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Making Thin Sections
Preparation and Conservation: Supplies and Equipment

Cellulose Peel Technique
Latex Casts
Microscopy
Fluorescence Microscopy and Fluorescence Microspectroscopy
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Photography and Scanning
Imaging Fossils Using UV-Light (Black-Light Photography)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Cameras With Focus Bracketing or Built-In Focus Stacking
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Superresolution (SR)
X-ray and Tomography
Raman Spectroscopy
Geostatistics
Managing Fossil Collections

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Preparation and Conservation Technics


Keith W. Abineri, West Borough, Wimborne, Dorset, UK: THE EXAMINATION OF MICROFOSSILS, NANNOFOSSILS AND OTHER MICROSCOPICAL OBJECTS USING CELLULOSE LACQUER ROCK PEELS.

Rainer Albert, Steinkern.de: Die Konservierung sulfidisierter Fossilien mittels Ethanolaminthioglycolat und Paraloid B67. In German.

American Museum of Natural History:
! Fossil Preparation. This site is intended as a central resource on fossil preparation for anyone who has an interest in paleontology. Worth checking out:
Collecting (Preparing for the field, tchniques in the field).
! Revealing (Techniques, equipment, tools and materials).
Health and Safety.
! Links.

Arbeitskreis Paläontologie Hannover (in German). Go to:
Präparation von Fossilien aus dem Campan von Hannover (by Udo Frerichs, in German). How to prepare fossils from the Cretaceous near Hannover.

A Arzac et al. (2018): Applying methods of hard tissues preparation for wood anatomy: Imaging polished samples embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. In PDF, Dendrochronologia, 51: 76-81. See also here.

! Georg von Arx et al. (2016): Quantitative Wood Anatomy — Practical Guidelines. In PDF, Front. Plant Sci., 7. See also here.

! Lorna Ash & Heather Kroening, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Botany. Go to: Peel Technique. See also here. Online and downloadable flash 4 movies. Excellent!

A. Balzano et al. (2022): Scanning electron microscopy protocol for studying anatomy of highly degraded waterlogged archaeological wood. Open access, Forests, 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020161.
"... The applied SEM protocol allowed characterisation of the anatomy of the highly degraded WAW [waterlogged archaeological wood] while reducing the time required for sample preparation and examination under the microscope ..."

! A.C.F. Barbosa et al. (2021): Polishing entire stems and roots using sandpaper under water: An alternative method for macroscopic analyses. Open access, Applications in Plant Sciences, 9: e11421. doi:10.1002/aps3.11421.

! A. Barron (2023): Applications of Microct Imaging to Archaeobotanical Research. Open access, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10816-023-09610-z.

Bauer Handels GmbH, Switzerland. Preparation accessories (in German). Go to:
Linksammlung Verbände & Organisationen.

F. Becherini et al. (2018): Pyrite Decay of Large Fossils: The Case Study of the Hall of Palms in Padova, Italy. In PDF, Minerals, 8. doi:10.3390/min8020040. See also here.
"... treatment alone is not sufficient for the conservation of fossils at risk of pyrite decay and that it can be ineffective without a proper management of the microclimatic conditions under which the fossils are preserved".

Marc Behrendt, Fossil News December, 1999, (Journal of Amateur Paleontologists), Boulder, Colorado: Fossil Preparation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

J.C. Benedict (2015): A new technique to prepare hard fruits and seeds for anatomical studies. In PDF, Appl. Plant Sci., 3.

A. Bercovici (2016): From the Field: Hunting Cretaceous Plants. From: Digging the Fossil Record: Paleobiology at the Smithsonian Dinosaurs (Department of Paleobiology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History).

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley: Plant Fossils and Their Preservation.

C. Blanco-Moreno (2021): Preparation protocols for SEM visualization of charred fossil plants: the case of Weichselia reticulata pinnule anatomy. In PDF, Spanish Journal of Palaeontology, 36.

