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Home / Preservation & Taphonomy / Taphonomy in General

Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy
Collecting Bias: Our Incomplete Picture of the Past Vegetation
Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils
Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation
Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)
Permineralized Plants and the Process of Permineralization
Petrified Forests
Pyrite Preservation
Molecular Palaeobotany
Upland and Hinterland Floras
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants
Leaf Litter and Plant Debris
Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations
Wound Response in Trees
Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record

! Teaching Documents about Taphonomy@

Taphonomy in General

Stephen T. Abedon, Microbiology, Ohio State University, Mansfield: Supplemental Lecture. Fossilization, palaeontology, biases in the fossil record etc. in brief.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Alexa (Alexa Internet, Inc., an Company). Alexa is a Web Information Company, perhaps best known for the Alexa Rank, the website ranking system which tracks over 30 million websites worldwide. The top ranked sites in category "Science". Go to:
! Taphonomy.

! J. Alleon et al. (2016): Early entombment within silica minimizes the molecular degradation of microorganisms during advanced diagenesis. In PDF, Chemical Geology, 437: 98–108. See also here.

! P.A. Allison and D.J. Bottjer (eds.), 2011:
Taphonomy Process and Bias Through Time. Book announcement (Springer), updated second edition.
! See also here (in PDF, slow download).

! P.A. Allison and D.J. Bottjer (2011): Taphonomy: Bias and process through time. In PDF. In: P.A. Allison and D.J. Bottjer (eds.), Taphonomy: Process and Bias Through Time, Topics in Geobiology 32.

J. Alroy et al. (2001): Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification. In PDF, PNAS, 98: 6261-6266.

Masdouq Al-Taj, Hashemite University, Jordan:
Introduction Palaeontology. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

The American Geosciences Institute (AGI):
How does a living thing become a fossil?
Why do some things become fossils, but others do not?
Teaching and Learning Focus.

E.P. Anderson (2016): Understanding Soft-Bodied Taphonomy: An Integrated Approach Incorporating Theoretical, Fossil, and Experimental Studies. In PDF, Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder. See also here.

H.I. Araújo-Júnior (2023): Formation and taphonomy of Quaternary fossil accumulations: Advances and new perspectives. Free access, Frontiers in Ecol. Evol., 11: 1161889. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1161889.

L.E. Babcock et al. (2006): The "Preservation Paradox": Microbes as a Key to Exceptional Fossil Preservation in the Kirkpatrick Basalt (Jurassic), Antarctica. PDF file, The Sedimentary Record, 4. See also here.
Silica-rich hydrothermal water apparently worked to fossilize organic remains rapidly and produce a "freeze-frame" of macroscopic and microscopic life forms. Microbes seem to have played a vital role in this processes.

K. De Baets et al. (2021): The fossil record of parasitism: Its extent and taphonomic constraints. In PDF, The Evolution and Fossil Record of Parasitism, pp. 1-50. See also here.

! N. Barling (2018): The Fidelity of Preservation of Insects from the Crato Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of Brazil. In PDF, Thesis, University of Portsmouth.
See also here.
"... The Nova Olinda Member fossil insects have a broad range of preservational fidelities.
[...] At their highest-fidelity, they are complete, fully-articulated, high-relief specimens with submicron-scale replication of both external and internal morphology. Cuticular structures (setae, scales, ommatidia, etc.) are sometimes replicated to the submicron-scale
[...] The remaining tissues are obliterated by pseudomorphed pseudoframboids (or pseudoframboid-like aggregates), which also protected the carcass from compaction ..."

B. Becker-Kerber et al. (2021): The role of volcanic-derived clays in the preservation of Ediacaran biota from the Itajaí Basin (ca. 563 Ma, Brazil). Open access, Scientific Reports, 11.
Note figure 4: Schematic representation of the fossilization pathway.

A.K. Behrensmeyer et al. (2018): What is taphonomy and What is not? Free access, Historical Biology, 30: 718-719.

! A.K. Behrensmeyer et al. (2000): Taphonomy and Paleobiology. In PDF, Paleobiology, 26: 103-147.
See also here.
Note figure 6: Intrinsic and extrinsic changes with the potential for major effects on taphonomic processes and organic preservation over geologic time.

A.K. Behrensmeyer (1992; Google books): Terrestrial ecosystems through time. Read "Taphonomy", page 4.

! A.K. Behrensmeyer and S.M. Kidwell (1985): Taphonomy's contributions to paleobiology. In PDF, Paleobiology, 11: 105-119.
See also here.
! Note figure 3: The progression of organic remains through distinct stages from death to final discovery.

J.B. Bennington et al. (2009): Critical issues of scale in paleoecology. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 1-4.

M. Benton (2017): Fossilization of soft tissues. National Science Review, 4: 512–513. See also here (in PDF).

M.J. Benton and D.A.T. Harper: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. Go to:
! Companion Website: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. On this website you can download the figures in jpeg format at standard resolution (96 dpi) for viewing on screen and at a higher resolution (300 dpi) for downloading. They can also be downloaded as a Powerpoint file for each chapter.
! See also here (in PDF).
For better navigation note the table of contents (in PDF).

S. Block et al. (2016): Where to Dig for Fossils: Combining Climate-Envelope, Taphonomy and Discovery Models. In PDF, PLoS ONE, 11: e0151090. See also here.

D.J. Bottjer (2016): Paleoecology: past, present, and future. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.). See also here (Google books).
Please note chapter "Taphonomy", start on PDF page 39.

D.J. Bottjer et al. (2002): Fossil-Lagerstätten: Jewels of the Fossil Record. In PDF; In: Walter Etter et al.: Exceptional Fossil Preservation: A Unique View on the Evolution of Marine Life. See also here (contents).

