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Preparation and Conservation
Managing Fossil Collections
Transfer Technique
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Photography and Scanning
Imaging Fossils Using UV-Light (Black-Light Photography)
Fluorescence Microscopy and Fluorescence Microspectroscopy
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Cameras With Focus Bracketing or Built-In Focus Stacking
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
Superresolution (SR)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Image Processing
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Raman Spectroscopy
Writing, Translating and Drawing
Making Thin Sections

! Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils@

Latex Casts

! C. Barbosa and J. Muchagata (2021): The use of latex moulds as a complement for studying paleobotanical specimens. In PDF, Comunicações Geológicas, 108, Especial I: 21-26.
See likewise here. Note especially:
! PDF page 9: Methodology: Step by Step.

! B.W. Chaloner (1999; starting on PDF page 36): Plant and spore compression in sediments. In: T.P. Jones and Nick P. Rowe (eds.), Fossil plants and spores: modern techniques. Published by Geological Society, 396 pages. Excellent! Provided by Google Books.

! W.G. Chaloner and M.M. Gay (1973): Scanning electron microscopy of latex casts of fossil plant impressions. PDF file. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

O.R. Green (2013): A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology. Google books.

O.R. Green: Fossil Replication Techniques. Abstract, in: A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology.

Malcolm J. Heaton (2010): New Advances in Latex Casting Techniques. Abstract.

S.L. Jakobsen and R.M. Feldmann (2004): Epibionts on Dromiopsis rugosa (Decapoda: Brachyura) from the late Middle Danian limestones at Fakse Quarry, Denmark: novel preparation techniques yield ... PDF file. Method of making latex casts on PDF page 3.

! K.-P. Kelber & J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (1998): Equisetites arenaceus from the Upper Triassic of Germany with evidence for reproductive strategies. Abstract, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 100: 1-26. See also here (in PDF).
Note Plate 3, fig. 3.7,8: Three-dimensionally preserved sporangiophore heads of Equisetites arenaceus.
Paper awarded with the Winfried and Renate Remy Award 1999 (Paleobotanical Section), Botanical Society of America.

K.-P. Kelber et al. (1993): Plant fossils from Gross Brukkaros (Namibia) and their biostratigraphical significance. In PDF, Communs geol. Surv. Namibia, 8 (1992/93): 57-66.
! Note figure 4: Latex casts of carpofossils.

K.-P. Kelber (1992): Der dreidimensionale Bau der Blattspitzen bei Equisetites arenaceus (Equisetopsida, Equisetales) aus dem Unteren Keuper (Trias, Ladin). PDF file, in German. In: Kovar-Eder, J. (ed.): Palaeovegetational development in Europe.- Proc. Pan-European Palaeobot. Conf. Vienna (PEPC 1991), pp. 289-299.
! Note plate 1, fig. 11: Latex casts, leaf sheath of Equisetites arenaceus.
Plate 2, fig. 4, 9: Latex casts, leaf sheath of Equisetites arenaceus.

! I.W. Keyes (1959): Paleontological casting and moulding techniques. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 2: 56-65. See also here (in PDF).

Glen J. Kuban: Making Silicone Rubber Molds.

La-Gum (I. Strohpagel, Elmshorn, Germany). About Latex Art.
See especially here (in German).
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Z.-J. Liu and X. Wang (2016): A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China. In PDF, Historical Biology, 28: 707-719. See also here (Abstract).

Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Paleontological Experiences for Science Teachers (funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute). Hands-on training in vertebrate paleontology, using fieldwork and laboratory work. Go to: Latex Mold and Cast Making.
All links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! P. Moisan (2012): The study of cuticular and epidermal features in fossil plant impressions using silicone replicas for scanning electron microscopy. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica.

H. Rathaj and O. Elicki (2007): Sicherung spektakulärer Spurenfossilien urzeitlicher Gliederfüßer durch Herstellung einer großflächigen Kunststoff-Replik. PDF file, in German.

! G.M. Rex, W.G. Chaloner (1983): The experimental formation of plant compression fossils. PDF file, Palaeontology, 26: 231-252. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.W.J.M. van der Ham et al. (2003): Brachyphyllum patens (Miquel) comb. nov. (Cheirolepidiaceae?): remarkable conifer foliage from the Maastrichtian type area (Late Cretaceous, NE Belgium, SE Netherlands). In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 127: 77-97.

! J. Watson and K.L. Alvin (1976): Silicone rubber casts of silicified plants from the Cretaceous of Sudan. PDF file, Palaeontology, 19: 641650.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! O.J. Wilson (2023): The 3D Pollen Project: An open repository of three-dimensional data for outreach, education and research. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 312.
"... This paper introduces the 3D Pollen Project, an open-access repository of 3D pollen scans and surface files. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to produce accurate series of tightly-focused cross-section images through pollen grains, which were reconstructed to produce 3D-printable surface files ..."
Go to:
! The 3D Pollen Project

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated May 29, 2023

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