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! Palynology@
! Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies@

Palynological Preparation Techniques


J.C. Blong (2023): Sequential biomolecular, macrofossil, and microfossil extraction from coprolites for reconstructing past behavior and environments. Free access, Front. Ecol. Evol., 11:1131294. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1131294.

G. Kent Colbath (1985): A comparison of palynological extraction techniques using samples from the Silurian Bainbridge formation, Missouri, U.S.A. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 44: 153-164.

T. Djokic et al. (2023): Inferring the age and environmental characteristics of fossil sites using citizen science. Open access, PLoS ONE, 18: e0284388.
"... we report on a citizen science approach that was developed to identify microfossils in situ on the surface of sedimentary rocks.
[...] scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to automatically acquire 25,200 high-resolution images from the surface
[...] The images were published on the citizen science portal DigiVol, through which 271 citizen scientists helped to identify 300 pollen and spores ..."

S. Ellin and D. McLean (1994): The use of microwave heating in hydrofluoric acid digestions for palynological preparations. PDF file, Palynology 18.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! S.G.A. Flantua et al. (2023): A guide to the processing and standardization of global palaeoecological data for large-scale syntheses using fossil pollen. Open access, Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 32: 1377-1394.
Note figure 1: Essential data processing components needed to create a standardized, harmonized, palaeoecological dataset compilation before macro-scale data analysis.
Figure 3: Summary figure of FOSSILPOL workflow providing an overview of the inputs, main workflow steps and outputs.
"... With our FOSSILPOL workflow and R-package, we provide a protocol for optimal handling of large compilations of fossil pollen datasets and workflow reproducibility ..."

C. Geyer et al. (2023): Collecting in situ/adhered pollen from fossil compressed angiosperm flowers. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 310.
See also here (in PDF).

O.R. Green (2013): A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology. Google books.

O.R. Green: Extraction Techniques for Palaeobotanical and Palynological Material. Abstract, pp 256-287. A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology.

! F Grímsson et al. (2021): How to extract and analyze pollen from internal organs and exoskeletons of fossil insects? Open access, STAR protocols, 2.

H. Halbritter et al. (2018): Illustrated Pollen Terminology. Open access, Springer.
This open access book offers a fully illustrated compendium of glossary terms and basic principles in the field of palynology. It is a revised and extended edition of “Pollen Terminology. An illustrated handbook,” published in 2009. This second edition, titled “Illustrated Pollen Terminology” shares additional insights into new and stunning aspects of palynology.
See likewise here.

Klaus Henkel: Pollen sammeln und präparieren. PDF file, in German.

C. Heunisch, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Geozentrum Hannover: Ein "Sekundenkleber" für Rezentpollen (in German).
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K. Holt et al. (2011): Progress towards an automated trainable pollen location and classifier system for use in the palynology laboratory. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 167: 175-183.
See also here.

Jan Jansonius, GSC-Calgary, Calgary, Alberta:
Review: Jones, T. P., and N. P. Rowe (editors), 1999. Fossil Plants and Spores: Modern Techniques. Book review.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! T.P. Jones and Nick P. Rowe (eds.), Google Books (some pages are ommitted): Fossil plants and spores: modern techniques. Published by Geological Society, 1999, 396 pages. Excellent! Click: "Preview the book". Go to page 47:
Light microscopy of fossil pollen and spores.

LRC Core Facility, Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine): Floral and faunal components,
Pollen prep flow chart (HTML website),
Pollen processing (in PDF), and
Quantitative pollen spike. Procedure writeups (PDF files).

Paolo Mandrioli (2000): Method for sampling and counting airborne pollen and fungal spores. PDF file, saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K. Matsuoka, Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Science Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, and Y. Fukoyo Asian Natural Environmental Science Center, University of Tokyo (2000): Technical guide for modern dinoflagellate cyst study. PDF file.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.H. McAndrews, from CAP Newsletter 21: 23, 1998 (start on PDF-page 23): Palynological Myths: Monitoring Contamination of Fossil Pollen Preparations.

! L. Muriale et al. (1996): Fatality due to acute fluoride poisoning following dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid in a palynology laboratory. Free access, Journal of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, 40: 705-710.
! "... The fatality described below highlights the potential for relatively small quantities of concentrated hydrofluoric acid to produce acute systemic toxicity and it is clear that laboratory personnel underestimated the risks ..."