Suzanne Bowie, The palaeofiles, Dept. of Earth Sciences University of Bristol: Experimental taphonomy.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.E. Brett and J.R. Thomka (2013): Fossils and Fossilisation. In PDf. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001621.pub2.
Note figure 2: Aspects of orientation of skeletal materials.
Biostratinomic processes affect potential fossil remains between death and final burial, including decay of organic parts, disarticulation, fragmentation, abrasion, bioerosion and dissolution. Fossil diagenesis constitutes processes that affect organic remains subsequent to burial such as dissolution, compaction and early and late mineralisation. Taphonomy reveals biases of the fossil record and also provides insights into depositional rates and processes.

! D.E.G. Briggs (2023): The taphonomy of Konservat-Lagerstätten – now and next. PDF file, starting on PDF page 9. In: J. Reitner, M. Reich, J.-P. Duda (eds.): Abstracts, Symposium Fossillagerstätten and Taphonomy.

! D.E.G. Briggs and S. McMahon (2016): The role of experiments in investigating the taphonomy of exceptional preservation. Abstract, Palaeontology, 59: 1–11.
See also here (in PDF).

! D.E.G. Briggs (2003): The role of decay and mineralization in the preservation of soft-bodied fossils. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 31: 275-301.

D.E.G. Briggs (1999): Molecular taphonomy of animal and plant cuticles: selective preservation and diagenesis. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B,354: 7-17. See also here.

Produced by MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

A.D. Butler et al. (2015): Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 282.

N.J. Butterfield et al. (2007): Fossil diagenesis in the Burgess Shale. Free access, Palaeontology, 50: 537–543.
Note fig. 3: Odontopteris foliage show fibrous white mineral replacing and overgrowing the original carbonaceous compressions.

N.J. Butterfield (2003): Exceptional Fossil Preservation and the Cambrian Explosion. In PDF, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43: 166–177.

! S.H. Butts and D.E.G. Briggs (2011): Silicification Through Time. PDF file, pp 411–434, in: Allison, P.A., Bottjer, D.J. (eds.): Taphonomy. Aims & Scope Topics in Geobiology Book Series, vol 32. Springer, Dordrecht.
See also here.
Note figure 3: Secular variation in non-skeletal carbonate mineralogy in seawater and associated climatic episodes.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Excellent! Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

! D.R. Broussard et al. (2018): Depositional setting, taphonomy and geochronology of new fossil sites in the Catskill Formation (Upper Devonian) of north-central Pennsylvania, USA, including a new early tetrapod fossil. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 511: 168-187. See also here (in PDF).
Note fig. 16: Schematic reconstruction of sandy fluvial subenvironments where diverse fossil remains accumulated.
Fig. 17: Depositional model for Catskill Formation strata.

Robyn J. Burnham (2008): Hide and Go Seek: What does presence mean in the fossil record? Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 95: 51-71.

N.J. Butterfield (2020): Constructional and functional anatomy of Ediacaran rangeomorphs. Free access, Geological Magazine.

! G.C. Cadeée (1991): The history of taphonomy. PDF file. In: Donovan, S.K. (ed.), The Processes of Fossilization. Belhaven Press, London, pp. 3 –21.

! E.M. Carlisle et al. (2021): Experimental taphonomy of organelles and the fossil record of early eukaryote evolution. Open access, Science Advances, 7. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe9487 See also here (in PDF).
Note fig. 4A: Fossil of a Zelkova leaf from the Miocene Succor Creek Formation showing a chloroplast adpressed to the cell wall. "A consortium of Lebanese universities that have collected some of the best content sites of the web" (but no information available who is behind this websites):
Themes. A structured link directory. Go to:
What can fossils tell us? Information provided by:
See also:
Fossils And Fossilisation.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Cawthorne et al. (2024): Latest Triassic terrestrial microvertebrate assemblages from caves on the Mendip palaeoisland, S.W. England, at Emborough, Batscombe and Highcroft Quarries. Free access, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association,
"... folded and uplifted Lower Carboniferous limestones for building and road metal, and quarrymen encountered the fissures: often irregular, subvertical caves, caverns and slots filled with red and yellow-coloured clastic fossiliferous sediments containing terrestrial tetrapod bones washed in from the Mesozoic-aged landscapes above ..."

Rick Cheel, Brock University, Canada:
Fossils. Lecture note, Powerpoint presentation.

Centro de Estudios de Almejas Muertas (CEAM) English translation: Center for the Study of Dead Clams, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona. CEAM is an informal organization dedicated to the study of taphonomy.

Cengage Learning (a provider of innovative teaching, learning and research solutions for the academic, professional and library markets worldwide): Taphonomy, Experimental Archaeology, and Ethnoarchaeology. Powerpoint presentation.

Michael Charnine, Encyclopedia of Keywords: Science > Earth Sciences > Paleontology > Taphonomy. An annotated link directory.

B. Chauviré et al. (2020): Arthropod entombment in weathering-formed opal: new horizons for recording life in rocks. Open access, Scientific Reports, 10.

Chris (?), Peripatus Home Page, New Zealand: Paleontology Page. This page offers a broad range of selected topics from the whole field of paleontology. Go to: What are Lagerstätten?
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Clements and S. Gabbott (2022): Exceptional Preservation of Fossil Soft Tissues. In PDF, eLS, 2: 1–10.

! T. Clements et al. (2019): The Mazon Creek Lagerstätte: a diverse late Paleozoic ecosystem entombed within siderite concretions. Open access, Journal of the Geological Society, 176: 1–11.

A.S. Cohen (2011): Scientific drilling and biological evolution in ancient lakes: lessons learned and recommendations for the future. In PDF, Hydrobiologia, 682: 3–25. See also here.

