interior
(the Museum Management Program (MMP), part of the National Center for Cultural Resources
! NPS Museum Handbook. This is a reference guide on how to manage, preserve, document, access and use museum collections. Go to:
Part I: Museum Collections.
Part II, Museum Records.
Part III, Museum Collections Use.
All files are in PDF format. See especially:
! Appendix K: Photography (in PDF).
Bruno J. Navarro, fotophile: World Wide Web Photography Sites. A list of photography and related sites on the World Wide Web.
Laura Niven et al. (2009): Virtual skeletons: using a structured light scanner to create a 3D faunal comparative collection. PDF file, Journal of Archaeological Science, 36: 2018-2023.
The Novartis and The Daily Telegraph, UK: Visions of Science. £ 7000 of cash prices to be won. In this competition they are looking for photographs that communicate the impact of science, medicine and technology on all our lives.
FOTO-online. This site from Switzerland provides photographical knowledge, formulas, tables and a glossary of photographical terms (in German).
Kodak. Go to: Digital Photography.
PhotoshopGurus: How to remove moire.
Charles A. Price et al. (2011): Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface: Segmenting and Analyzing the Structure of Leaf Veins and Areoles. Plant Physiol., 155: 236-245.
The Print Guide Blogspot: Moiré.
Real World Scanning and Halftones:
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Royal Ontario Museum: Photographing Fossils. Video lecture.
Bjørn Rørslett, Naturfotograf.com: The Circle is Closed: Chips to the Rescue. Macro lenses adapted on a Nicon digital camera!
Why we use descreening.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Scantips.com: Manual Descreen methods.
! Seam Carving GUI.
Seam carving for content-aware image resizing. Free download!
Also available as
For more see here, and there (Wikipedia), or read about the nuts and bolts (PDF file, by Shai Avidan (Mitsubishi) and Ariel Shamir, ACM Transactions on Graphics, Volume 26).
! P.A. Selden (2014): A workflow for digital photography of fossil specimens. In PDF, The Geological Curator, 10: 93-97.
! SELFHTML: Techniken und Begriffe der Bildbearbeitung (in German).
What Causes Moiré, How To Avoid It & How To Remove It.
Michael J. Sullivan, Catalog Design, Open Market, Inc.: Sullivan's Online Scanning Resources. Online scanning resources website.
! T.N. Taylor (1968): Application of the scanning electron microscope in paleobotany. PDF file.
TAXONOMIC TOOLS BY COMPUTER 2 (TTBC2)
theImage.com. Digital Photography. An introduction.
! Jessica M. Theodor and Robin S. Furr (2009): High Dynamic Range Imaging as Applied to Paleontological Specimen Photography. Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 12, No. 1. Underexposed, metered and overexposed images have been saved in Nikon´s NEF format (a version of the RAW format) and in high quality JPEG files and then processed using Photomatix Pro (HDRSoft), Hydra 1.5 (Creaceed Software), FDRTools (AGS Technik) and Adobe Photoshop CS3, running under Mac OS X 10.5.3.
Berthold Weber, Weiden:
Foto. In German.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Image editing.
! Image sharpening.
! Photo manipulation.
See especially: ! "Photoshopped".
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Moiré pattern.
! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Bildbearbeitung (in German),
Computer graphics (see also here, in German).
A. Willis et al.(2009): Improving search in scanned documents: Looking for OCR mismatches PDF file). In: Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Digital Libraries 2009: ICSD - International Conference for Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web, Trento, Italy.
P. Wolniewicz (2009): Easily-accessible digital palaeontological databases - a new perspective for the storage of palaeontological information. In PDF, Geologos, 15: 181-188.
Zeiss AG: Microscope Software AxioVision LE. A free software, including image analysis and measurement functions.
! A. Ziegler et al. (2010):
and challenges for digital morphology. In PDF,
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