Preservation & Taphonomy /
Taphonomy in General
Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy
Collecting Bias: Our Incomplete Picture of the Past Vegetation
Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils
Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation
Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)
Permineralized Plants and the Process of Permineralization
Upland and Hinterland Floras
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants
Leaf Litter and Plant Debris
Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations
Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record
! X-ray and Tomography@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
! Sina Adl et al. (2010): Reconstructing the soil food web of a 100 million-year-old forest: The case of the mid-Cretaceous fossils in the amber of Charentes (SW France). PDF file, Soil Biology & Biochemistry.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
American Museum of Natural History, New York:
Amber: Window to the Past.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
An exhibit on some of the creatures that have been preserved in amber
(good quality images). See also:
Search result "amber".
! Ken B. Anderson (2006): The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere. XII. Investigation of C-ring aromatic diterpenoids in Raritan amber by pyrolysis-GC-matrix isolation FTIR-MS. PDF file, Geochem Trans., 7: 2. See also here.
BBC: Discovering the lost world of the amber forests. See also here.
! Volker Arnold, Museum of Prehistory in Dithmarschen at Heide, Germany: Amber: A Perfect Fossil Trap. Worth checking out: The Amber Dictionary from A-F , and The Amber Dictionary from G-Z. Superbly done! See also: Pollen Grains Extracted from Oise Amber.
G. Bechly (2016), smnstuttgart-blog, Understanding Nature: Vom Pollenfresser zum Saftsauger. In German.
G. Bechly (2012): An interesting new fossil relict damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera: Coenagrionoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber. In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 5: 51-55.
C. Bisulca et al. (2012): Variation in the Deterioration of Fossil Resins and Implications for the Conservation of Fossils in Amber. In PDF, American Museum of Natural History.
MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author's name appears on the title page for each section): Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation. Go to: Dominican Amber.
Leif Brost, Swedish Amber Museum, Höllviken: Missing inclusions. Among the missing pieces are very rare inclusions. See the "Frozen Dramas"-exhibition.
Robert Caspary (1906): Die Flora des Bernsteins und anderer fossiler Harze des ostpreussischen Tertiärs. Nach dem Nachlasse des Verstorbenen bearbeitet von Richard Klebs. In German.
Karen Chin (Nature 451, 1053;2008): Pest friends in the Cretaceous. Fossils preserved in amber hint at surprising links between dinosaurs and their insect contemporaries. Book review: What Bugged the Dinosaurs? Insects, Disease, and Death in the Cretaceous; by George Poinar, Jr & Roberta Poinar, Princeton University Press, 2008. 296 pp.
J. Dal Corso (2011):
Middle-Late Triassic d13Cplant trend and the carnian pluvial event C-isotope signature.
Ph.D. thesis, University of Padua. See also
Amber from the Triassic of the Italian Alps.
Anders Leth Damgaard, Denmark:
www.Amber-inclusions.dk. Go to:
! Amber types and mines. Different types of amber listed by contries and sorted" in order of their geological age. Also worth checking out:
The Treasure Chest.
J.D. Daza et al. (2016): Mid-Cretaceous amber fossils illuminate the past diversity of tropical lizards. In PDF, Science Advances, 2. See also here.
K. Feldberg et al. (2017): Problems related to the taxonomic placement of incompletely preserved amber fossils: transfer of the Paleogene liverwort Cylindrocolea dimorpha (Cephaloziellaceae) to the extant Odontoschisma sect. Iwatsukia (Cephaloziaceae). In PDF, Foss. Rec., 20: 147–157.
Dario De Franceschi, Jean Dejax & Gaël De Ploëg, Laboratoire de paléontologie, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France: Extraction du pollen inclus dans l'ambre [Sparnacien du Quesnoy (Oise), bassin de Paris] : vers une nouvelle spécialité de la paléo-palynologie. Abridged version about amber fragments from Le Quesnoy (Oise), yielding pollen.
! Rob DeSalle et al. (1992): DNA sequences from a fossil termite in Oligo-Miocene amber and their phylogenetic implications. PDF file, Science, 257.
Hermann K. Dittrich, Mineraltown.com: Blue amber.
