Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Preservation & Taphonomy / Amber

Taphonomy in General
Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy
Collecting Bias: Our Incomplete Picture of the Past Vegetation
Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils
Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation
Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)
Permineralized Plants and the Process of Permineralization
Petrified Forests
Pyrite Preservation
Molecular Palaeobotany
Upland and Hinterland Floras
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants
Leaf Litter and Plant Debris
Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations
Wound Response in Trees
Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record

! X-ray and Tomography@
Plant Anatomy@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@


! S. Adl et al. (2010): Reconstructing the soil food web of a 100 million-year-old forest: The case of the mid-Cretaceous fossils in the amber of Charentes (SW France). PDF file, Soil Biology & Biochemistry. See also here.

AmbarAzul, LLC: Blue Amber.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

American Museum of Natural History, New York: Amber: Window to the Past. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. An exhibit on some of the creatures that have been preserved in amber (good quality images). See also:
Search result "amber".

! K.B. Anderson (2006): The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere. XII. Investigation of C-ring aromatic diterpenoids in Raritan amber by pyrolysis-GC-matrix isolation FTIR-MS. PDF file, Geochem Trans., 7: 2.

BBC: Discovering the lost world of the amber forests. See also here.

! Volker Arnold, Museum of Prehistory in Dithmarschen at Heide, Germany: Amber: A Perfect Fossil Trap. Worth checking out: The Amber Dictionary from A-F , and The Amber Dictionary from G-Z. Superbly done! See also: Pollen Grains Extracted from Oise Amber.

G. Bechly (2016), smnstuttgart-blog, Understanding Nature: Vom Pollenfresser zum Saftsauger. In German.

G. Bechly (2012): An interesting new fossil relict damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera: Coenagrionoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber. In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 5: 51-55.

S. Beurel et al (2024): First flower inclusion and fossil evidence of Cryptocarya (Laurales, Lauraceae) from Miocene amber of Zhangpu (China). In PDF, Fossil Record, 27: 111.
See likewise here and there.
"... We here described the first Cenozoic Lauraceae flower of Asia and confirmed the presence of Cryptocarya in the Miocene Zhangpu flora
[...] We scanned the specimen using synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography (SRìCT) and then compared the fossil with extant flowers of the genus ..."

C. Bisulca et al. (2012): Variation in the Deterioration of Fossil Resins and Implications for the Conservation of Fossils in Amber. In PDF, American Museum of Natural History.
see also here.

V. Bouju and V. Perrichot (2020): A review of amber and copal occurrences in Africa and their paleontological significance. Open access, Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 191.

G. Breton and G. Poinar (2020): Synopsis of rare fossil animal spermatozoa in amber and sedimentary deposits Free access, Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 191.

D.E.G. Briggs (2018): Sampling the insects of the amber forest. Abstract, PNAS, 115: 6525-6527.
! See also here (in PDF).

MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author´s name appears on the title page for each section):
Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation. Go to:
Dominican Amber.
Websites still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Leif Brost, Swedish Amber Museum, Höllviken: Missing inclusions. Among the missing pieces are very rare inclusions. See the "Frozen Dramas"-exhibition.

S.W. Carmichael (2019): Did Beetles Pollinate Ancient Plants? A review. Free access, MicroscopyToday, 27: 8-11

Robert Caspary (1906): Die Flora des Bernsteins und anderer fossiler Harze des ostpreussischen Tertiärs. Nach dem Nachlasse des Verstorbenen bearbeitet von Richard Klebs. In German.

Karen Chin (Nature 451, 1053;2008): Pest friends in the Cretaceous. Fossils preserved in amber hint at surprising links between dinosaurs and their insect contemporaries. Book review: What Bugged the Dinosaurs? Insects, Disease, and Death in the Cretaceous; by George Poinar, Jr & Roberta Poinar, Princeton University Press, 2008. 296 pp.

N.D.L. Clark and C. Daly (2010): Using confocal laser scanning microscopy to image trichome inclusions in amber. In PDF, Journal of Paleontological Techniques, 8: 1-7. See also here.

D. Coty et al. (2014): The First Ant-Termite Syninclusion in Amber with CT-Scan Analysis of Taphonomy. Open access, PLoS ONE 9.