J.C. Blong (2023): Sequential biomolecular, macrofossil, and microfossil extraction from coprolites for reconstructing past behavior and environments. Free access, Front. Ecol. Evol., 11:1131294. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1131294.

J. Brunet et al. (2023): Preparation of large biological samples for high-resolution, hierarchical, synchrotron phase-contrast tomography with multimodal imaging compatibility Free access, Nature protocols, 18: 1441–1461.
"... we describe the preparation, stabilization, dehydration and mounting of large soft-tissue samples for X-ray microtomography ,,,"

Fred Clouter: The trouble with pyrite. In PDF.

Margaret E. Collinson: Pyrite Conservation from Fossil Plants of the London Clay. In PDF.

L. Cornish and A. Doyle (1984): Use of ethanolamine thioglycollate in the conservation of pyritized fossils. PDF file, Palaeontology, 27. 421-424.

! B. Crair (2023): The Fossil Flowers That Rewrote the History of Life. Free access, The New Yorker.
"... Instead of breaking rocks, she crumbled soft sediments into a sieve, washed away the sand grains in water, and saved the tiny specks of charcoal that were left behind.
[...] Fresh discoveries, she added, could radically change the known history of flowers.
[...] “A day in the field can be years of work in the laboratory.” ..."

Denver Museum of Nature and Science: Follow a Plant Fossil: Preparation.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.G. Diedrich (2009): A coelacanthid-rich site at Hasbergen (NW Germany): taphonomy and palaeoenvironment of a first systematic excavation in the Kupferschiefer (Upper Permian, Lopingian). In PDF, Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 89: 67-94.
Mapped taphonomy of plants, invertebrates and fish vertebrates at six different planal levels on a 12 m2 area.

! A.M. Doyle (2003): A large scale ‘Microclimate’ enclosure for pyritic specimens. In PDF, starting on PDF page 10. The Geological Curator, 7: 329-335.

Earth Science Australia: Fossil Preparation and Conservation.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Norbert und Doris Fischer, Mainz, Germany: Excavation Dictionary. A German-English English-German collection of technical terms in excavation technology and archaeology.

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida: Fossil Preparation and Conservation. The information contained in fossils can be developed and enhanced by proper preparation techniques. The topics in these pages will help you to accomplish the goals of both preparation and conservation of fossil specimens.

Fossil Preparation (American Museum of Natural History and The Paleontology Portal). Go to: Pyrite "Disease".

Marilyn Fox and Vicki Yarborough Fitzgerald: A Review of Vertebrate Fossil Support (and storage) Systems at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. Powerpoint presentation.

! E.M. Friis et al. (2013): New Diversity among Chlamydospermous Seeds from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal and North America. Free accesss, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 174: 530–558.
"... The material is based on numerous charcoalified and lignitic specimens recovered from Early Cretaceous mesofossil floras [...]
! Attenuation-based synchrotron-radiation x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and phase-contrast x-ray tomographic microscopy (PCXTM) were carried out [...]
! Volume rendering (voltex), which provides transparent reconstructions, was also used for the virtual sections ..."

FSB Fossiliensammler Bedarf (in German). Go to: Tipps und Erfahrungen,
Die Sandstrahltechnik, by Olaf Schwitalla (in German).
Präparieren mit Kaliumhydroxid, by Olaf Schwitalla (in German).
Verwendung von Rewoquat, by Olaf Schwitalla (in German).
PalCol - Sammlungsverwaltung für Fossilien, by Hannes Löser (in German).

Fossil Preparation (American Museum of Natural History and The Paleontology Portal). Go to: Labeling.

! H. Gärtner and F.H. Schweingruber (2013): Microscopic Preparation Techniques for Plant Stem Analysis. In PDF.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Geological Curators Group (GCG):
GCG is a membership organisation affiliated to the Geological Society of London. GCG strives to connect every geological collection with appropriate resources, knowledge and skills to thrive and positively impact science and society.