J.J. Collins and K. Lindstrom, University of California Museum of Paleontology: Getting Into the Fossil Record. Easy to understand websites.

S. Cotroneo et al. (2016): A new model of the formation of Pennsylvanian iron carbonate concretions hosting exceptional soft-bodied fossils in Mazon Creek, Illinois. In PDF, Geobiology, 14: 543-555. See also here (abstract).

D. Coty et al. (2014): The First Ant-Termite Syninclusion in Amber with CT-Scan Analysis of Taphonomy. Open access, PLoS ONE 9.

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA: History of Life, Third Edition.
Go to: Preservation and Bias in the Fossil Record.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A. Dance (2016): Prehistoric animals, in living color. In PDF, PNAS, 113.

S.A.F. Darroch et al. (2012): Experimental formation of a microbial death mask. In PDF, Palaios, 27: 293-303.

Yannicke Dauphin, Micropaléontologie, Université Paris: "Biomineralization and Biologicalcalcifications": Taphonomy and Diagenesis NEWS.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Deer Creek High School, Edmond, USA:
12.1 The Fossil Record Permineralization, part 3. Lecture notes, Powerpoint preservation.

! N.K. Dhami et al. (2023): Microbially mediated fossil concretions and their characterization by the latest methodologies: a review. Free access, Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1225411. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1225411.
Note figure 1: The three broad modes of fossilization.
Figure 6: Visual representation of the factors involved in formation of iron carbonate concretions in freshwater influenced environments.
! Figure 7: Flow diagram for analytical methods applicable to microbial fossil concretions, modern and ancient.
Figure 8: Completing the story of fossilization. Conceptual framework to establish fossilization processes and interrogate their biochemical record.
"... we provide a comprehensive account of organic geochemical, and complimentary inorganic geochemical, morphological, microbial and paleontological, analytical methods, including recent advancements, relevant to the characterization of concretions and sequestered OM [organic matter] ..."

! C.G. Diedrich (2009): A coelacanthid-rich site at Hasbergen (NW Germany): taphonomy and palaeoenvironment of a first systematic excavation in the Kupferschiefer (Upper Permian, Lopingian). In PDF, Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 89: 67-94.
Mapped taphonomy of plants, invertebrates and fish vertebrates at six different planal levels on a 12 m2 area.

! M. Domínguez-Rodrigo et al. (2011): How Can Taphonomy Be Defined in the XXI Century? In PDF, Journal of Taphonomy, 9: 1-13.

M.R. Downen et al. (2022): Steinkern spiders: A microbial mat-controlled taphonomic pathway in the Oligocene Aix-en-Provence Lagerstätte, France. In PDF, Palaeoentomology 005: 524–536.
See also here.
"... we examine fossil spiders preserved as molds to uncover a second taphonomic pathway based on microbial mats. Evidence of microbial mats include wrinkles, pustular textures, and possible microbial mat chips on the bedding surfaces ..."

M.L. Droser et al. (2022): What Happens Between Depositional Events, Stays Between Depositional Events: The Significance of Organic Mat Surfaces in the Capture of Ediacara Communities and the Sedimentary Rocks That Preserve Them. Front. Earth Sci., 10: 826353. doi: 10.3389/feart.2022.826353.
Note figure 5: Schematic of depositional scenarios with thick sediment packages and with thin sediment packages.
Figure 7: Schematic of the two scenarios through which complex Funisia dorothea TOS [textured organic surfaces] is hypothesized to have formed.

Duden Learnattack GmbH, Lernhelfer:
Fossilisation (in German).

! Ivan Efremov (1940): Taphonomy: new branch of paleontology. Pan-American Geologist (1940), vol. 74, p. 81-93. Website provided by Sergei Klimanov, St. Petersburg State University.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Encyclopedia of Keywords ( This is a general encyclopedia that provides basic information on a wide range of subjects in an easily readable and understandable format. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Science > Earth Sciences > Paleontology > Taphonomy. Actually a link directory.

C. Christian Emig, Marseille: Taphonomy. The transition of organisms from the biosphere to the lithosphere. Go to: Death,
See also here (PDF file, in French).

Neal L. Evenhuis, Department of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii: Fossil Diptera Catalog, TAPHONOMY.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Farmer (1999): Articel starts on page 94, PDF page 110: Taphonomic Modes in Microbial Fossilization. In PDF; In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Size Limits of Very Small Organisms, Space Studies Board, National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.S. Fernandes (2012): A geobiological investigation of the Mazon Creek concretions of northeastern Illinois, mechanisms of formation and diagenesis. In PDF, thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

Karl W. Flessa, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleontology. Lecture notes. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Taphonomy and preservation, Fossilization, taphonomy & traces. Explained in a nutshell.

M. Foote and D.M. Raup (2010): Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa. In PDF, Paleobiology, 22: 121-140.

J.R. Foster et al. (2018): Paleontology, taphonomy, and sedimentology of the Mygatt-Moore Quarry, a large dinosaur bonebed in the Morrison Formation, western Colorado—Implications for Upper Jurassic dinosaur preservation modes. In PDF, Geology of the Intermountain West. See also here and there.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University: Historical Geology. An investigative course of geological and biological aspects of Earth History as developed through the use of fossil evidence and the principles of stratigraphy, geochronology, and the geology of structures. PowerPoint slides for lecture, e.g.:

M. Friedman and G. Carnevale (2018): The Bolca Lagerstätten: shallow marine life in the Eocene. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 175: 569–579.
See likewise here.
"... Famous for its fishes, the localities of Bolca also yield diverse invertebrate faunas and a rich, but relatively understudied flora ..."

F. Gäb et al. (2020): Experimental taphonomy of fish - role of elevated pressure, salinity and pH. Open access, Scientific Reports, 10.

