Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Preservation & Taphonomy / Molecular Palaeobotany

Taphonomy in General
Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy
Collecting Bias: Our Incomplete Picture of the Past Vegetation
Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils
Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation
Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)
Permineralized Plants and the Process of Permineralization
Petrified Forests
Pyrite Preservation

! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
Upland and Hinterland Floras
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants
Leaf Litter and Plant Debris
Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations
Wound Response in Trees
Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record

! The Molecular Clock and/or/versus the Fossil Record

! Phylogeography@
! Fossil Charcoal@
! Coalification@
Coal Petrology@
X-ray and Tomography@

Molecular Palaeobotany

! T.O. Akinsanpe et al. (2024): Molecular and mineral biomarker record of terrestrialization in the Rhynie Chert. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 640.
"... a wealth of fossil evidence is preserved in the Lower Devonian Rhynie Chert lagerstätte, which is consequently considered to be the world's oldest preserved terrestrial ecosystem
[...] In addition to organic biomarkers, the chert contains mineralogical characters which imply biological activity, including pyrite framboids, strongly leached monazite and garnet, and pitted micas similar to grains altered by modern fungi.

! J. Alleon et al. (2017): Organic molecular heterogeneities can withstand diagenesis. Scientific Reports, 7.

! S. Asche et al. (2023): What it takes to solve the Origin (s) of Life: An integrated review of techniques. Free access, arXiv.
! Note figure 1: Comprehensive array of experimental and computational techniques, along with conceptual bridges, which are primarily utilised in OoL studies.
"... We review the common tools and techniques that have been used significantly in OoL [origin(s) of life] studies in recent years.
[...] it spans broadly — from analytical chemistry to mathematical models — and highlights areas of future work ..."

Anne-Marie Aucour et al. (2009): Insights into preservation of fossil plant cuticles using thermally assisted hydrolysis methylation. Abstract, Organic Geochemistry, 40: 784-794.

! Stanley M. Awramik, Department of Earth Science, University of California Santa Barbara:
The Record of Life on the Early Earth. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

F. A. Bazzaz, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA: Plant biology in the future. PNAS, May 8, 2001, vol. 98, no. 10; p.5441-5445.

J.M. Beaulieu et al. (2015): Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution and diversification could explain the Triassic age estimate for angiosperms. Abstract.

Michael Bennett and Ilia Leitch, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Plant DNA C-values Database. The Plant DNA C-values Database currently contains data for 5150 different plant species. It combines data from the Angiosperm DNA C-values Database (C-values are the DNA amount in the unreplicated gametic nucleus of an organism), Gymnosperm, Pteridophyte, and Bryophyte DNA C-values Database, together with the addition of the Algae DNA C-values database.

! M.L. Berbee and J.W. Taylor (2010): Dating the molecular clock in fungi – how close are we? In PDF, Fungal Biology Reviews, 24: 1-24.

Michael Bernstein, Washington and New Orleans, March 21-27, 2003: (American Chemical Society, EurekAlert): Scientists find evidence for crucial root in the history of plant evolution.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2015): Osmunda pulchella sp. nov. from the Jurassic of Sweden - reconciling molecular and fossil evidence in the phylogeny of modern royal ferns (Osmundaceae). Free access, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2014): Fossilized Nuclei and Chromosomes Reveal 180 Million Years of Genomic Stasis in Royal Ferns. In PDF, Science, 343. See also here.

D.E.G. Briggs (1999): Molecular taphonomy of animal and plant cuticles: selective preservation and diagenesis. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B,354: 7-17. See also here.

Brocks, J.J., et al. 1999: Archaean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. Science 285: 1033-1036.

! L. Bromham and D. Penny (2003):&xnbsp; The modern molecular clock. Nature Reviews Genetics, 4: 216–224.
See also here.
"... The evolutionary dates measured by molecular clocks have been controversial, particularly if they clash with estimates taken from more traditional sources such as the fossil record.
[...] The molecular clock — a relatively constant rate of accumulation of molecular differences between species — was an unexpected discovery that has provided a window on the mechanisms that drive molecular evolution. ..."

! E.M. Carlisle et al. (2021): Experimental taphonomy of organelles and the fossil record of early eukaryote evolution. Open access, Science Advances, 7: eabe9487.
Note fig. 4A: Fossil of a Zelkova leaf from the Miocene Succor Creek Formation showing a chloroplast adpressed to the cell wall.

S.M. Chaw et al. (1997): Molecular phylogeny of extant gymnosperms and seed plant evolution: analysis of nuclear 18S rRNA sequences. In PDF.

! M. Coiro et al. (2019): How deep is the conflict between molecular and fossil evidence on the age of angiosperms? Free access, New Phytologist, doi: 10.1111/nph.15708.
"... Critical scrutiny shows that supposed pre-Cretaceous angiosperms either represent other plant groups or lack features that might confidently assign them to the angiosperms. ..."