J. Dal Corso (2011): The Middle-Late Triassic d13Cplant trend and the carnian pluvial event C-isotope signature. Ph.D. thesis, University of Padua. See also here (abstract).
Amber from the Triassic of the Italian Alps.

Anders Leth Damgaard, Denmark: Go to:
! Amber types and mines. Different types of amber listed by contries and sorted" in order of their geological age. Also worth checking out:
The Treasure Chest.

J.D. Daza et al. (2016): Mid-Cretaceous amber fossils illuminate the past diversity of tropical lizards. In PDF, Science Advances, 2. See also here.

! X. Delclos et al. (2023): Amber and the Cretaceous Resinous Interval. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 243.
Note figure 2 (palaeogeographical maps): Distribution of resiniferous forests based on known amber-bearing localities and known occurrences of potential coniferous resin-producing tree families throughout the Cretaceous.
Figure 4: Oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric composition, temperature, and Large Igneous Province (LIP) activity throughout the Cretaceous.
"... Here we discuss the set of interrelated abiotic and biotic factors potentially involved in resin production during that time. We name this period of mass resin production by conifers during the late Mesozoic, fundamental as an archive of terrestrial life, the Cretaceous Resinous Interval (CREI) ..."

M. Dolezych et al. (2019): Taxonomy of CretaceousPaleogene coniferous woods and their distribution in fossil Lagerstätten of the high latitudes. PDF file, in: Piepjohn K., Strauss J.V., Reinhardt L., McClelland W.C. (eds.), Circum-arctic structural events: tectonic evolution of the arctic margins and trans-arctic links with adjacent orogens. Boulder (CO).
See also here. Note figure 3B: Fossil wood with a resin inclusion.

E. Estrada-Ruiz and F. Riquelme (2017): First fossil record of Hypnodontopsis (Bryopsida: Rhachitheciaceae) from the Americas. In PDF, Ameghiniana 54: 124131.

K. Feldberg et al. (2017): Problems related to the taxonomic placement of incompletely preserved amber fossils: transfer of the Paleogene liverwort Cylindrocolea dimorpha (Cephaloziellaceae) to the extant Odontoschisma sect. Iwatsukia (Cephaloziaceae). In PDF, Foss. Rec., 20: 147157.

Dario De Franceschi, Jean Dejax & Gaël De Ploëg, Laboratoire de paléontologie, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France: Extraction du pollen inclus dans l'ambre [Sparnacien du Quesnoy (Oise), bassin de Paris] : vers une nouvelle spécialité de la paléo-palynologie. Abridged version about amber fragments from Le Quesnoy (Oise), yielding pollen.

! Rob DeSalle et al. (1992): DNA sequences from a fossil termite in Oligo-Miocene amber and their phylogenetic implications. PDF file, Science, 257.

Hermann K. Dittrich, Blue amber.

J.A. Dunlop et al. (2012): A minute fossil phoretic mite recovered by phasecontrast X-ray computed tomography. In PDF, Biol. Lett., 8: 457-460.

E.M. Dunne et al. (2022): Ethics, law, and politics in palaeontological research: The case of Myanmar amber. Open access, Communications Biology, 5.
"... we conduct a bibliometric analysis of Myanmar amber publications (19902021)
[...] An analysis of the authorship networks for publications on amber inclusions reveals how current research practices have excluded Myanmar researchers from the field. In addition, the international trade of Myanmar amber with fossil inclusions falls into a legal grey-zone which continues to be exploited. ..."

E. Estrada-Ruiz and F. Riquelme (2017): First fossil record of Hypnodontopsis (Bryopsida: Rhachitheciaceae) from the Americas. In PDF, Ameghiniana 54: 124131. See also here.

K. Feldberg et al. (2017): Problems related to the taxonomic placement of incompletely preserved amber fossils: transfer of the Paleogene liverwort Cylindrocolea dimorpha (Cephaloziellaceae) to the extant Odontoschisma sect. Iwatsukia (Cephaloziaceae). In PDF, Foss. Rec., 20: 147157.