R.R. Gaines et al. (2012): Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 5180-5184.

! Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine:
Notes for a course in paleobotany. This website provides information about:
Taphonomy: Physiological, Necrological, and Traumatic processes,
Taphonomy: Biogeochemical Processes of Plant Fossilization and Preservational Modes,
Biostratinomic Processes in Volcaniclastic Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Fluvial-Lacustrine Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Coastal-Deltaic Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Peat Accumulating Environments, and
Biostratinomic Processes in Marginal Marine Settings. See also: A Brief Introduction to PALEOBOTANY.
These expired links are still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: A Brief Introduction to Taphonomy (Gastaldo, Savrda, & Lewis. 1996. Deciphering Earth History: A Laboratory Manual with Internet Exercises. Contemporary Publishing Company of Raleigh, Inc. ISBN 0-89892-139-2).
See also: Plant Taphonomy.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.T. Gee, V.E. McCoy, P.M. Sander (eds., 2021). Fossilization: Understanding the Material Nature of Ancient Plants and Animals.
Google books.

Geological Society of America (GSA): Northeastern Section - 37th Annual Meeting (March 25-27, 2002) Springfield, Massachusetts: Taphonomy: Insight into Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Evolution. Abstracts.

B.M. Gibson et al. (2023): The role of iron in the formation of Ediacaran ‘death masks’. Free access, Geobiology.
"... In this study, we perform decay experiments
[...] we demonstrate the first convincing “death masks” produced under experimental laboratory conditions ..."

M.E. Gibson and K.C. Benison (2023): It's a trap!: Modern and ancient halite as Lagerstätten. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 93: 642–655.
See likewise here.

Stephen Jay Gould Archive (sponsored by Art Science Research Laboratory): Cyber Library, Harvard Course:
! B16: History of Earth and Life. A kittenish website. Difficult to set a link, click "Stephen Jay Gould" on the right hand side. Go to:
Lab 1: The Invertebrate Phyla,
! Lab 2: The Fossil Record,
Lab 3: Communities through Time, and
Lab 4: Variation and Evolution (PDF files). See also:
B16: History of Earth and Life, Source Books.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.E. Greenwalt et al. (2015): Taphonomy of the fossil insects of the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation. Open access, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60: 931-947.

K. Grice et al. (2019): Fossilised Biomolecules and Biomarkers in Carbonate Concretions from Konservat-Lagerstätten. Open access, Minerals, 9.
Note figure 2: A typical analytical flowchart for the analysis of exceptionally preserved fossils, including nondestructive imaging techniques, and organic and inorganic geochemistry.

P. Gueriau and L. Bertrand (2015): Deciphering Exceptional Preservation of Fossils Through Trace Elemental Imaging. In PDF, Microscopy Today. See also here.

S. Guo et al. (2023): A new method for examining the co-occurrence network of fossil assemblages. Free access, Communications Biology, 6.
Go to: TaphonomeAnalyst.

A. Gutiérrez et al. (2021): Taphonomy of experimental burials in Taphos-m: The role of fungi Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. See also here (in PDF).

! Daniel Hauptvogel, Virginia Sisson et al. (2023), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Houston:
The Story of Earth: An Observational Guide 2e . Second edition (Pressbooks), Open access. You can download a printable PDF version.
Navigate from the content menue page. Note especially:
! Chapter 6: Fossil Preservation.

! Daniel Hauptvogel, Virginia Sisson et al. (2023), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Houston:
The Story of Earth: An Observational Guide 2e . Second edition (Pressbooks), Open access. You can download a printable PDF version.
Navigate from the content menue page. Note especially:
! Chapter 1: Geologic Time.

M. Heingård et al. (2022): Preservation and Taphonomy of Fossil Insects from the Earliest Eocene of Denmark. Open access, Biology, 11.

! D. Hauptvogel and J. Sisson: The Story of Earth: An Observational Guide. A Manual for Historical Geology. A downloadable book! Worth checking out:
Chapter 6: Fossil Preservation.

S. Holland (2023): The contrasting controls on the occurrence of fossils in marine and nonmarine systems. In PDF, Bollettino della SocietaÌ Paleontologica Italiana, 62: 1-25. doi: 10.4435/BSPI.2023.02.
See likewise here.

! S.M. Holland (2016): The non-uniformity of fossil preservation. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 371. See also here (abstract).

Thomas R. Holtz and John W. Merck, Department of Geology, University of Maryland: Invertebrate Paleontology - Principles of Paleontology. Lecture notes. Go to: Taphonomy.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G. Horváth et al. (2021): How did amber get its aquatic insects? Water-seeking polarotactic insects trapped by tree resin. Open access, Historical Biology, 33: 46–856.
"... The resin continues to flow out of the trees even when fallen over or fractured in a storm. Our findings support and complement an earlier hypothesis, according to which amber-preserved adult aquatic insects have been trapped by resiny bark when they dispersed over land ..."

! G. Horváth et al. (2019): How did amber get its aquatic insects? Water-seeking polarotactic insects trapped by tree resin. Free access, Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2019.1663843.

A.P. Hunt and S.G. Lucas (2023): The Four Principal Megabiases in the Known Fossil Record: Taphonomy, Rock Preservation, Fossil Discovery and Fossil Study. Open access, Proceedings, 87. IECG2022-13956.

! M. Iniesto et al. (2016): Involvement of microbial mats in early fossilization by decay delay and formation of impressions and replicas of vertebrates and invertebrates. Open access, Scientific Reports, 6.