K.P. Giebel (1984): Plant Fossils in the Laboratory. PDF file. Website hosted by The Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE).
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Gold Bugs Trilobites with Legs and Antennae, Watertown, NY: Fossil Prep Lab (April 02, 2012).
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

O.R. Green (2013): A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology. Google books.

O.R. Green: Extraction Techniques for Palaeobotanical and Palynological Material. Abstract, pp 256-287. A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology.

! F Grímsson et al. (2021): How to extract and analyze pollen from internal organs and exoskeletons of fossil insects? Open access, STAR protocols, 2.

! Ø. Hammer and J. Spocova (2013): Virtual whitening of fossils using polynomial texture mapping. Palaeontologia Electronica. See also here (in PDF).

T.A. Hegna and R.E. Johnson (2016): Preparation of Fossil and Osteological 3D-Printable Models from Freely Available CT-Scan Movies. In PDF, Journal of Paleontological Techniques, 16: 1-10.

! M.M. Howell et al. (2022): A modified, step-by-step procedure for the gentle bleaching of delicate fossil leaf cuticles. Open access, Fossil Imprint, 78: 445–450.
See also here. "... Previously, the fossil conifer needles from Miocene lignites were consistently destroyed by the use of Schulze’s reagent and produced unusable results with only 5–10% sodium hypochlorite solution. By using the modified weak bleach method given here, large areas of cuticles could be prepared, remained intact, and yielded good diagnostic information on the leaves. ..."

Wayne Itano (2005), Museum of Natural History, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado: Photographing Fossils. In PDF.
! Note the whitening procedure of fossils with ammonium chloride smoke starting on PDF page 23!

Journal of Paleontological Techniques (JPT).
JPT aims to promote and facilitate the sharing of techniques and methodologies in paleontological research. These include techniques of excavation, collection, conservation, preparation, and exhibition of (fossil) specimens, as well as new scientific methodologies and approaches for paleontological studies. Go to:
Back Issues.

Heather Kroening, & Karen Hagen, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Procedures. Go to: How to make a wet mount. Online and downloadable flash movie.

! M. Krogmann and J. Lehmann (2016): Weißen von Fossilien für die wissenschaftliche Fotografie – ein Methodenvergleich. PDF file, in German. Der Präparator, 62: 66-77. See also here.

Glen Kuban, Kuban´s Paleo Place: Fossil Preparation.

Glen J. Kuban: Making Silicone Rubber Molds.

! C. Labandeira (2014): Amber. PDF file. In: Laflamme M, Schiffbauer JD, Darroch SAF, editors. Reading and Writing of the Fossil record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization, Paleontol. Soc. Pap., vol. 20: 163–216. See also here.
Note fig. 7: Steps in the transformation of raw amber into collection items.

! B. Liu et al. (2022): SEM petrography of dispersed organic matter in black shales: A review. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 224.
See also here.

Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison:
Paleontological Experiences for Science Teachers (funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute). Hands-on training in vertebrate paleontology, using fieldwork and laboratory work. Go to:
Brief guide to preparing fossils with dental picks.
Websites still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis:
LRC Core Facility, Floral and faunal components, Charcoal counting (sieve method). Procedure writeup (PDF file).
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! L. Lopez Cavalcante et al. (2023): Analysis of fossil plant cuticles using vibrational spectroscopy: A new preparation protocol. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 316.
See also here.
"... alarming changes were caused by the use of Schulze’s solution, which resulted in the addition of both NO2 and (O)NO2 compounds in the cuticle. Consequently, a new protocol using H2CO3, HF, and H2O2 for preparing fossil plant cuticles aimed for chemical analyses is proposed, which provides an effective substitute to the conventional methods ..."

D. Mauquoy et al. (2010): A protocol for plant macrofossil analysis of peat deposits. PDF file, Mires and Peat, 7.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B. Muddiman et al. (2020): Paleontologic Data Fossilized on IBM 8” Floppies. Behind the scenes, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley.
! Don't miss the video clips "Fossil Data Part 1 and 2".
All about carboniferous coal balls and an adventurous action in computer archaeology, reconstructing data from more than 360 vintage 1970s 8-inch floppy disks.

