Palaeobotanical Tools /
Managing Fossil Collections
Preparation and Conservation
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Photography and Scanning
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Cameras With Focus Bracketing or Built-In Focus Stacking
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including
Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
! Natural History Museums@
! Palaeobotanical and Palaeontological Collections@
! Of Interest to Museum Professionals@
R. Beaman et al. (2004): Determining Space from Place for Natural History Collections: In a Distributed Digital Library Environment. D-Lib Magazine, 10.
! W. Berendsohn, Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG): TDWG Subgroup on Biological Collection Data, Software for Biological Collection Management. This page lists software which is used in collection management. See also: Standards, Information Models, and Data Dictionaries for Biological Collections.
BiologyBrowser (produced by Thomson Scientific).
This is a free web site offering resources for the life
sciences information community.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
V. Blagoderov and V.S. Smith (2012): Bringing collections out of the dark. In PDF, ZooKeys, 209: 1-6.
V. Blagoderov et al. (2012): No specimen left behind: industrial scale digitization of natural history collections. In PDF, Zookeys, 2012, (209): 133-146.
Brent H. Breithaupt, University of Wyoming
An Introduction,from Tapping Educational Resources.
See especially: Museums: The Underutilized Resource.
J.A. Catalani (2011):
a Paleontological Legacy. In PDF, go to PDF page 24.
American Paleontologist, 19.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Collections Management. From the American Museum of Natural History and PaleoPortal. A Resource for Managing Fossil Collections.
CollectiveAccess. This is a highly configurable cataloguing tool and web-based application for museums, archives and digital collections. Available free of charge!
J. Delaney (2008): An Inconvenient Truth? Scientific Photography and Archival Ambivalence. In PDF Archivaria, 65 (The Journal of the Association of Canadian Archivists).
Deutsche Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungssammlungen (DNFS). In German.
Deutscher Museumsbund (the German Museums Association). The website of the German interest group for museums and museum staff. Go to: Stellenangebote (in German).! eHive (developed by Vernon Systems Ltd.).
Fossil Preparation (American Museum of Natural History and The Paleontology Portal). Go to: Labeling.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ): Deutsche Naturkundemuseen: Am gleichen Knochen ziehen? March 27, 2015, in German. About consolidation trends of German natural science museums.
The Geological Curators´ Group (affiliated to the Geological Society of London). They are a national organisation dedicated to improving the status of geology in museums and raise the standard of geological curation.
Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik (GfBS).
AG Kuratoren: Literatur,
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
L. Herzog (2011): Institutional Analysis of a Natural History Museum: Formation and dissemination of scientific knowledge. In PDF.
The Integrated Digitized Biocollections, the National Resource for Advancing
Digitization of Biodiversity Collections (ADBC) funded by the National Science Foundation.
Through ADBC, data and images for millions of biological specimens are being made available
in electronic format for the research community. Go to:
! iDigBio Portal: iDigBio serves as the coordinating center for the national digitization effort; fosters partnerships and innovations; facilitates the determination and dissemination of digitization practices and workflows. Worth to check out: Digitization Resources.
! See especially: Search records.
D.M. Jarzen, Florida Museum of Natural History: Paleobotany Collection Policies.
K.G. Johnson et al. (2011): Climate Change and Biosphere Response: Unlocking the Collections Vault. In PDF, BioScience, 61: 147-153. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Kenneth G. Johnson (Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, London), Harry F. Filkorn, and Mary Stecheson: Paleontology Collections on the World Wide Web: The Missing Link. Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 8 (2); October 2005.
T.S. Karim et al. (2016): Digitization workflows for paleontology collections. Palaeontologia Electronica.
J. Kovar-Eder (2014): Deutschlands naturkundliche Sammlungen - Ausgangslage und Relevanz der Sammlungen als Forschungsinfrastruktur (in German). PDF file, go to PDF page 10. Mitteilungen und Berichte aus dem Institut für Museumsforschung, 52.
V. Krypczyk and C. Veikko Krypczyk, Christopher Ezell (2018), entwickler.de (in German): Grundkurs Datenbanken: Wichtige Datenbanksysteme im Überblick.
Jere H. Lipps: Into Focus: Museums and Their Exhibits. Palaeontologia Electronica 10(2), 2007.
Giles Miller (website hosted by Natural History Museum, London): Curator of Micropalaeontology´s Blog.
! P.C. Murphey et al. (2004): Georeferencing of museum collections: A review of problems and automated tools, and the methodology developed by the Mountain and Plains Spatio-Temporal Database- Informatics Initiative (Mapstedi). In PDF, PhyloInformatics 3: 1-29.Museums & Galleries of NSW, Australia: Collection management systems. In PDF.