Jeffrey M. Osborn: Palynology (PDF file).

! School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford, United Kingdom: Fossil Pollen Preparation A brief tutorial (PDF file). See also here (equipment).
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Özcan et al. (2012): Possible hazardous effects of hydrofluoric acid and recommendations for treatment approach: a review. In PDF, Clinical Oral Investigations, 16: 15–23. See also here.

E. Reeves et al. (2023): Historic palaeobotanical collection reveals in situ microspores and pollen from Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) ovules from the Ballagan Formation of Scotland. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 308.
"... The resultant 67 photomicrographs were photo-stitched into one large image
[...] Single microspores and pollen within the ovule were photographed under oil at ×100 using multiple images at different focus depths and then Z-stacked ..."

! Karl J. Reinhard, University of Nebraska, Lincoln: Palynology techniques for archaeology and geosciences. Extracting pollen from a variety of substrates, including consolidated geological deposits.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.B. Riding (2021): A guide to preparation protocols in palynology. Free access, Palynology, 45(sup1): 1–110.
See also here. (in PDF).
"... This document comprises a thematically-arranged series of summaries of 407 selected publications on the laboratory preparation of palynomorphs and related palynological techniques ..."

J.B. Riding and J.E. Kyffin-Hughes (2011): A direct comparison of three palynological preparation techniques. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 167: 212–221. See also here (abstract).

! J.B. Riding et al. (2007): An effective palynological preparation procedure using hydrogen peroxide. PDF file, Palynology, 31 19-36. See also here (abstract).

! James B. Riding and Jane E. Kyffin-Hughes (2004): A review oft the laboratory preparation of palynomorphs with a description of an effective non-acid technique. PDF file, Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 7: 13-44. Including a review of laboratory techniques on page 2.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Louise Rowell: Palynomorph retention on clothing under differing conditions. Thesis, University of Western Australia Library. Go to:
Materials and Methods. PDF file.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.D. Schiffbauer and S. Xiao (2009): Novel application of focused ion beam electron microscopy (FIB-EM) in preparation and analysis of microfossil ultrastructures: A new view of complexity in early …. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 616-626.
Snapshot archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Bruce G. Smith, Louisiana State University (with assistance by Brett Fitzgerald and Laura Quinn): Teacher Experiencing Antarctica, Procedures for Palynological Sample Preparation. Powerpoint presentation (13.7 MB), provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Stevenson and S.G. Haberle (2005): Macro Charcoal Analysis: A modified technique used by the Department of Archaeology and Natural History. Free access, PalaeoWorks Technical Report, 5.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
See also here.

A. Traverse (2007): Paleopalynology (2nd ed.), Springer. Provided by Google books. See especially:
! Palynological Laboratory Techniques (in PDF).

D. Uhl et al. (2021): Menatanthus mosbruggeri gen. nov. et sp. nov. – A flower with in situ pollen tetrads from the Paleocene maar lake of Menat (Puy-de-Dôme, France). Free access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 101: 51–58.

Gonzalo Vidal (1988): A Palynological Preparation Method. Abstract, Palynology, 12: 215-220.
U. Villanueva-Amadoz et al. (2012): Focused ion beam nano-sectioning and imaging: a new method in characterisation of palaeopalynological remains. In PDF, Grana, 51: 1–9. See also here.

P.B. Vixseboxse et al. (2024): Taphonomic experiments fixed and conserved with Paraloid B72 resin via solvent replacement. Open access, Lethaia, 57.
"... Taphonomic experiments offer a powerful tool with which to interpret the influence of decay and mineralization on the quality and completeness of Earth’s fossil record
[...] we propose a novel method of soft sediment fixation that permits the stabilization of entire decay experiments for sectioning and microanalysis
[...] Application of this method to a wide range of substrates demonstrates that this methodology can produce effective stabilization of samples, including unconsolidated sands and organic-rich substrates, with a chemically inert polymer ..."

James M. White, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Highlights from Recent CAP Newsletters): Differential Sorting of Palynomorphs During Preparation: Some Useful Research Topics.
Website outdated. The link lead to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D. Yeloff and C. Hunt (2005): Fluorescence microscopy of pollen and spores: a tool for investigating environmental change. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

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