The International Plant Taphonomy Meeting. The International Plant Taphonomy Meetings are informal workshops focusing on recent developments in the science of plant taphonomy. Abstracts available from 1999-2004 and from 2008. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

J.B.C. Jackson and K.G. Johnson (2001): Measuring Past Biodiversity. In PDF, Science, 293.
See likewise here.

K. Janssen et al. (2022): The complex role of microbial metabolic activity in fossilization. Open access, Biol. Rev., 97: 449–465.
See also here.

Robert Wynn Jones:
Applied Palaeontology. (Cambridge University Press). Go to:
! Fossils and fossilisation. In PDF.

Journal of Taphonomy (Prometheus Press). The Journal of Taphonomy is proposed as a venue for publishing the highest quality, data-rich articles on taphonomic research, in all its diversity, from the analysis of burial processes affecting micro-organisms to the study of processes conditioning the modification and preservation of macro-organisms in natural and/or human-created settings.

J.A. Karr and M.E. Clapham (2015): Taphonomic biases in the insect fossil record: shifts in articulation over geologic time. In PDF, Paleobiology.

C.G. Kenchington and P.R. Wilb (2015): Of time and taphonomy: preservation in the Ediacaran. In PDF. See also here.

D.C. Kendrick, Hobart & Wm Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY:
! Fossils and Their Preservation. See also here.

H. Kerp and M. Krings (2023): The Early Devonian Rhynie chert–The world's oldest and most complete terrestrial ecosystem. PDF file, starting on PDF page 44. In: J. Reitner, M. Reich, J.-P. Duda (eds.): Abstracts, Fossillagerstätten and Taphonomy.

S.M. Kidwell (2013): Time-averaging and fidelity of modern death assemblages: building a taphonomic foundation for conservation palaeobiology. Free access, Palaeontology, 56: 487–522.

! S.M. Kidwell and S.M. Holland (2002): The Quality of the Fossil Record: Implications for Evolutionary Analyses. PDF file, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33: 561-588. See also here.

S.M. Kidwell (2001): Major biases in the fossil record, p. 299-305. PDF file, In: Paleobiology II, A Synthesis (D.E.G. Briggs and PR Crowther, eds.). Oxford: Blackwell.

! S.M. Kidwell and K.W. Flessa (1995): The quality of the fossil record: Populations, species, and communities. PDF file, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26: 269-299.

! S.M. Kidwell et al. (1986): Conceptual framework for the analysis and classification of fossil concentrations. PDF file, Palaios, 1: 228-238.

! J. Kimmig and J.D. Schiffbauer (2023): Finding and describing the exceptional: A modern definition of Fossil-Lagerstätten PDF file, starting on PDF page 52. In: J. Reitner, M. Reich, J.-P. Duda (eds.): Abstracts, Symposium Fossillagerstätten and Taphonomy.

C. Klug et al. (2024): The marine conservation deposits of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland, Italy): the prototype of Triassic black shale Lagerstätten. In PDF, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 143.
See likewise here.

MICHAL KOWALEWSKI and MICHAEL LABARBERA Actualistic Taphonomy: Death, Decay, and Disintegration in Contemporary Settings. Abstract, Palaios, 2004; v. 19; no. 5; p. 423-427.

V.A. Krassilov (2003): Terrestrial palaeoecology and global change. PDF file (35.6 MB), Russian Academic Monographs No. 1, 464 p., (Pensoft), Sophia.
Worth checking out: "Taphonomy" starting on PDF page 18.

! M. Krings and H. Kerp (2023): The fidelity of microbial preservation in the Lower Devonian Rhynie cherts of Scotland. PDF file, starting on PDF page 54. In: J. Reitner, M. Reich, J.-P. Duda (eds.): Abstracts, Symposium Fossillagerstätten and Taphonomy.

! C.C. Labandeira (2002): The history of associations between plants and animals. PDF file, in: Herrera, CM., Pellmyr, O. (eds.). Plant-Animal Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach. London, Blackwell, 26-74, 248-261. See also here (Google books).
Note box 2.2 (PDF page 9): Lagerstätten and modes of preservation.

Don Lindsay, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado, Boulder: Does Science Know How Fossils Form?. A brief taphonomy bibliography.

R. Lockwood and L.R. Chastant (2006): Quantifying taphonomic bias of compositional fidelity, species richness, and rank abundance in molluscan death assemblages from the upper Chesapeake Bay. In PDF, Palaios, 21: 376–383. See also here.

A.M.G. López (2019): On taphonomy: collages and collections at the Geiseltalmuseum. Free access, BJHS: Themes 4: 195–214.

A. Lukeneder and P. Lukeneder (2022): Taphonomic history and trophic interactions of an ammonoid fauna from the Upper Triassic Polzberg palaeobiota. Open access, Scientific Reports, 12.

! R.L. Lyman (2010): What Taphonomy Is, What it Isn´t, and Why Taphonomists Should Care about the Difference. In PDF, Journal of Taphonomy, 8.
See also here.

! B. Mähler et al. (2021): Adipocere formation in biofilms as a first step in soft tissue preservation. Open access, Scientific Reports, 12.
"... and further showed that in animals with biofilm formation calcite precipitates in finer grained crystals than in individuals without biofilm formation, and that the precipitates were denser and replicated the structures of the cuticles better than the coarse precipitates. ..."

A.C. Mancuso and C.A. Marsicano (2008): Paleoenvironments and taphonomy of a Triassic lacustrine system (Los Rastros Formation, central-western Argentina). In PDF, Palaios, 23: 535–547. See also here.

! R.E. Martin (1999): Taphonomy: A Process Approach (provided by Google Books). Cambridge Paleobiology Series, Cambridge University Press.

