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! Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@
Panorama Creation and Stitching Tools@
Image Collections@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Microscopy@
Scientific Drawing@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@



Cellulose Peel Technique


Keith W. Abineri, West Borough, Wimborne, Dorset, UK: THE EXAMINATION OF MICROFOSSILS, NANNOFOSSILS AND OTHER MICROSCOPICAL OBJECTS USING CELLULOSE LACQUER ROCK PEELS.

B. Barnes and H. Duerden (1931): On the preparation of cellulose films of fossil plants. In PDF, Annals of Botany. See also here (abstract).

C.K. Boyce et al. (2009): X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation. PDf file, International Journal of Coal Geology.

C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1999): Plant Fossils: The History of Land Vegetation Fossils Illustrated. In PDF, (Boydell & Brewer Ltd).
! Worth checking out: Chapter Ten, "Highlights of Palaeobotanical Study", starting on PDF page 130.
! Note especially: "Coal balls", starting on PDF page 135.
See also here (Amazon) and there (Google books).

Lindsay L. Elliott et al. (2006): Beardia vancouverensis gen. et sp. nov. (Juglandaceae): permineralized fruits from the Eocene of British Columbia. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 93: 557-565.

! I.H. Escapa et al. (2010): Modifications of the transfer technique for studying complex plant structures.

A. Füsun et al. (2005): Acetate peel technique: a rapid way of preparing sequential surface replicas of dental hard tissues for microscopic examination. In PDF.

Kristen P. Giebel (1984): Plant Fossils in the Laboratory. PDF file. Website hosted by The Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE).

O.R. Green (2013): A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology. Google books.

Elizabeth J. Hermsen et al. (2009): Morphology and ecology of the Antarcticycas plant. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 153: 108-123.

J. Holmes and J. Lopez (1986): The disappearing peel technique: an improved method for studying permineralized plant tissues. PDF file, Palaeontology.

E.C. Jeffrey (1917): Petrified Coals and Their Bearing on the Problem of the Origin of Coals. PDF file, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 3: 206–211.

Stefan A. Little et al. (2004): Duabanga-like leaves from the Middle Eocene Princeton chert and comparative leaf histology of Lythraceae sensu lato. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1126-1139.

Z.-J. Liu and X. Wang (2016): A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China. In PDF, Historical Biology, 28: 707-719. See also here (Abstract).

Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Paleontological Experiences for Science Teachers (funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute). Hands-on training in vertebrate paleontology, using fieldwork and laboratory work. Go to: Acetate Peel and diagrams.

! P. Moisan (2012): The study of cuticular and epidermal features in fossil plant impressions using silicone replicas for scanning electron microscopy. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica.

T. Perkins (1976): Textures and Conditions of Formation of Middle Pennsylvanian Coal Balls, Central United States. In PDF, The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions.

! T.L. Phillips et al. (1976): Fossil peat of the Illinois basin: a guide to the study of coal balls of Pennsylvanian age. In PDF, Geoscience education, 11.

Charles A. Price et al. (2011): Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface: Segmenting and Analyzing the Structure of Leaf Veins and Areoles. Plant Physiol., 155: 236-245.

! Dondi Ratliff, Ehow.com: How to Use Acetate Peels in Paleobotany.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.W. Ropes (1984): Procedures for Preparing Acetate Peels ... In PDF, Marine Fisheries Review.

Gar W. Rothwell and Ruth A. Stockey (2002): Anatomically preserved Cycadeoidea (Cycadeoidaceae), with a reevaluation of systematic characters for the seed cones of Bennettitales. PDF file, American Journal of Botany. 2002;89:1447-1458. See also here (abstract).

! Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University, Athens: Paleobotany. This course covers the evolutionary history of plants as revealed by the fossil record. Go to: Cutting a Coal Ball, and Coal Ball Peel Technique.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Paul Rowley, MUCEP, Macquarie University Centre for Ecostratigraphy and Palaeobiology, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Safety Techniques for Palaeontological Procedures.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Andrew C. Scott et al. (2009): Scanning Electron Microscopy and Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy of 330 Million Year Old Charcoalified Seed Fern Fertile Organs. PDF file, Microsc. Microanal., 15: 166-173.

! A.C. Scott and G. Rex (1985): The formation and significance of Carboniferous coal balls. PDF file, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 305.
See also here (abstract).

R. Serbet et al. (2013): Cunninghamia taylorii sp. nov., a Structurally Preserved Cupressaceous Conifer from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Western North America. In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 174: 471-488.

G.W.K. Shelton et al. (2016): Krassiloviella limbelloides gen. et sp. nov.: Additional Diversity in the Hypnanaean Moss Family Tricostaceae (Valanginian, Vancouver Island, British Columbia). In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 177: 792–808. See also here (abstract).
Fossils are preserved anatomically in carbonate concretions and studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique.

F.D. Siewers and T.L. Phillips (2015): Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins. Abstract, Sedimentary Geology, 329.

T.N. Taylor et al. (2011): The advantage of thin section preparations over acetate peels in the study of late Paleozoic fungi and other microorganisms. In PDF, Palaios. See also here (abstract).

Shi-Jun Wang et al. (2011): Cycad Wood from the Lopingian (Late Permian) of Southern China: Shuichengoxylon tianii gen. et sp. nov. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 172: 725-734.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Coal ball.
Torfdolomit.

M.A. Wilson and T.J. Palmer (1989): Preparation of Acetate Peels. In PDF.

E.L. Zodrow and J.A. D´angelo (2013): Compression map: Improved means for studying Carboniferous foliage. Atlantic Geology, 49.










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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
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Last updated June 18, 2017














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