J.A. Dunlop et al. (2012): A minute fossil phoretic mite recovered by phasecontrast X-ray computed tomography. In PDF, Biol. Lett., 8: 457-460.
K. Feldberg et al. (2013): Exploring the impact of fossil constraints on the divergence time estimates of derived liverworts. In PDF, Plant Syst. Evol., 299: 585-601. See also here.
T.C. Fischer et al. (2017): Amber from the Alpine Triassic of Lunz (Carnian, Austria): a classic palaeobotanical site. Abstract, Palaeontology.
V. Girard and S.M. Adl (2011): Amber microfossils: On the validity of species concept. In PDF, C. R. Palevol, 10: 189-200.
! V. Girard et al. (2011): Protist-like inclusions in amber, as evidenced by Charentes amber. In PDF, European journal of Protistology.
Gabriela del Pilar González (2014): Stable isotopic fingerprint of resins and ambers: validation of a novel paleoclimatic indicator. Thesis, in PDF, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
C. Hartl et al. (2015): Lichen preservation in amber: morphology, ultrastructure, chemofossils, and taphonomic alteration. In PDF, Foss. Rec., 18: 127-135.
T. Hegna et al. (2013): Not Quite Frozen in Time: Windows into the Internal Taphonomy of Fossils in Amber via MicroCT-scan Technology. Abstract.
J. Heinrichs et al. (2011): Kaolakia borealis nov. gen. et sp. (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida): A leafy liverwort from the Cretaceous of Alaska. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
M. Lak et al. (2008): Phase contrast X-ray synchrotron imaging: opening access to fossil inclusions in opaque amber. In PDF, Microsc. Microanal., 14, 251-259.
Cynthia R. Levine, Melinda F. Brown, Angela Fullington Ballard, The Library Online Basic Orientation (LOBO) Project, NCSU Libraries, North Carolina State University, Raleigh: Extracting Ancient DNA from Amber. A bibliography.
! Ronald J. Litwin and Sidney R. Ash (1991): First early Mesozoic amber in the Western Hemisphere. Abstract, Geology, 19: 273-276.
Ana Martín-González et al. (2009): Double fossilization in eukaryotic microorganisms from Lower Cretaceous amber. PDF file, BMC Biology, 7. See also here.
Mark R. Meyer, 3 Dot Studio: The Natural History of Amber. By navigating through these pages, you can sample a variety of amber-related photographs and information that should give you a glimpse into the fascinating realm of amber (with the breathtaking amber gallery and a FAQ).
Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany.
History of Palaeozoic Forests,
MODES OF PRESERVATION.
Link list page with picture rankings. The links give the most direct connections to pictures available on the web.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
National Geographic News: Photo in the News: First Orchid Fossil Found in Amber. See also here (abstract, Nature).
Palanga Amber Museum, Lithuania: Amber Museums of the World.
V. Perrichot and V. Girard (2009): A unique piece of amber and the complexity of ancient forest ecosystems. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 137-139.
phys.org: Trapped in amber: Flower identified as new species. See also here (ScienceDaily).
! Garry Platt, UK, Amber Home: Index. All about amber! This web page has information on "Properties" and "Identifying True Amber", "Different Types of Amber, Copal and Resin", "Transformation - Resin into Amber", etc. Excellent!
! Garry Platt, Bob´s Rock Shop: Identifying True Amber (Succinite). A number of simple tests.
G. Poinar et al. (2016): Fossil species of Boehmerieae Gaudich. (Urticaceae) in Dominican and Mexican amber: A new genus (Ekrixanthera) and two new species with anemophilous pollination by explosive pollen release, and possible lepidopteran herbivory. In PDF, Botany.
G. Poinar (2014): Evolutionary history of terrestrial pathogens and endoparasites as revealed in fossils and subfossils. In PDF, Advances in Biology. See also here (abstract).
G. Poinar Jr. (2011): Silica bodies in the Early Cretaceous Programinis laminatus (Angiospermae: Poales). In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 4: 1-6.
Poinar, G. O. Jr., Waggoner, B. M., and Bauer, U.-C. 1993: Earliest terrestrial protists and other microorganisms in Triassic amber. Science 259(5092): 222-224.