K. Feldberg et al. (2013): Exploring the impact of fossil constraints on the divergence time estimates of derived liverworts. In PDF, Plant Syst. Evol., 299: 585-601. See also here.

T.C. Fischer et al. (2017): Amber from the Alpine Triassic of Lunz (Carnian, Austria): a classic palaeobotanical site. Abstract, Palaeontology.

G. Forte et al. (2022): Amber droplets in the southern alps (NE Italy): A link between their occurrences and main humid episodes in the Triassic. In PDF, Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 128. See also here.

V. Girard and S.M. Adl (2011): Amber microfossils: On the validity of species concept. Abstract, C. R. Palevol, 10: 189-200.

! V. Girard et al. (2011): Protist-like inclusions in amber, as evidenced by Charentes amber. In PDF, European journal of Protistology.

Gabriela del Pilar González (2014): Stable isotopic fingerprint of resins and ambers: validation of a novel paleoclimatic indicator. Thesis, in PDF, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton.

M. Grünemeier (2017): Not just hyphae the amber mite Glaesacarus rhombeus as a forager on hardened resin surfaces and a potential scavenger on trapped insects. In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 10.
Note fig. 5: Illustration depicting the possible behaviour of Glaesacarus rhombeus on the bark of Pinus succinifera with a trapped spider.

C. Hartl et al. (2015): Lichen preservation in amber: morphology, ultrastructure, chemofossils, and taphonomic alteration. In PDF, Foss. Rec., 18: 127-135.

T. Hegna et al. (2013): Not Quite Frozen in Time: Windows into the Internal Taphonomy of Fossils in Amber via MicroCT-scan Technology. Abstract.

! J. Heinrichs et al. (2015): Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber. Open access, PLoS ONE 10: e0140977.

J. Heinrichs et al. (2012): The sporophyte of the Paleogene liverwort Frullania varians Caspary. In PDF, Fossil Record, 15: 115120.

J. Heinrichs et al. (2011): Kaolakia borealis nov. gen. et sp. (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida): A leafy liverwort from the Cretaceous of Alaska. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 165: 235-240.
See also here.

L. Hernandez-Sandoval et al. (2023): Nichima gen. nov. (Alismataceae) based on reproductive structures from the Oligocene]Miocene of Mexico. Open access, American Journal of Botany, 110.
Note figure 7: Fossil flower reconstructions and proposed inflorescence organization.
"... Two fossil flowers preserved in amber from the Miocene ..."

D. Hibbett et al. (1997): Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous ambers and the evolution of Homobasidiomycetes. Open access, American Journal of Botany, 84: 981-991.

G. Horváth et al. (2021): How did amber get its aquatic insects? Water-seeking polarotactic insects trapped by tree resin. Open access, Historical Biology, 33: 46856.
"... The resin continues to flow out of the trees even when fallen over or fractured in a storm. Our findings support and complement an earlier hypothesis, according to which amber-preserved adult aquatic insects have been trapped by resiny bark when they dispersed over land ..."

! G. Horváth et al. (2019): How did amber get its aquatic insects? Water-seeking polarotactic insects trapped by tree resin. Free access, Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2019.1663843.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2019): Triassic macro- and microfloras of the Eastern Southern Alps. In PDF, Geo.Alp, 16.

! C. Labandeira (2014): Amber. PDF file. In: Laflamme M, Schiffbauer JD, Darroch SAF, editors. Reading and Writing of the Fossil record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization, Paleontol. Soc. Pap., vol. 20: 163216. See also here.
Note fig. 7: Steps in the transformation of raw amber into collection items.

! C.C. Labandeira (2014): Table 1. The twenty-five most significant amber deposits and their evolutionary phases. In PDF. In chronological order, from youngest (top) to oldest (bottom). From:
"Amber". Pp. 163-215 in Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization: Presented as a Paleontological Society Short Course at the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Vancouver, British Columbia, October 18, 2014 (LaFlamme, M., Schiffbauer, J. D. and Darroch, S. A. F.). Paleontological Society.

M. Lak et al. (2008): Phase contrast X-ray synchrotron imaging: opening access to fossil inclusions in opaque amber. In PDF, Microsc. Microanal., 14, 251-259.