! R.E. Martin et al. (1999): Taphonomy as an environmental science. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 149.
"... Over the last decade, however, the applied Earth sciences have moved from an emphasis on resource exploration and exploitation toward one of resource conservation and management. In this respect, paleontology holds a tremendous advantage over ecology in that most ecologic studies are of too short a duration to assess the long-term (time-averaged) impact of environmental perturbations ..."

R.C. Martindale and A.M. Weiss (2020): “Taphonomy: Dead and fossilized”: A new board game designed to teach college undergraduate students about the process of fossilization. In PDF, Journal of Geoscience Education, 68: 265-285.

! X. Martinez-Delclòs et al. (2004): Taphonomy of insects in carbonates and amber. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 203: 19-64. See also here.

J. Marugán-Lobón et al. (2022): The Las Hoyas Lagerstätte: a palaeontological look to an Early Cretaceous wetland. Open access, Journal of the Geological Society.
See also here (in PDF).
"... The site has yielded a particularly diverse assemblage of more than twenty thousand plant and animal fossils, many of which present unprecedented soft-tissue preservation, including microstructural details. Among the most significant discoveries are the oldest angiosperms, ..."

C. Mckean et al. (2023): New taphonomic and sedimentological insights into the preservation of high-relief Ediacaran fossils at Upper Island Cove, Newfoundland. Open access, Lethaia, 56: 1–17.
Note figure 11: General taphonomic model.
Figure 12: Epirelief variation model.

S. McMahon et al. (2018): A Field Guide to Finding Fossils on Mars. Open access, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 123: 1012–1040.

J.R. Moore (2012): Do terrestrial vertebrate fossil assemblages show consistent taphonomic patterns?. In PDF, Palaios, 27: 220-234. See also here (abstract).

G.R. Morton (2003): Non Catastrophic and Modern Fossilization. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also here

! A.D. Muscente et al. (2017): Exceptionally preserved fossil assemblages through geologic time and space. Abstract, Gondwana Research, 48: 164-188. See also here (in PDF).

A. Nel et al. (2014): Exceptionally preserved insect fossils in the Late Jurassic lagoon of Orbagnoux (Rhone Valley, France). Open access, PeerJ.

S.A. Newman et al. (2019): Experimental preservation of muscle tissue in quartz sand and kaolinite. Abstract, Palaios, 34: 437–451.
See also here (in PDF).

John Nudds and Paul Selden (2008): Fossil-Lagerstätten. In PDF, Geology Today, Vol. 24.

Nuke ODP, Spain: Geologist Online. Go to: Science: Earth_Sciences: Paleontology: Taphonomy. A link directory.

P.J. Orr et al. (2016): “Stick ‘n’ peel”: Explaining unusual patterns of disarticulation and loss of completeness in fossil vertebrates. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 457: 380-388. See also here and there.

G.L. Osés et al. (2016): Deciphering the preservation of fossil insects: a case study from the Crato Member, Early Cretaceous of Brazil. PeerJ., 4: e2756.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA:
Fossils. Easy to understand lecture notes.
See especially: Fossils. Powerpoint presentation.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, NY: Hyde Park Mastodon Research, Taphonomy.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.V. Pardo Alonso, Taphos 2002, Valencia, Spain: CURRENT TOPICS ON TAPHONOMY AND FOSSILIZATION. Book Review. This book, entitled "Current Topics on Taphonomy and Fossilization" results from a general call for papers to be presented in the International Conference Taphos 2002, 3rd Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization, Valencia, February 14-16, 2002.

! L.A. Parry et al. (2018): Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses – Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation. Exceptional Fossil Preservation Is Complex and Involves the Interplay of Numerous Biological and Geological Processes.
Abstract, BioEssays, 40: 1700167. See also here (in PDF).
Note figure 1: The long journey from live organism to fossil. "... soft-bodied fossils have passed through numerous filters prior to discovery that remove, modify, or preserve anatomical characters. ..."
"... Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspects of fossilization, applying the results directly to the interpretation of exceptionally preserved fossils may overlook the impact of other key processes that remove or preserve morphological information".

R. Petrovich (2001): Mechanisms of Fossilization of the Soft-Bodied and Lightly Armored Faunas of the Burgess Shale and of Some Other Classical Localities. In PDF, American Journal of Science.

Imogen Poole, Pim F. van Bergen, Johan Kool, Stefan Schouten and David J. Cantrill: Molecular isotopic heterogeneity of fossil organic matter: implications for δ13Cbiomass and δ13Cpalaeoatmosphere proxies. PDF file, Organic Geochemistry 35(11-12) (2004) 1261-1274 (via Virtual Journal Geobiology, volume 3, Issue 9, September 2004, section 2B).

E.C. Raff et al. (2008): Embryo fossilization is a biological process mediated by microbial biofilms. In PDF, PNAS, 105.

G.J. Retallack (2007): Growth, decay and burial compaction of Dickinsonia, an iconic Ediacaran fossil. In PDF, Alcheringa, 31: 215-240. See also here.

Authored by the The Rhynie Chert Research Group, University of Aberdeen, with contributions and support by the Palaeobotanical Research Group, University of Münster, Germany, the Centre for Palynology, University of Sheffield, The Natural History Museum, London, and The Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems, The Rhynie Chert. A resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of this unique geological deposit (including a glossary and bibliography pages). Go to: Taphonomy of the Rhynie Chert, and Silicification and the Conversion of Sinter to Chert.

A.C. Ribeiro et al. (2021): Towards an actualistic view of the Crato Konservat-Lagerstätte paleoenvironment: a new hypothesis as an Early Cretaceous (Aptian) equatorial and semi-arid wetland. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 216.
"... The Aptian Crato Formation of the Lower Cretaceous Santana Group [...] Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil, is renowned worldwide owing to its exceptionally preserved fossils
[...] Most fossils are to be considered autochthonous to parautochthonous and have been preserved in distinct stages of base-level fluctuations within a shallow lacustrine depositional system, subject to periodic flooding in large, depressed areas ..."

