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Home / Palaeobotanical Tools / X-ray

Preparation and Conservation
Transfer Technique
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Latex Casts
Photography and Scanning
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
Superresolution (SR)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Image Processing
Writing, Translating and Drawing

! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Microscopy@


Sylvain Bernard et al. (2007): Exceptional preservation of fossil plant spores in high-pressure. metamorphic rocks. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 262: 257-272.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B. Blonder et al. (2012): X-ray imaging of leaf venation networks. In PDF, New Phytologist.

! C.K. Boyce et al. (2010): X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 83: 146–153.

! M.E. Collinson et al. (2012): The value of X-ray approaches in the study of the Messel fruit and seed flora. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 92: 403-416. See also here (abstract).

! J.A. Cunningham et al. (2014): A virtual world of paleontology. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 347-357. See also here.
"... in recent years the discipline has been revolutionized by the emergence of powerful methods for the digital visualization and analysis of fossil material. This has included improvements in both computer technology and its availability, and in tomographic techniques, which have made it possible to image a series of 2D sections or slices through a fossil and to use these to make a 3D reconstruction of the specimen".

F.E. de Sousa Filho et al. (2011): Combination of Raman, Infrared, and X-Ray Energy-Dispersion Spectroscopies and X-Ray Diffraction to Study a Fossilization Process. In PDF, Braz. J. Phys., 41: 275-280.

! D. Dietrich et al. (2013): A microstructure study on silicified wood from the Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Paläontologische Zeitschrift.

Dagmar Dietrich et al. (2000): Analytical X-Ray Microscopy on Psaronius sp.: A Contribution to Permineralization Process Studies. Abstract, Mikrochim. Acta, 133: 279-283.

N.P. Edwards et al. (2014): Leaf metallome preserved over 50 million years. In PDF, Metallomics, 6. See also here.

A.M.T. Elewa (2011): Computational Paleontology. Provided by Google books.

Else Marie Friis et al. (2007): Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seeds with Gnetales and Bennettitales. PDF file, Nature, 450: 549-552. See also here (abstract).

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1989): Biostratinomic processes for the development of mud-cast logs in Carboniferous and Holocene swamps. PDF file, Palaios. With X-radiography photographs!

Anette E.S. Högström et al. (2009): A pyritized lepidocoleid machaeridian (Annelida) from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 276: 1981-1986. This paper is exemplary in its combination of X-ray and CT of animal body fossils.

K.B. Pigg et al. (2006): VALUE OF HRXCT FOR SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF PYRITIZED FOSSIL FRUITS. Abstract, 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America.

F. Riquelme et al. (2009): Palaeometry: Non-destructive analysis of fossil materials. In PDF.

! Andrew C. Scott and Margaret E. Collinson (2003): Non-destructive multiple approaches to interpret the preservation of plant fossils: implications for calcium-rich permineralisations. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, 160: 857-862. See also here.

M. Speranza et al. (2010): Traditional and new microscopy techniques applied to the study of microscopic fungi included in amber. PDF file, In: A. Méndez-Vilas and J. Díaz (eds.): Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education. Scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode, with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis.

Robert A. Spicer (1977): The pre-depositional formation of some leaf impressions. PDF file, Palaeontology, 20: 907-912. X-ray microanalysis of the surface of the encrustation.

E. Trembath-Reichert et al. (2015): Four hundred million years of silica biomineralization in land plants. PNAS, 112: 5449–5454.

Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, DC:
micro-XANES. Synchrotron Based Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy and Microspectroscopy (C-, N-, O-XANES).
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Sirelious White (2006): Digital Dissection of Radiographs, Using the Early Cretaceous Bird Confuciusornis and Photoshop CS2TM. PDF file, Diss., University of New Orleans.

Scott L. Wing (1992): High-Resolution Leaf X-Radiography in Systematics and Paleobotany. American Journal of Botany, Vol. 79: 1320-1324.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated September 05, 2016

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