! L. Muriale et al. (1996): Fatality due to acute fluoride poisoning following dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid in a palynology laboratory. Free access, Journal of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, 40: 705-710.
! "... The fatality described below highlights the potential for relatively small quantities of concentrated hydrofluoric acid to produce acute systemic toxicity and it is clear that laboratory personnel underestimated the risks ..."

The Natural Sciences Collections Association (NatSCA).
NatSCA's mission is to promote and support natural science collections, the institutions that house them and the people that work with them, in order to improve collections care, understanding, accessibility and enjoyment for all. Worth checking out:
! Care and Conservation of Geological Specimens (in PDF).

S.J. Nelson (1965): Field Methods in Palaeontology. In PDF, Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 13. See also here.

! A. Newman (1998): Pyrite oxidation and museum collections: a review of theory and conservation treatments. In PDF, Geological Curator 6: 363-371.

C.J. O'Connor et al. (2024): Updating conservation techniques for paleontology collections associated with Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. In PDF, Parks Stewardship Forum.
See likewise here.

PageWise: Methods in Plant Histology. PageWise publishes articles on the internet, making them available to everyone. Book extract (published early in the 1900s), without images.

! R.L. Parsley et al. (2018): A Practical and Historical Perspective of the How and Why of Whitening Fossil Specimens and Casts as a Precurser to Their Photography. In PDF, Fossil Imprint, 74: 237–244.
See also here.

! Imogen Poole and Geoffrey E. Lloyd (2000): Alternative SEM techniques for observing pyritised fossil material. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 112: 287-295.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

M.E. Popa (2011): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. PDF file, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, 7: 279-283.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Jan Kresten Nielsen and Sten Lennart Jakobsen, Palaeontologia Electronica: EXTRACTION OF CALCAREOUS MACROFOSSILS ... (PDF file). A waterblasting technique is introduced as a cleaning agent in fossil preparation. Some references on air abrasion.

M.E. Popa (2011): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C. Pott (2007): Cuticular analysis of gymnosperm foliage from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Lunz, Lower Austria. In PDF, Thesis, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany.

! Philip D. Rack, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee: Materials Laboratory Procedures. Go to:
Optical Microscopy, and Sample Preparation (PDF files).
The nuts and bolds of microscopy, including hints about sample preparation.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! James B. Riding and Jane E. Kyffin-Hughes (2004): A review oft the laboratory preparation of palynomorphs with a description of an effective non-acid technique. PDF file, Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 7: 13-44. Including a review of laboratory techniques on page 2.

R. Roberts et al. (2016, article starts on PDF page 7): Root and branch reform for Brymbo fossil. In PDF, Earth Heritage 45.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
An in situ Lepidodendron trunk and its excavation from the former Brymbo Steelworks (Wales).

! Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University, Athens: Paleobotany. This course covers the evolutionary history of plants as revealed by the fossil record. Go to: Cutting a Coal Ball, and Coal Ball Peel Technique.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Paul Rowley, MUCEP, Macquarie University Centre for Ecostratigraphy and Palaeobiology, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Safety Techniques for Palaeontological Procedures.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! E.-M. Sadowski et al. (2021): Conservation, preparation and imaging of diverse ambers and their inclusions. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 220.
See also here.
! Note figure 8: Simplified scheme guiding through the process of epoxy preparation.
Also of interest in this context:
Pflanzliche Botschaften aus der Urzeit (by Tamara Worzewski, November 08, 2022, Spektrum.de, in German).

I. Salins and A. J. Ringrose-Voase, CSIRO Division of Soils, Canberra, Australia: Impregnation Techniques for Soils and Clay Materials: The problems and overcoming them. PDF file.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

S.R. Schachat et al. (2018): The importance of sampling standardization for comparisons of insect herbivory in deep time: a case study from the late Palaeozoic. In PDF, R. Soc. open sci.