Sue Rigby, Geology, Geophysics, Environmental Geoscience, Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh:
! Fossilization. Powerpoint presentation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

N. Robin et al. (2015): Calcification and Diagenesis of Bacterial Colonies. In PDF, Minerals, 5: 488-506.

A. Rosas et al. (2022): The scarcity of fossils in the African rainforest. Archaeo-paleontological surveys and actualistic taphonomy in Equatorial Guinea. In PDF, Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2022.2057226.
See also here.

E.T. Saitta et al. (2018): Sediment-encased maturation: a novel method for simulating diagenesis in organic fossil preservation.Abstract, Palaeontology, Palaeontology, 2018, pp. 1–16. See also here (in PDF).

J.P. Saldanha et al. (2023): Deciphering the origin of dubiofossils from the Pennsylvanian of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Free access, Biogeosciences, 20: 3943–3979.
Note figure 1: Representative cross-section of Earth’s crust showing the diversity of inhabited extreme environments, besides the common biosphere, and the contribution of abiotic and biotic minerals in the sedimentary cycle.
"... any geological object, whether abiotic or biotic, must be understood in terms of its formation and original conditions, as well as the subsequent processes that contribute to its maintenance, modification, or destruction ..."

! J.D. Schiffbauer et al. (2014): A unifying model for Neoproterozoic–Palaeozoic exceptional fossil preservation through pyritization and carbonaceous compression. Open access, Nature Communications, 5. See also here.

J.D. Schiffbauer and M. LaFlamme (2012): Lagerstätten through time: A collection of exceptional preservational pathway from the terminal Neoproterozoic through today. In PDF, Palaios.
See also here.

Sabine Schmidt, Gravity Research Group, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany: Die Erde (in German).
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to: Biostratonomie: Fossildiagenese. Scroll down to: "Die Erhaltung von Pflanzen" (in German).

Scholastic Science World: Fossils. Powerpoint presentation. The nuts and bolts of fossil preservation.

J.W. Schopf (1999), article starts on PDF page 105: Fossils and Pseudofossils: Lessons from the Hunt for Early Life on Earth. In PDF; In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Size Limits of Very Small Organisms, Space Studies Board, National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC. See also here. ScienceDirect Topic Pages. These pages provide concept definitions and subject overviews. Each synopsis provides a series of short, authoritative, excerpts from highly relevant book chapters. These topic summaries are derived from Elsevier encyclopedias, reference works and books.
Go to: Learn more about Compression fossil.

Science Online Center: Earth_Sciences - Paleontology - Taphonomy. An annotated link directory.

! A. Seilacher et al. (1985): Sedimentological, ecological and temporal patterns of fossil Lagerstätten. In PDF, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, Biological sciences, 311: 5-23.
! See also here.

T. Shao et al. (2017): A Mesozoic Pompeii: History of the Jehol Biota’s Rise and Fall. In PDF, Acta Geologica Sinica, 91: 1893–1903.

J.O. Shaw et al. (2021): Disentangling ecological and taphonomic signals in ancient food webs. Open access, Paleobiology, 2021: 1–17; DOI: 10.1017/pab.2020.59.

Roy Shepherd, Discovery Fossils, UK: What is a fossil? Easy to understand introduction.

! P.W. Signor III and J.H. Lipps (1982): Sampling bias, gradual extinction patterns and catastrophes in the fossil record. In PDF, Geological Society of America. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Slagter et al. (2022): Biofilms as agents of Ediacara-style fossilization. Open Access, Scientific Reports, 12.
"... we use an experimental approach to interrogate to what extent the presence of mat-forming microorganisms was likewise critical to the Ediacara-style fossilization of these soft-bodied organisms.
[...] results indicate that the occurrence of microbial mats and biofilms may have strongly shaped the preservational window for Ediacara-style fossils associated with early diagenetic silica cements ..."

T.S. Slater et al. (2023): Taphonomic experiments reveal authentic molecular signals for fossil melanins and verify preservation of phaeomelanin in fossils. Free access, Nature Communications, 14.

! C. Smith (2005): Taphonomy: A resource guide (in PDF).

R.M.H. Smith and J. Botha-Brink (2014): Anatomy of a mass extinction: Sedimentological and taphonomic evidence for drought-induced die-offs at the Permo-Triassic boundary in the main Karoo Basin, South Africa. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 396. See also here (abstract).

Selena Y. Smith et al. (2009): Virtual taphonomy using synchrotron tomographic microscopy reveals cryptic features and internal structure of modern and fossil plants. PDF file, PNAS, 106: 12013-12018. See also here (abstract).

C.M. Soja (1999): Using an experiment in burial taphonomy to delve into the fossil record. PDF file, Journal of geoscience education.

Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC.
The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms. Proceedings of a workshop, debating the question of minimal microbial size. Go to:
J. William Schopf, Fossils and Pseudofossils: Lessons from the Hunt for Early Life on Earth, or:
J. Farmer (1999): Articel starts on page 94, PDF page 110: Taphonomic Modes in Microbial Fossilization. In PDF; In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Size Limits of Very Small Organisms, Space Studies Board, National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington,DC.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Aaron Spriggs, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO: Taphonomy: Death Is A Sure Bet, Fossilization Is A Long Shot. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B.A. Stankiewicz et al. (1998): Molecular taphonomy of arthropod and plant cuticles from the Carboniferous of North America: implications for the origin of kerogen. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 155: 453-462.
See also here.

A.L. Stigall et al. (2008): Taphonomy of Lacustrine Interbeds in the Kirkpatrick Basalt (Jurassic), Antarctica. Abstract, Palaios, 23: 344-355.

