Palaeobotanical Tools /
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Preparation and Conservation
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Photography and Scanning
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Microscopy@
! Elizabeth B. Andrews (2009): Windows on a Lilliputian world: a personal perspective on the development of electron microscopy in the twentieth century. PDF file, Notes Rec. R. Soc. See also here.
John W. Cross, Missouri Botanical Garden: Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). See also here (without frames).
G.D. Danilatos, ESEM Research Laboratory, Sydney, Australia:
ESEM Development and its Future.
"ESEM is a new type of scanning electron microscope, which allows the examination of specimens in the presence of gases. As a result, wet and dry, insulating or conducting and, generally, all specimens can now be viewed with no or minimal preparation, in their natural state, or in vacuum".
John Donovan, Micro Analytical Facility, CAMCOR Center for Advanced Materials Characterization in ORegon, University of Oregon, Eugene: Electron Microscopy Societies and On-line Journals, and EPMA & SEM facilities, World Wide.
A. Fels, Fels Werkstoffanalytik, Stuttgart: Grundlagen der Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie mit Schwerpunkt Sedimentpetrographie. A tutorial (in German). See also: Literatur zur Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie.
O. Gavrilova et al. (2017): Potential of CLSM in studying some modern and fossil palynological objects. Abstract, Journal of Microscopy, 00: 1–19. See also here (in PDF).
Department of Mineralogy, The Natural History Museum, London: Electron microscopy and mineral analysis. Techniques include electron probe microanalysis, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, cathodoluminenscence etc.
Imogen Poole and Geoffrey E. Lloyd (2000):
SEM techniques for observing pyritised
fossil material. PDF file,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 112: 287-295.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
J. Prokop et al. (2016):
surface microstructures on
Carboniferous insect Brodioptera
sinensis (Megasecoptera) enlighten
functional morphology and
Sci. Rep. 6,
! "... The broader application to the study of scarce insect fossils was accelerated recently with use of ESEM, which makes it possible to study uncoated specimens using this non-invasive technique ...".
! Philip D. Rack, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering,
University of Tennessee:
Materials Laboratory Procedures. Go to:
Scanning Electron Microscopy (PDF file).
Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands:
Virtual Classroom Biology.
This website is an educational site,
especially meant for secondary school students who like to have a first glance on teaching
items of the Bio-science programs. One can find custom-made teaching material for
courses from the biology training. Navigate from here.
Light microscopy techniques.
Electron microscopy (EM).
Information Technology Department, the UCSD Libraries and Academic Computing Services.
University of California, San Diego:
Web Course Notes and References,
Principles of the Transmission
Electron Microscope (TEM).
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
SCANNING. Scanning provides an international and interdisciplinary medium for the rapid exchange of information among all scientists interested in scanning electron, scanning probe, and scanning optical microscopies.
Science Learning Network (SLN): Scanning Electron Microscope. SLN is an online community of educators, students, schools, science museums and other institutions demonstrating a new model for inquiry science education.
T.N. Taylor (1968): Application of the scanning electron microscope in paleobotany. In PDF, Transactions of the American Microscopical Society.
Giuseppe Vicidomini et al. (2008): High Data Output and Automated 3D Correlative Light-Electron Microscopy Method. In PDF.
U. Villanueva-Amadoz et al. (2012): Focused ion beam nano-sectioning and imaging: a new method in characterisation of palaeopalynological remains. In PDF, Grana, 51: 1–9. See also here.
! WWW-Virtual Library: Microscopy links. Aspects of light microscopy, electron microscopy and other forms of microscopy.
N. Zavialova and E. Karasev (2016):
use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reconstruct the ultrastructure of sporoderm. In PDF,
Palynology. See also
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Scanning electron microscope.
Environmental scanning electron microscope.
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