Cynthia R. Levine, Melinda F. Brown, Angela Fullington Ballard, The Library Online Basic Orientation (LOBO) Project, NCSU Libraries, North Carolina State University, Raleigh: Extracting Ancient DNA from Amber. A bibliography.

! Ronald J. Litwin and Sidney R. Ash (1991): First early Mesozoic amber in the Western Hemisphere. Abstract, Geology, 19: 273-276.

Z.-J. Liu et al. (2018): The Core Eudicot Boom Registered in Myanmar Amber. Open access, Scientific Reportsvolume 8.
Note figure 5: Reconstruction of Lijinganthus revoluta.

Q. Liu et al. (2018): High niche diversity in Mesozoic pollinating lacewings. Open access, Nature Communications, 9: 3793.

X. Liu et al. (2018): Liverwort Mimesis in a Cretaceous Lacewing Larva. Open access, Current Biology, 28: 1475-1481.
Note figure 3: Reconstruction of two larvae resting on liverworts.

R.P. Lozano et al. (2020): Phloem sap in Cretaceous ambers as abundant double emulsions preserving organic and inorganic residues. In PDF, Scientific Reports, 10.

J. Luque et al. (2021): Crab in amber reveals an early colonization of nonmarine environments during the Cretaceous. Free access, Science Advances, 7.

! X. Martinez-Delclòs et al. (2004): Taphonomy of insects in carbonates and amber. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 203: 19-64. See also here.

A. Martín-González et al. (2009): Double fossilization in eukaryotic microorganisms from Lower Cretaceous amber. Open access, BMC Biol., 7.

! C. Mays et al. (2019): The botanical provenance and taphonomy of Late Cretaceous Chatham amber, Chatham Islands, New Zealand. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 260: 1626. See also here.

C. Mays et al. (2017): Pushing the limits of neutron tomography in palaeontology: Three-dimensional modelling of in situ resin within fossil plants. Open access, Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.3.57A: 1-12.
See also here.
"... This study demonstrates the feasibility of NT [neutron tomography] as a means to differentiate chemically distinct organic compounds within fossils ..."

Mark R. Meyer, 3 Dot Studio: The Natural History of Amber. By navigating through these pages, you can sample a variety of amber-related photographs and information that should give you a glimpse into the fascinating realm of amber (with the breathtaking amber gallery and a FAQ).

J.D. Moreau and D. Néraudeau (2023): Amber and plants from the Upper Cretaceous of La Gripperie-Saint-Symphorien (Charente-Maritime, Western France). Free access, Comptes Rendus. Palevol, 22.
See also here.

J.-D. Moreau et al. (2017): 100-million-year-old conifer tissues from the mid-Cretaceous amber of Charente (western France) revealed by synchrotron microtomography. Free access, Annals of Botany, 119: 117128.

Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, MODES OF PRESERVATION. Link list page with picture rankings. The links give the most direct connections to pictures available on the web.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

National Geographic News: Photo in the News: First Orchid Fossil Found in Amber. See also here (abstract, Nature).

Palanga Amber Museum, Lithuania: Amber Museums of the World.

! J. Panczak et al. (2023): Biomarkers in fossil resins and their palaeoecological significance. Open access, Earth-Science Reviews, 242.
"... The biomarkers found in fossil resins were divided into compounds providing chemotaxonomic (botanical biomarkers) and environmental information (other biomarkers). Botanical biomarkers provide high utility in paleobotanical studies. The initial identification of a source tree, gymnosperm, or angiosperm is possible, due to certain chemical patterns of these types. Moreover, in chemotaxonomic studies, the restriction to more specific taxonomic levels, especially to the level of family, is usually possible ..."

! R. Pérez-de la Fuente et al. (2018): The hatching mechanism of 130-million-year-old insects: an association of neonates, egg shells and egg bursters in Lebanese amber. In PDF, Palaeontology, 2018, pp. 113. See also here (open access).

! D. Peris et al. (2017): False Blister Beetles and the Expansion of Gymnosperm-Insect Pollination Modes before Angiosperm Dominance. In PDF, Current Biology, 27. See also here.