Andrew C. Scott (website provided by science.jrank.org): Fossil plants, The nature of fossil plants, The uses of fossil plants.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Sally Shelton, San Diego Natural History Museum: Pyrite Preservation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Society of Vertebrate Paleontology:
Preparators Resources. This is a resource for those concerned with fossil preparation, collection cares and management, field techniques, and conservation. See especially:
! The list of references on fossil preparation and collection care (Excel file). Excellent!

! SPPC preparator.org (Richard Forrest, CBRP Ltd). The Symposium of Palaeontological Preparation and Conservation.
Useful Links.
Useful societies, organisations etc.
Suppliers.

W.E. Stein et al. (1982): Techniques for preparation of pyrite and limonite permineralizations. PDF file.

E.J. Stevens et al. (1987): Procedure for Fecal Cuticle Analysis of Herbivore Diets. PDF file.

J. Stevenson and S.G. Haberle (2005): Macro Charcoal Analysis: A modified technique used by the Department of Archaeology and Natural History. Free access, PalaeoWorks Technical Report, 5.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
See also here.

R.A. Stockey, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Preservation Types and Paleobotanical Techniques. A bibliography.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.G. Toja and C. Bonilla (2012), starting on PDF page 171: Transfer of the grand trunk fossil found in the Sierra Norte de Sevilla Geopark (Spain). In PDF, Proceedings of the 11th European Geoparks Conference. AGA – Associação Geoparque Arouca.

D. Uhl et al. (2021): Menatanthus mosbruggeri gen. nov. et sp. nov. – A flower with in situ pollen tetrads from the Paleocene maar lake of Menat (Puy-de-Dôme, France). Free access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 101: 51–58.

Used-line.com. A search engine for buyers of used, refurbished and surplus test and measurement, lab and semiconductor manufacturing equipment.

D. Vorontsov and E.E. Voronezhskaya (2022): Pushing the limits of optical resolution in the study of the tiniest fossil arthropods. Abstract, Historical Biology.
"... we report our technical approaches and methodological findings, including the selection of mounting medium, clearing of specimens, the effects of hydration of fossils in amber and the advantages of super-resolution confocal microscopy in obtaining images with sub-micron detail. ..."

Verband Deutscher Präparatoren (VDP). In German.

! Steve Wagner, Paleocurrents.com, Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS): Fossil Preparation. This page describes some common tools and techniques used by paleontologists to repair and trim fossils.

James M. White, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Highlights from Recent CAP Newsletters): Differential Sorting of Palynomorphs During Preparation: Some Useful Research Topics.
Website outdated. The link lead to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.J. Whybrow (1985): A history of fossil collecting and preparation techniques. In PDF.

Caitlin Donahue Wylie (2021): Preparing Dinosaurs: The Work behind the Scenes. In PDF, The MIT Press, 264 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/12643.001.0001
See also here.
! Note chapter "Preparing Technologies", starting on page 101.

E.L. Zodrow and J.A. D'angelo (2013): Digital compression maps: an improved method for studying Carboniferous foliage. In PDF, Atlantic Geology, 49. See also here and there.
! Note: "Specimen preparation".














Home / Palaeobotanical Tools / Preparation and Conservation / Making Thin Sections


Categories
Preparation and Conservation Technics
Preparation and Conservation: Supplies and Equipment

Cellulose Peel Technique
Microscopy
Photography and Scanning
X-ray and Tomography
Geostatistics
Tutorials, Tips and Tricks to selected Writing and Drawing Computer Programs@
Digital Image Processing@
Grafic Software@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: General@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Geology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
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Making Thin Sections


About.com: > Rocks & Sediments > Thin Sections.

! A.E. Adams et al. (2014): Atlas of Sedimentary Rocks under the Microscope. In PDF. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
See likewise here.
Including practical aspects of slide preparation.
Note picture 217. Thin section of a coal ball.

! Georg von Arx et al. (2016): Quantitative Wood Anatomy — Practical Guidelines. Free access, Front. Plant Sci., 7.
See also here.