C.E. Syme and S.W. Salisbury (2018): Taphonomy of Isisfordia duncani specimens from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Albian) portion of the Winton Formation, Isisford, central-west Queensland. Free access, R. Soc. open sci., 5:

TAPHOS 2011, Institute of Geosciences, University of Tübingen. The programme (in PDF) can be downloaded here and there.

P.D. Taylor (1990): Preservation of soft-bodied and other organisms by bioimmuration - a review. In PDF, Palaeontology, 33.
Download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.
See especially on PDF page 11: Fig. 2: Zooids on the alga Fosliella inexpectata, Upper Maastrichtian.

! R.C. Terry (2009): Palaeoecology: Methods. Abstract. See also here (in PDF), and there.

! Q. Tian et al. (2020): Experimental investigation of insect deposition in lentic environments and implications for formation of Konservat Lagerstätten. Abstract, Palaeontology, 63: 565-578. See also here (in PDF).

! A.M.F. Tomescu et al. (2016): Microbes and the fossil record: selected topics in paleomicrobiology. Abstract, in: Hurst C. (ed.) Their World: A Diversity of Microbial Environments. Advances in Environmental Microbiology, vol 1: 69-169. See also here (in PDF).

T.P. Topper et al. (2018): Characterization of kerogenous films and taphonomic modes of the Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, Greenland. Open access, Geology, 46: 359-362.

! P.F. van Bergen et al. (1995): Resistant biomacromolecules in the fossil record. Abstract, Acta botanica neerlandica. See also here (in PDF).

Mike Viney, The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum: Fossils. In PDF.

P.B. Vixseboxse et al. (2024): Taphonomic experiments fixed and conserved with Paraloid B72 resin via solvent replacement. Open access, Lethaia, 57.
"... Taphonomic experiments offer a powerful tool with which to interpret the influence of decay and mineralization on the quality and completeness of Earth’s fossil record
[...] we propose a novel method of soft sediment fixation that permits the stabilization of entire decay experiments for sectioning and microanalysis
[...] Application of this method to a wide range of substrates demonstrates that this methodology can produce effective stabilization of samples, including unconsolidated sands and organic-rich substrates, with a chemically inert polymer ..."

W. Wang et al. (2022): Taphonomic study of Chuaria fossils from the Ediacaran Lantian biota of South China. In PDF, Precambrian Research, 369.
See also here.
Note fig. 4: A simplified cartoon showing Chuaria fossilization process and the significance of densely packed pyrite framboids.

M. Waskom et al. (2023): Stuck in the mud: experimental taphonomy and computed tomography demonstrate the critical role of sediment in three-dimensional carcass stabilization during early fossil diagenesis. Preprint, in PDF.
"... After 64 weeks, specimens are still detectable as three-dimensional voids that capture the body in life position and external morphological features. Sediment plays a critical role in carcass stabilization and the resulting voids provide sites for mineral precipitation needed for exceptional three-dimensional fossilization ..."

! Roger M. Wells Jr., College at Cortland, State University of New York: Invertebrate Paleontology Tutorial, Taphonomy & Preservation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Roger M. Wells Jr. et al., Department of Geology, SUNY Cortland, Cortland, NY:
The Invertebrate Paleontology Tutorial Web Site. Lecture notes.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Roger M. Wells Jr. et al., Department of Geology, State University of New York, Cortland, NY: The Invertebrate Paleontology Tutorial Web Site. Lecture notes. Go to: Taphonomy & Preservation, and Forms of Preservation.

Department of Earth Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
Western Technology Services, Earth Evolution: Surface Life and Climate: Earth Sciences 089G: Lecture Resources. See also here. Go to:
Fossils and their preservation.
Fossil preservation processes.
Powerpoint presentations.

Friedrich Widdel and Ralf Rabus (2001): Anaerobic biodegradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. PDF file, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 12: 259-276.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Taphonomy.
! Category:Fossilization.
Compression fossil.
Carbonaceous film.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Taphonomy, and Fossilisationslehre (in German).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Paleontological sites.
List of fossil sites.
! Lagerstätte.
Category:Crato Formation.
Rhynie chert.
Joggins Formation.
Mazon Creek fossil beds.
Green River Formation.
London Clay.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (in German):
Kategorie:Fossillagerstätte in Deutschland.
Grube Messel.
Fossillagerstätte Rott.
Fossillagerstätte Geiseltal.

! M.V.H. Wilson (1988): Taphonomic processes: Information loss and information gain In PDF, Geoscience Canada.

Ewan Wolff, Montana State University Geoscience Education Web Development Team: Advances in Paleontology.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.H. Woolley et al. (2022): A biased fossil record can preserve reliable phylogenetic signal. Open access, Paleobiology, 2022, pp. 1–16.

K.J. Wu (2019): A Swimming School of 50-Million-Year-Old Fish, Caught in the Act. A slab of limestone might hold a snapshot of collective behavior in an ancient species. Nova Newsletter.
Unbelievable. Any doubts (?!).

xrefer: taphonomy.

T. Yu et al. (2018): An ammonite trapped in Burmese amber. Open access, PNAS, 116: 11345-1135.
"... It is rare to find aquatic organisms in amber, and it is extremely rare to find marine organisms in amber
[...] The exceptional occurrence of macroscopic marine macrofossils in the resin suggests that the amber forest was growing close to a coast ..."

K.E. Zeigler et al. (2005): Taphonomic analysis of a fire-related Upper Triassic vertebrate fossil assemblage from north-central New Mexico. PDF file; New Mexico Geological Society, 56th Field Conference Guidebook, Geology of the Chama Basin, 2005, p.341-351.

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