V. Perrichot and V. Girard (2009): A unique piece of amber and the complexity of ancient forest ecosystems. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 137-139. (in German, sponsored by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung):
Schnappschuss aus der Urzeit Insektenbestäubung doch keine Erfindung der Blütenpflanzen? Trapped in amber: Flower identified as new species. See also here (ScienceDaily).

! Garry Platt, UK, Amber Home: Index. All about amber! This web page has information on "Properties" and "Identifying True Amber", "Different Types of Amber, Copal and Resin", "Transformation - Resin into Amber", etc. Excellent!

! Garry Platt, Bob´s Rock Shop: Identifying True Amber (Succinite). A number of simple tests.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G. Poinar (2019): Associations between Fossil Beetles and Other Organisms. In PDF, Geosciences, 9. See also here.

George Poinar and Greg Poinar (2018): The antiquity of floral secretory tissues that provide todays fragrances. Abstract, Historical Biology. See also:
Schnupperten schon Dinos Blumenduft? Kreidezeitliche Blütenpflanzen könnten bereits Düfte produziert haben. In German,

G. Poinar et al. (2016): Fossil species of Boehmerieae Gaudich. (Urticaceae) in Dominican and Mexican amber: A new genus (Ekrixanthera) and two new species with anemophilous pollination by explosive pollen release, and possible lepidopteran herbivory. In PDF, Botany.

G. Poinar (2014): Evolutionary history of terrestrial pathogens and endoparasites as revealed in fossils and subfossils. In PDF, Advances in Biology. See also here (abstract).

G. Poinar Jr. (2011): Silica bodies in the Early Cretaceous Programinis laminatus (Angiospermae: Poales). In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 4: 1-6.

Poinar, G. O. Jr., Waggoner, B. M., and Bauer, U.-C. 1993: Earliest terrestrial protists and other microorganisms in Triassic amber. Science 259(5092): 222-224.

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS, a private, nonprofit corporation, whose members are America´s public TV stations):
NOVA. This is one of the highest rated science series on television and the most watched documentary series on public television. Go to: Trapped in Amber.

A. Quinney et al. (2015): The Range of Bioinclusions and Pseudoinclusions Preserved in a New Turonian (~90 Ma) Amber Occurrence from Southern Australia. PLoS ONE 10.

L. Regalado et al. (2017): A fossil species of the enigmatic early polypod fern genus Cystodium (Cystodiaceae) in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar. Scientific Reports, 7.

M. Reich et al. (2019): Faszination Bernstein. Momentaufnahmen aus einer vergangenen Zeit / Fascination Amber. Snapshots from the Distant Past. In PDF. About the the famous amber collection of Adolf Freiherr Bachofen von Echt (1864 1947). Munich Palaeontology Museum, Germany. See also here.

! G Roghi et al. (2022): An Exceptionally Preserved Terrestrial Record of LIP Effects on Plants in the Carnian (Upper Triassic) Amber-Bearing Section of the Dolomites, Italy. In PDF, Frontiers in Earth Science.
Note figure 1: Pangaean floristic subprovinces during the Late Triassic.
! Fig. 6: Fossil plant remains and palynomorphs enclosed in the amber droplets.

! G. Roghi et al. (2017): Middle Triassic amber associated with voltzialean conifers from the Southern Alps of Italy. Abstract, Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 123: 193-202. See also here (in PDF).

! Guido Roghi et al. (2014): Field trip to Permo-Triassic Palaeobotanical and Palynological sites of the Southern Alps. In PDF, Geo.Alp, 11: 29-84.
Triassic amber drops on PDF page 71, concerning amber please take notice PDF page 72, 74.

Guido Roghi, Evelyn Kustatscher & Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert: Late Triassic plant fossils from north-eastern Italy. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy. Some amber drops still attached to conifer shoots from the Triassic Dogna macroflora, Italy!

Andrew Ross and Jeremy Austin, The Natural History Museum, London: Nature online, Earth, Fossils, The search for DNA in amber (PDF file).

E.M. Sadowski and C.C. Hofmann (2023): The largest amber-preserved flower revisited. Open access, Scientific Reports, 13.
Note also: Blumige Rückschau (by Katharina Menne,; in German).