Park Service (NPS), U.S. Department of the Interior
(the Museum Management Program (MMP), part of the National Center for Cultural Resources
! NPS Museum Handbook. This is a reference guide on how to manage, preserve, document, access and use museum collections. Go to:
Part I: Museum Collections.
Part II, Museum Records.
Part III, Museum Collections Use.
All files are in PDF format. See especially:
! Appendix U: Curatorial Care of Paleontological and Geological Collections (in PDF).
Appendix K: Photography (in PDF).
! L.R. Novick et al. Depicting the tree of life in museums: guiding principles from psychological research. In PDF, see also here.
D.R. Oldroyd (ed.), 2002:
Earth Inside and Out:
Some Major Contributions to Geology
in the Twentieth Century. In PDF,
Geological Society Special Publication 192.
Table of contents on PDF page 6. See especially:
! PDF page 336, S.J. Knell: Collecting, conservation and conservatism: late twentieth century developments in the culture of British geology.
M.E. Popa (2011):
and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. PDF file,
Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, 7: 279-283.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Stefanie Schramm, Die Zeit: Die Leichen im Keller. A documentation attempt of nearly forgotten university biology collections (including palaeontology collections) in Germany (in German).
Andreas Sentker und Urs Willmann, Die Zeit: Die Arche vor dem Untergang (in German). State of the art of natural science museums and collections in Germany.
SESAR, the Solid Earth SAmple Registry (an NSF funded project, by geosamples.org): SESAR is building a web-based digital registry for solid earth samples that will provide for the first time a way to uniquely name and identify samples on a global scale by means of the International Geo Sample Number IGSN. Establishing SESAR and the IGSN will have a wide-ranging impact on sample and data management, especially with respect to sample sharing and data integration, addressing a basic requirement for interoperability among information systems for sample-based data.
C.H. Shute and C.J. Cleal (1987), starting on PDF page 16:
In PDF, The geological curator. See also PDF page 19:
"What makes a good research paleobotany collection?"
R. Silverman and C.M. Sinopoli (2011): Besieged! Contemporary political, cultural and economic challenges to museums in the academy as seen from Ann Arbor. In PDF.
Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections (SPNHC).
SPNHC is a multidisciplinary organization to encourage research on the essential requirements for
preserving, storing, studying, and displaying natural history collections and to
provide a bridge between natural history collection managers and relevant technical, professional
and both governmental and non-governmental organizations. Website hosted by the
Department of Geology and Geophysics,
University of Calgary. See also:
Guidelines for the Care of Natural History Collections. This document is meant to serve as a tool for institutions and their staffs to continue to elevate the standards of managing and caring for natural history collections. It has been particularly gratifying that the review and comments have involved individuals from all of the professions associated with the use and care of natural history collections: collection managers, curators, conservators, administrators, research scientists, registrars, archivists, etc.
preserving the right to collect. See also
See especeally: ! For preserving the right to privately collect fossils.
the European Union-funded integrated activities grant.
This project which began in September 2013 comprises 20 European natural history museums, Universities and botanic gardens and research organisations. It aims to create an integrated European infrastructure for researchers in the natural sciences.
A core element in SYNTHESYS is to provide funded researcher visits (Access) to the 390,000,000 specimens housed by SYNTHESYS institutions.
B.A. Thomas (2016): A Carboniferous Fossil Forest in North Wales: Problems and Potentials Associated with Developing and Conserving a "Soft-Rock" Site. Geoheritage.
Keith S. Thomson, Natural History at Oxford University and Oxford University Museum: Natural History Museum Collections in the 21st Century (an ActionBioscience.org original interview, American Institute of Biological Sciences).
J.W.F. Waldron et al. (2016): Building an Outdoor Classroom for Field Geology: The Geoscience Garden. Abstract, Journal of Geoscience Education, 64: 215-230. See also here.
! Cornelia Weber, Hermann von Helmholtz-Zentrum für Kulturtechnik, Berlin: The History of Scientific Collections (supported by the the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG). The project intends to catalogue German universities' collections and to compile extensive data on the holdings and history of these collections, in order to form the basis of a specific investigation into the history of science and a historical analysis of collecting. Go to: University museums and collections in Germany (under construction).
! Whirl-i-Gig (a software development firm working in the varied worlds of museums, biological research and conservation, natural history, material culture, and art history): CollectiveAccess (formerly known as OpenCollection). This is a full-featured collections management and online access application for museums, archives and digital collections. CollectiveAccess is freely available open-source software.
P. Wolniewicz (2009):
digital palaeontological databases - a new perspective for the storage of palaeontological
information. In PDF, Geologos, 15: 181-188.
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