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS, a private,
nonprofit corporation, whose members are America´s public TV stations):
NOVA. This is one of the highest rated science series on television and the most watched documentary series on public television. Go to: Trapped in Amber.
A. Quinney et al. (2015): The Range of Bioinclusions and Pseudoinclusions Preserved in a New Turonian (~90 Ma) Amber Occurrence from Southern Australia. PLoS ONE 10.
! G. Roghi et al. (2017): Middle Triassic amber associated with voltzialean conifers from the Southern Alps of Italy. Abstract, Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 123: 193-202. See also here (in PDF).
Guido Roghi et al. (2014):
trip to Permo-Triassic Palaeobotanical and
Palynological sites of the Southern Alps. In PDF,
Geo.Alp, 11: 29-84.
Triassic amber drops on PDF page 71, concerning amber please take notice PDF page 72, 74.
Guido Roghi, Evelyn Kustatscher & Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert: Late Triassic plant fossils from north-eastern Italy. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy. Some amber drops still attached to conifer shoots from the Triassic Dogna macroflora, Italy!
Andrew Ross and Jeremy Austin, The Natural History Museum, London: Nature online, Earth, Fossils, The search for DNA in amber (PDF file).
A.R. Schmidt et al. (2014): Amber fossils of sooty moulds. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 53-64.
A.R. Schmidt et al. (2012):
in amber from the Triassic Period. In PDF,
Still provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A.R. Schmidt et al. (2010):
African life captured in amber. PDF file,
PNAS, 107: 7329-7334.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Alexander R. Schmidt and David L. Dilcher (2007): Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest, PDF file, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 104: 16581-16585. See also here, and there. PDF file.
Alexander R. Schmidt et al.: Carnivorous Fungi from Cretaceous Amber. PDF file, Science, 2007: 1743.
Alexander R. Schmidt et al. (2001): The Mesozoic amber of Schliersee (southern Germany) is Cretaceous in age. PDF file, Cretaceous Research, 22: 423-428.
H. Schneider et al. (2016): Burmese amber fossils bridge the gap in the Cretaceous record of polypod ferns. In PDF, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 18: 70–78. See also here (abstract).
Fabian Seredszus, University of Köln: Wasserinsekten des Baltischen Bernsteins unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Chironomiden. This thesis (PDF file, in German) deals with taphonomy, systematics and paleoecology of chironomid midges in Baltic amber.
M.M. Solórzano Kraemer and J. Rust (2006): Der Mexikanische Bernstein und seine Einschlüsse. In German (PDF file), Fossilien, 23: 337-340. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! M. Speranza et al. (2010): Traditional and new microscopy techniques applied to the study of microscopic fungi included in amber. In PDF, In: A. Méndez-Vilas and J. Díaz (eds.): Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education. See also here.
B. Artur Stankiewicz et al. (1998): Chemical preservation of plants and insects in natural resins. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 265: 641-647. See also here.
! R. Tappert et al. (2013): Stable carbon isotopes of C3 plant resins and ambers record changes in atmospheric oxygen since the Triassic. In PDF, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 121: 240-262.
P. Veiga-Crespo et al (2007): Putative ancient microorganisms from amber nuggets. PDF file, INTERNATIONAL MICROBIOLOGY, 10: 117-122.
Susan Ward Aber, Earth Science Department, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas:
The World of Amber. Worth checking out:
What is Amber?
WAYNE´S WORD (published by WOLFFIA INC. Escondido, CA): The nonprofit quarterly journal is dedicated to little-known facts and trivia about natural history subjects. W. P. Armstrong (1995): Plants of Jurassic Park. Plants that lived when dinosaurs roamed the Earth. WAYNE´S WORD Volume 8 (1999).
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Kategorie:Bernstein (in German).
! Bernsteinvorkommen (in German).
German Amber website.
A.P. Wolfe et al. (2016): Bitterfeld amber is not Baltic amber: Three geochemical tests and further constraints on the botanical affinities of succinite. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. See also here (abstract).
! A. Wolfe et al. (2009): A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc., B 276: 3403-3412.
L. Xing et al. (2016):
Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber. In PDF,
See also here (planeterde.de, in German).
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