! E.-M. Sadowski et al. (2021): Conservation, preparation and imaging of diverse ambers and their inclusions. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 220.
See also here.
! Note figure 8: Simplified scheme guiding through the process of epoxy preparation.
Also of interest in this context:
Pflanzliche Botschaften aus der Urzeit (by Tamara Worzewski, November 08, 2022,, in German).

E.-M. Sadowski et al. (2017): Conifers of the "Baltic amber forest" and their palaeoecological significance. In PDF, Stapfia, 106. See also here.
Note Fig. 1: Terminology of the stomata morphology.

J.P. Saint Martin and S. Saint Martin (2021): Amber, from deposit to inclusions: new data. Free access, Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 192.

! J.A. Santiago-Blay and J.B. Lambert (2017): Plant Exudates and Amber: Their Origin and Uses. In PDF, Arnoldia, 75: 2-13.

! A.R. Schmidt et al. (2022): Selaginella in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar. Open access, Willdenowia, 52: 179245.
Breathtaking photographs showing mid-Cretaceous plant remains in amber!

A.R. Schmidt et al. (2014): Amber fossils of sooty moulds. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 53-64.

! A.R. Schmidt et al. (2012): Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period. Free access, PNAS, 109.

A.R. Schmidt et al. (2010): Cretaceous African life captured in amber. PDF file, PNAS, 107: 7329-7334.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.R. Schmidt and D.L. Dilcher (2007): Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest. Free access, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 104: 16581-16585.

A.R. Schmidt et al. (2007): Carnivorous Fungi from Cretaceous Amber. PDF file, Science, 2007: 1743.
See also here.

A.R. Schmidt et al. (2001): The Mesozoic amber of Schliersee (southern Germany) is Cretaceous in age. PDF file, Cretaceous Research, 22: 423-428.

H. Schneider et al. (2016): Burmese amber fossils bridge the gap in the Cretaceous record of polypod ferns. In PDF, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 18: 7078. See also here (abstract).

Fabian Seredszus, University of Köln: Wasserinsekten des Baltischen Bernsteins unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Chironomiden. This thesis (PDF file, in German) deals with taphonomy, systematics and paleoecology of chironomid midges in Baltic amber.

! L.J. Seyfullah et al. (2018): Production and preservation of resins past and present. Open access, Biol. Rev., 93: 16841714.
Also of interest in this context:
Pflanzliche Botschaften aus der Urzeit (by Tamara Worzewski, November 08, 2022,, in German).

L.J. Seyfullah et al. (2018): The Carnian Pluvial Episode and the first global appearance of amber. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 175: 1012-1018.
Also of interest in this context:
Pflanzliche Botschaften aus der Urzeit (by Tamara Worzewski, November 08, 2022,, in German).

C. Shi et al. (2022): Fire-prone Rhamnaceae with South African affinities in Cretaceous Myanmar amber. In PDF, Nature Plants, 8: 125135.
See also here.
"... We report the discovery of two exquisitely preserved fossil flower species, one identical to the inflorescences of the extant crown-eudicot genus Phylica and the other recovered as a sister group to Phylica, both preserved as inclusions together with burned plant remains in Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (~99 million years ago) ..."

M.M. Solórzano Kraemer and J. Rust (2006): Der Mexikanische Bernstein und seine Einschlüsse. In German (PDF file), Fossilien, 23: 337-340. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Speranza et al. (2010): Traditional and new microscopy techniques applied to the study of microscopic fungi included in amber. PDF file, In: A. Méndez-Vilas and J. Díaz (eds.): Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education. Scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode, with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! P. Stach et al. (2020): A Study on the Formation Environment of the La Cumbre Amber Deposit, from Santiago Province, the Northwestern Part of the Dominican Republic. In PDF, Minerals, 10, 736; doi:10.3390/min10090736

B. Artur Stankiewicz et al. (1998): Chemical preservation of plants and insects in natural resins. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 265: 641-647. See also here.

J.D. Stilwell et al. (2020): Amber from the Triassic to Paleogene of Australia and New Zealand as exceptional preservation of poorly known terrestrial ecosystems. Open access, Scientific Reports, 10.

