Palaeobotanical Tools /
Cellulose Peel Technique
Preparation and Conservation
Managing Fossil Collections
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Photography and Scanning
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Cameras With Focus Bracketing or Built-In Focus Stacking
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
Making Thin Sections
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
Keith W. Abineri, West Borough, Wimborne, Dorset, UK: THE EXAMINATION OF MICROFOSSILS, NANNOFOSSILS AND OTHER MICROSCOPICAL OBJECTS USING CELLULOSE LACQUER ROCK PEELS.
B. Barnes and H. Duerden (1931): On the preparation of cellulose films of fossil plants. In PDF, Annals of Botany. See also here (abstract).
C.K. Boyce et al. (2009):
photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition
and Carboniferous coal ball preservation. PDf file,
International Journal of Coal Geology.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1999):
Fossils: The History of Land Vegetation Fossils
Illustrated. In PDF,
(Boydell & Brewer Ltd).
! Worth checking out: Chapter Ten, "Highlights of Palaeobotanical Study", starting on PDF page 130.
! Note especially: "Coal balls", starting on PDF page 135.
See also here (Amazon) and there (Google books).
Lindsay L. Elliott et al. (2006): Beardia vancouverensis gen. et sp. nov. (Juglandaceae): permineralized fruits from the Eocene of British Columbia. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 93: 557-565.
! I.H. Escapa et al. (2010): Modifications of the transfer technique for studying complex plant structures.
A. Füsun et al. (2005): Acetate peel technique: a rapid way of preparing sequential surface replicas of dental hard tissues for microscopic examination. In PDF.
Kristen P. Giebel (1984):
Fossils in the Laboratory. PDF file. Website hosted by
The Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE).
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
O.R. Green (2013): A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology. Google books.
Elizabeth J. Hermsen et al. (2009): Morphology and ecology of the Antarcticycas plant. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 153: 108-123.
J. Holmes and J. Lopez (1986): The disappearing peel technique: an improved method for studying permineralized plant tissues. PDF file, Palaeontology.
E.C. Jeffrey (1917): Petrified Coals and Their Bearing on the Problem of the Origin of Coals. PDF file, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 3: 206–211.
Stefan A. Little et al. (2004): Duabanga-like leaves from the Middle Eocene Princeton chert and comparative leaf histology of Lythraceae sensu lato. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1126-1139.
Z.-J. Liu and X. Wang (2016): A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China. In PDF, Historical Biology, 28: 707-719. See also here (Abstract).
Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Paleontological Experiences for Science Teachers (funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute). Hands-on training in vertebrate paleontology, using fieldwork and laboratory work. Go to: Acetate Peel and diagrams.
! P. Moisan (2012): The study of cuticular and epidermal features in fossil plant impressions using silicone replicas for scanning electron microscopy. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica.
T. Perkins (1976): Textures and Conditions of Formation of Middle Pennsylvanian Coal Balls, Central United States. In PDF, The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions.K.C. Pfeiler et al. (2018): An Early Devonian permineralized rhyniopsid from the Battery Point Formation of Gaspé (Canada). In PDF, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 187: 292–302. See also here.
! T.L. Phillips et al. (1976): Fossil peat of the Illinois basin: a guide to the study of coal balls of Pennsylvanian age. In PDF, Geoscience education, 11.
Charles A. Price et al. (2011): Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface: Segmenting and Analyzing the Structure of Leaf Veins and Areoles. Plant Physiol., 155: 236-245.
Dondi Ratliff, Ehow.com:
to Use Acetate Peels in Paleobotany.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J.W. Ropes (1984): Procedures for Preparing Acetate Peels ... In PDF, Marine Fisheries Review.
Gar W. Rothwell and Ruth A. Stockey (2002): Anatomically preserved Cycadeoidea (Cycadeoidaceae), with a reevaluation of systematic characters for the seed cones of Bennettitales. PDF file, American Journal of Botany. 2002;89:1447-1458. See also here (abstract).
Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University, Athens:
This course covers the evolutionary history of plants as revealed by the fossil record. Go to:
a Coal Ball,
Ball Peel Technique.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Paul Rowley, MUCEP,
Macquarie University Centre for Ecostratigraphy and Palaeobiology,
Sydney, NSW, Australia:
Safety Techniques for
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Andrew C. Scott et al. (2009): Scanning Electron Microscopy and Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy of 330 Million Year Old Charcoalified Seed Fern Fertile Organs. PDF file, Microsc. Microanal., 15: 166-173.
! A.C. Scott and G. Rex (1985):
formation and significance of Carboniferous coal balls. PDF file,
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 305.
See also here (abstract).
R. Serbet et al. (2013): Cunninghamia taylorii sp. nov., a Structurally Preserved Cupressaceous Conifer from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Western North America. In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 174: 471-488.
G.W.K. Shelton et al. (2016):
gen. et sp. nov.: Additional Diversity in the Hypnanaean Moss Family Tricostaceae
(Valanginian, Vancouver Island, British Columbia). In PDF,
Int. J. Plant Sci., 177: 792–808. See also
Fossils are preserved anatomically in carbonate concretions and studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique.
F.D. Siewers and T.L. Phillips (2015): Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins. Abstract, Sedimentary Geology, 329.
T.N. Taylor et al. (2011): The advantage of thin section preparations over acetate peels in the study of late Paleozoic fungi and other microorganisms. In PDF, Palaios. See also here (abstract).
Shi-Jun Wang et al. (2011): Cycad Wood from the Lopingian (Late Permian) of Southern China: Shuichengoxylon tianii gen. et sp. nov. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 172: 725-734.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
M.A. Wilson and T.J. Palmer (1989): Preparation of Acetate Peels. In PDF.
E.L. Zodrow and J.A. D´angelo (2013):
map: Improved means for studying Carboniferous foliage.
Atlantic Geology, 49.
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