Palaeobotanical Tools /
Preparation and Conservation
Managing Fossil Collections
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Photography and Scanning
Imaging Fossils Using UV-Light (Black-Light Photography)
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Microscopy@
N.F. Adams et al. (2016):
and virtual taphonomy resolve the first Cissus
(Vitaceae) macrofossils from Africa as early-diverging
members of the genus. Free access,
American Journal of Botany, 103: 1657–1677.
"... Virtual taphonomy explained how complex mineral infill processes concealed key seed features, causing the previous taxonomic misidentification. ..."
Sylvain Bernard et al. (2007):
preservation of fossil plant spores in high-pressure.
metamorphic rocks. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 262: 257-272.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B. Blonder et al. (2012): X-ray imaging of leaf venation networks. In PDF, New Phytologist.
! C.K. Boyce et al. (2010): X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 83: 146–153.
! M.E. Collinson et al. (2012): The value of X-ray approaches in the study of the Messel fruit and seed flora. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 92: 403-416. See also here (abstract).
J.A. Cunningham et al. (2014):
virtual world of paleontology. In PDF,
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 347-357. See also
"... in recent years the discipline has been revolutionized by the emergence of powerful methods for the digital visualization and analysis of fossil material. This has included improvements in both computer technology and its availability, and in tomographic techniques, which have made it possible to image a series of 2D sections or slices through a fossil and to use these to make a 3D reconstruction of the specimen".
F.E. de Sousa Filho et al. (2011): Combination of Raman, Infrared, and X-Ray Energy-Dispersion Spectroscopies and X-Ray Diffraction to Study a Fossilization Process. In PDF, Braz. J. Phys., 41: 275-280.
! D. Dietrich et al. (2013): A microstructure study on silicified wood from the Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Paläontologische Zeitschrift.
Dagmar Dietrich et al. (2000): Analytical X-Ray Microscopy on Psaronius sp.: A Contribution to Permineralization Process Studies. Abstract, Mikrochim. Acta, 133: 279-283.
N.P. Edwards et al. (2014): Leaf metallome preserved over 50 million years. In PDF, Metallomics, 6. See also here.
A.M.T. Elewa (2011): Computational Paleontology. Provided by Google books.
Else Marie Friis et al. (2007): Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seeds with Gnetales and Bennettitales. PDF file, Nature, 450: 549-552. See also here (abstract).
R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1989): Biostratinomic processes for the development of mud-cast logs in Carboniferous and Holocene swamps. PDF file, Palaios. With X-radiography photographs!
A.E.S. Högström et al. (2009):
A pyritized lepidocoleid machaeridian (Annelida)
from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany. PDF file,
Proc. R. Soc. B, 276: 1981-1986. This paper is exemplary in its combination of X-ray and
CT of animal body fossils.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
K.B. Pigg et al. (2006): VALUE OF HRXCT FOR SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF PYRITIZED FOSSIL FRUITS. Abstract, 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America.
F. Riquelme et al. (2009): Palaeometry: Non-destructive analysis of fossil materials. In PDF.
! Andrew C. Scott and Margaret E. Collinson (2003): Non-destructive multiple approaches to interpret the preservation of plant fossils: implications for calcium-rich permineralisations. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, 160: 857-862. See also here.
M. Speranza et al. (2010):
and new microscopy techniques applied to the study of microscopic fungi included in amber.
PDF file, In: A. Méndez-Vilas and J. Díaz (eds.):
Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education.
Scanning electron microscopy in
backscattered electron mode, with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Robert A. Spicer (1977): The pre-depositional formation of some leaf impressions. PDF file, Palaeontology, 20: 907-912. X-ray microanalysis of the surface of the encrustation.
B.L. Teece et al. (2020): Mars Rover Techniques and Lower/Middle Cambrian Microbialites from South Australia: Con.struction, Biofacies, and Biogeochemistry. In PDF, Astrobiology, 20: See also here.
E. Trembath-Reichert et al. (2015): Four hundred million years of silica biomineralization in land plants. PNAS, 112: 5449–5454.
micro-XANES. Synchrotron Based Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy and Microspectroscopy (C-, N-, O-XANES).
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Sirelious White (2006): Digital Dissection of Radiographs, Using the Early Cretaceous Bird Confuciusornis and Photoshop CS2TM. PDF file, Diss., University of New Orleans.
Scott L. Wing (1992):
Leaf X-Radiography in Systematics and Paleobotany.
American Journal of Botany, Vol. 79: 1320-1324.
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