Palaeobotanical Tools /
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Preparation and Conservation
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Photography and Scanning
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
! Scientific Drawing@
! M.E. Collinson et al. (2012): The value of X-ray approaches in the study of the Messel fruit and seed flora. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 92: 403-416.
E. Couradeau et al. (2013): Cyanobacterial calcification in modern microbialites at the submicrometer-scale. In PDF, Biogeosciences Discuss., 10: 3311-3339.
E.K. Kempf (1973): Transmission electron microscopy of fossil spores. In PDF.
Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands:
Virtual Classroom Biology.
This website is an educational site,
especially meant for secondary school students who like to have a first glance on teaching
items of the Bio-science programs. One can find custom-made teaching material for
courses from the biology training. Navigate from here.
Electron microscopy (EM).
! N. Zavialova and E. Karasev (2016): The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reconstruct the ultrastructure of sporoderm. In PDF, Palynology.
N. Zavialova et al. (2010): Spore ultrastructure of Selaginellites leonardii and diversity of selaginellalean spores. In PDF, Geo.Alp 7: 1-17.
! A. Ziegler et al. (2010):
and challenges for digital morphology. In PDF,
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Links for Palaeobotanists
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