J.D. Stilwell et al. (2020): Amber from the Triassic to Paleogene of Australia and New Zealand as exceptional preservation of poorly known terrestrial ecosystems. Open access, Scientific Reports, 10: 5703.

! M.R. Stoneman et al. (2024): Two-photon excitation fluorescence microspectroscopy protocols for examining fluorophores in fossil plants. Open access, Communications Biology, 7.
"... In this work, we utilize two-photon fluorescence microspectroscopy to spatially and spectrally resolve the fluorescence emitted by amber-embedded plants, leaf compressions, and silicified wood
[...] This research opens doors to exploring ancient ecosystems and understanding the ecological roles of fluorescence in plants throughout time. ..."

! R. Tappert et al. (2013): Stable carbon isotopes of C3 plant resins and ambers record changes in atmospheric oxygen since the Triassic. In PDF, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 121: 240-262.

C. Vázquez-González et al. 2020): Resin ducts as resistance traits in conifers: linking dendrochronology and resin-based defences. Free access, Tree Physiology, 40 :13131326.

P. Veiga-Crespo et al (2007): Putative ancient microorganisms from amber nuggets. PDF file, INTERNATIONAL MICROBIOLOGY, 10: 117-122.

D.D. Vorontsov et al. (2023): Beyond the Limits of Light: An Application of Super-Resolution Confocal Microscopy (sCLSM) to Investigate Eocene Amber Microfossils. Open access, Life, 13(4), 865;
"... we describe a non-destructive method of super resolution confocal microscopy (sCLSM) to study amber-preserved microfossils ..."

D. Vorontsov and E.E. Voronezhskaya (2022): Pushing the limits of optical resolution in the study of the tiniest fossil arthropods. Abstract, Historical Biology.
"... we report our technical approaches and methodological findings, including the selection of mounting medium, clearing of specimens, the effects of hydration of fossils in amber and the advantages of super-resolution confocal microscopy in obtaining images with sub-micron detail. ..."

S. Wang et al. (2021): Cretaceous fire-resistant angiosperms. In PDF, preprint, DOI:
See also here.
"... both preserved as inclusions in Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (~99 Ma). These specialized flower structures, named Phylica piloburmensis sp. nov. and Eophylica priscastellata gen. et sp. nov., were adapted to surviving frequent wildfires, providing the earliest evidence of fire-resistance in angiosperms. ..."

! Susan Ward Aber, Earth Science Department, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas:
The World of Amber.
Worth checking out:
What is Amber?
Versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

WAYNE´S WORD (published by WOLFFIA INC. Escondido, CA): The nonprofit quarterly journal is dedicated to little-known facts and trivia about natural history subjects. W. P. Armstrong (1995): Plants of Jurassic Park. Plants that lived when dinosaurs roamed the Earth. WAYNE´S WORD Volume 8 (1999).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Amber.
! Category:Amber.
Kategorie:Bernstein (in German).
! Bernsteinvorkommen (in German).
German Amber website.

V. Wilde and W. Riegel (2022): A middle Eocene treefall pit and its filling: a microenvironmental study from the onset of a forest mire in the Geiseltal (Germany). Open access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 102: 237251.
Note figure 10: Resin particles in palynological residue.

A.P. Wolfe et al. (2016): Bitterfeld amber is not Baltic amber: Three geochemical tests and further constraints on the botanical affinities of succinite. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. See also here (abstract).

! A. Wolfe et al. (2009): A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc., B 276: 3403-3412.

L. Xing et al. (2016): A Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber. In PDF, Current Biology.
See also here (, in German).

T. Yu et al. (2018): An ammonite trapped in Burmese amber. Open access, PNAS, 116: 11345-1135.
"... It is rare to find aquatic organisms in amber, and it is extremely rare to find marine organisms in amber
[...] The exceptional occurrence of macroscopic marine macrofossils in the resin suggests that the amber forest was growing close to a coast ..."

D. Zheng et al. (2018): A Late Cretaceous amber biota from central Myanmar. In PDF, Nature Communications.
"To get the clear 3D structures, all images were taken by using digitally stacked photomicrographic composites of ~40 individual focal planes".

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated April 14, 2024

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