Biozentrum Uni Basel und REM-Labor Uni Basel:
Blockkurs Mikroskopie. A Tutorial (in German). Go to:
Einbetten und Dünnschneiden.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Henry Barwood, Mineral Resources Section, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana: The mineralogy and origin of coal balls.
Now available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge: Optical Microscopy and Specimen Preparation. This teaching and learning package provides an introduction to the use of optical microscopes. It introduces the different types of microscope used to examine specimens and how to set them up correctly. There is also an introduction to specimen preparation.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Dorronsoro, Departament of Pedology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Spain: Thin sections. How to obtain thin sections.

! H.J. Falcon-Lang and D.M. Digrius (2014): Palaeobotany under the microscope: history of the invention and widespread adoption of the petrographic thin section technique. In PDF.

H. Falcon-Lang (2012): Double-crossed Nicol. William Nicol pioneered petrographic microscopy; but a dastardly palaeobotanist tried to steal his glory.
Geoscientist.

C.J. Harper (2015): The diversity and interactions of fungi from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic of Antarctica. In PDF, Thesis, University of Kansas, Lawrence. See also here.
Note figure 4 (PDF page 273)): Thin section technique.
Figure 14 (PDF page 353): Diagrammatic representation of the relationship between tylosis formation and fungal distribution in a three-dimensional block diagram of the wood.

Richard Hill, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona (published by the Mid-America Paleontology Soc. in the Expo proceedings for 1999): Making Thin Sections by Hand. A method of manually making thin sections is presented. Simple techniques for maintaining parallelism that avoids direct measurement is described in detail and a number of examples are shown.

David M. Hirsch, Geology Department, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA: How to make a thin section.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Heather Kroening, & Karen Hagen, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Procedures. Go to: How to make a wet mount. Online and downloadable flash movies.

Glen J. Kuban: FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions). Nine articles from an introduction to fossil collecting, e.g. Fossil Preparation.

! B. Liu et al. (2022): SEM petrography of dispersed organic matter in black shales: A review. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 224.
See also here.

Logitech Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland.
Suppliers of thin section preparation equipment and systems. Go to:
Geological Thin Section Preparation (in PDF). Note likewise:
Thin section preparation techniques.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! L. Lopez Cavalcante et al. (2023): Analysis of fossil plant cuticles using vibrational spectroscopy: A new preparation protocol. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 316.
See also here.
"... alarming changes were caused by the use of Schulze’s solution, which resulted in the addition of both NO2 and (O)NO2 compounds in the cuticle. Consequently, a new protocol using H2CO3, HF, and H2O2 for preparing fossil plant cuticles aimed for chemical analyses is proposed, which provides an effective substitute to the conventional methods.

LRC Core Facility, Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis: Sedimentology and mineralogy, Thin sections (PDF file). This is a procedure writeup of the practical aspects of how to embed samples for thin section slab preparation.

The Natural Sciences Collections Association (NatSCA).
NatSCA's mission is to promote and support natural science collections, the institutions that house them and the people that work with them, in order to improve collections care, understanding, accessibility and enjoyment for all. Worth checking out:
! Care and Conservation of Geological Specimens (in PDF).

PageWise Inc.: Public Bookshelf, Methods in Plant Histology. This book has been published in the early 1900´s. Go to: Plant histology: Paleobotany.

! M.E. Popa (2011): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here and there.

C. Pott and H. Kerp (2008): Mikroskopische Untersuchungsmethoden an fossilen Pflanzenabdrücken. In PDF, Der Präparator.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University, Athens:
Paleobotany. This course covers the evolutionary history of plants as revealed by the fossil record. Go to:
Cutting a Coal Ball, and
Coal Ball Peel Technique.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

I. Salins and A. J. Ringrose-Voase, CSIRO Division of Soils, Canberra, Australia: Impregnation Techniques for Soils and Clay Materials. PDF file. The problems and overcoming them.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A.C. Scott and M.E. Collinson (2003): Non-destructive multiple approaches to interpret the preservation of plant fossils: implications for calcium-rich permineralisations. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, 160: 857-862. See also here.
"Specimens were observed using transmitted light, polarized light, reflected light under oil, and cathodoluminescence. Selected areas were studied using a variable pressure SEM in backscattered electron mode. [...] Results reveal that anatomical interpretations based merely on observations of thin sections in transmitted light can be very misleading ..."

