Palaeobotanical Tools /
Preparation and Conservation
Managing Fossil Collections
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Photography and Scanning
Imaging Fossils Using UV-Light (Black-Light Photography)
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Cameras With Focus Bracketing or Built-In Focus Stacking
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
P.L. Ascough et al. (2010): Charcoal reflectance measurements: implications for structural characterization and assessment of diagenetic alteration. PDF file, Journal of Archaeological Science. About charcoal, reflectance, Raman spectroscopic measurements, oxidative degradation, black carbon, diagenesis.
A.F. Bunkin et al. (2023):
Plant Remains Diagnostics by Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Raman Spectroscopies. Free access,
"... Our results demonstrated that combined laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy measurements can provide new insights into the detection of samples with biogenicity indicators such as chlorophyll and its derivatives, as well as kerogenous materials. ..."
F.E. de Sousa Filho et al. (2011): Combination of Raman, Infrared, and X-Ray Energy-Dispersion Spectroscopies and X-Ray Diffraction to Study a Fossilization Process. In PDF, Braz. J. Phys., 41: 275-280.
D.G. Henry et al. (2019): Raman spectroscopy as a tool to determine the thermal maturity of organic matter: Application to sedimentary, metamorphic and structural geology. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 198.
J.A. Heredia-Guerrero et al. (2014):
and Raman spectroscopic features of plant cuticles: a review. Free access,
Front. Plant Sci., 25.
Note table 2: Definition of semi-quantitative ratios from FTIR and their interpretation for the characterization of fossilized plant cuticles (adapted from Zodrow etal. 2012).
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