A.R. Semeler and M.G. Sommer (2024): Research data in paleobotany: petrographic thin sections fossil wood dataset. In PDF, Encontros Bibli, Florianópolis, 29. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. DOI:https://doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2024.e95688/EN.
See likewise here, and there.

Society of Vertebrate Paleontology:
Preparators Resources. This is a resource for those concerned with fossil preparation, collection cares and management, field techniques, and conservation. See especially:
! The list of references on fossil preparation and collection care (Excel file). Excellent!

Union College, Schenectady, New York, USA: Making Petrographic Thin Sections. In PDF.

P.B. Vixseboxse et al. (2024): Taphonomic experiments fixed and conserved with Paraloid B72 resin via solvent replacement. Open access, Lethaia, 57.
"... Taphonomic experiments offer a powerful tool with which to interpret the influence of decay and mineralization on the quality and completeness of Earth’s fossil record
[...] we propose a novel method of soft sediment fixation that permits the stabilization of entire decay experiments for sectioning and microanalysis
[...] Application of this method to a wide range of substrates demonstrates that this methodology can produce effective stabilization of samples, including unconsolidated sands and organic-rich substrates, with a chemically inert polymer ..."

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Thin section.

! N. Zavialova and E. Karasev (2016): The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reconstruct the ultrastructure of sporoderm. In PDF, Palynology, : 89-100.
See also here.
! Note figure 2: Main stages of preparation for a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of semithin sections.














Home / Palaeobotanical Tools / Preparation and Conservation / Preparation and Conservation: Supplies and Equipment


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Preparation and Conservation Technics
Making Thin Sections

Cellulose Peel Technique
Microscopy
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Tutorials, Tips and Tricks to selected Writing and Drawing Computer Programs@
Digital Image Processing@
Grafic Software@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: General@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Geology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Botany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Environment@


Preparation and Conservation: Supplies and Equipment

The American Association of Paleontological Suppliers (A.A.P.S.). A.A.P.S. was organized to create a professional association of commercial fossil and mineral collectors and preparators for the purpose of promoting ethical collecting practices and cooperative liaisons with researchers, instructors, curators and exhibit managers in the academic and museum paleontological community.

Biotec Microslides, UK.

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida: Preparation and Conservation Supplies and Equipment. A list of businesses and vendors that can provide you with the supplies you will need. This list is shown chiefly for the convenience of fossil collectors and preparators.

FSB Shop, Olaf Schwitalla, Germany. Supplies and Equipment (in German).

Gleumes Geosciences, Köln, Germany (in German). Geological maps, literature, tools.

Green Geology, Whittier, California. Micropaleo kits.

Henssen PalaeoWerkstatt. Preparation and conservation, casts and reconstructions, dioramas, etc.

Dr. F. Krantz, Rheinisches Mineralien-Kontor GmbH & Co. KG, Bonn, Germany.

Logitech Ltd.: Geological Sciences.

Lehrmittel Dieter Luksch, Gronsdorf. In German.

Museum Terra Triassica, Euerdorf, Germany:
! Sammlungsbedarf (in German).

Verband Deutscher Präparatoren (VDP). In German.

J.L. Young et al. (2008): Conservation of an Eocene petrified forest at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument: Investigation of strategies and techniques for stabilizing in situ fossil stumps. PDF file, In: Meyer, H.W., and Smith, D.M., eds., Paleontology of the Upper Eocene Florissant Formation, Colorado. The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 435: 141-157.
See also here.












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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
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Last updated March 27, 2024
















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