M.E. Collinson (2011): Molecular Taphonomy of Plant Organic Skeletons. Abstract, In: Allison, P.A., Bottjer, D.J. (eds): Taphonomy. Aims & Scope Topics in Geobiology Book Series, 32: 223-247.

J.A. D'Angelo and E.L. Zodrow (2015): Chemometric study of structural groups in medullosalean foliage (Carboniferous, fossil Lagerstätte, Canada): Chemotaxonomic implications. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 138: 42–54.
See also here.

! N.K. Dhami et al. (2023): Microbially mediated fossil concretions and their characterization by the latest methodologies: a review. Free access, Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1225411. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1225411.
Note figure 1: The three broad modes of fossilization.
Figure 6: Visual representation of the factors involved in formation of iron carbonate concretions in freshwater influenced environments.
! Figure 7: Flow diagram for analytical methods applicable to microbial fossil concretions, modern and ancient.
Figure 8: Completing the story of fossilization. Conceptual framework to establish fossilization processes and interrogate their biochemical record.
"... we provide a comprehensive account of organic geochemical, and complimentary inorganic geochemical, morphological, microbial and paleontological, analytical methods, including recent advancements, relevant to the characterization of concretions and sequestered OM [organic matter] ..."

P.C.J. Donoghue and Z. Yang (2016): The evolution of methods for establishing evolutionary timescales. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371. See also here.

! Margaret E. Collinson (2011): Molecular Taphonomy of Plant Organic Skeletons. Abstract, Aims & Scope Topics in Geobiology Book Series, 32: 223-247.

A. Dadras et al. (2023): Accessible versatility underpins the deep evolution of plant specialized metabolism. Open access, Phytochemistry Reviews.
Note figure 1: Evolutionary dynamics in key biochemical pathways.

! J.W. de Leeuw et al. (2005): Biomacromolecules of algae and plants and their fossil analogues. Abstract, Tasks for vegetation science, 41: 209-233. See also here (in PDF).

! P.C.J. Donoghue and M.J. Benton (2007): Rocks and clocks: calibrating the Tree of Life using fossils and molecules. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
See also here.
! Note figure 2: Concordance of palaeontological data, phylogenetic hypotheses, macroevolutionary events and molecular clock.

M.J. Donoghue and J.A. Doyle (2000): Seed plant phylogeny: Demise of the anthophyte hypothesis?. Free access, Current Biology, 10: R106-R109.
See also here.
"... Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate, surprisingly, that Gnetales are related to conifers, or even derived from them ..."

! J.A. Doyle (2012): Molecular and fossil evidence on the origin of angiosperms. In PDF, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 40: 301-26.

Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Molecular plant systematics.

Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK: Research activities,
Molecular taphonomy, and
Molecular Palaeobotany.

European Asssociation of Organic Geochemistry

! F. Forrest (2009): Calibrating the Tree of Life: fossils, molecules and evolutionary timescales. Free access, Annals of Botany, 104: 789–794.
"... New methods have now been proposed to resolve potential sources of error associated with the calibration of phylogenetic trees, particularly those involving use of the fossil record.
[...] ! "...the fossil record remains the most reliable source of information for the calibration of phylogenetic trees, although associated assumptions and potential bias must be taken into account. ..."

! C.S.P. Foster (2016): The evolutionary history of flowering plants. In PDF, Journal & Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 149: 65-82.

W.E. Friedman et al. (2004): The evolution of plant development. Free access, American Journal of Botany 91: 1726-1741.

William Friedman et al., Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder: Molecular and Organismal Research in Plant History, MORPH. MORPH, an NSF research coordination network, fosters cross-disciplinary interactions between organismic and molecular plant biologists studying the evolution of morphological diversity to promote a modern synthesis in plant evolutionary developmental biology. Go to: Publications.

B. Gieren (2006): Die Landpflanzenevolution im Phanerozoikum aus petrographischer und geochemischer Sicht. PDF file, in German. Thesis, Georg-August-Universität, Gõttingen.

M.A. Gitzendanner et al. (2018): Methods for exploring the plant tree of life. In PDF, Applications in Plant Sciences, 6. See also here. Introduction for the special issue: Methods for Exploring the Plant Tree of Life.

L.E. Graham et al. (2004): Resistant tissues of modern marchantioid liverworts resemble enigmatic Early Paleozoic microfossils. In PDF, PNAS, 101: 11025-11029.

! Linda E. Graham et al. (2000): The origin of plants: Body plan changes contributing to a major evolutionary radiation. Abstracts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97: 4535-4540.
! See also at here. (in PDF).

! D.E. Greenwalt (2023); Paleobiology Department at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History: Remnants of Ancient Life: The New Science of Old Fossils. Google books.
See also here.
"... We used to think of fossils as being composed of nothing but rock and minerals, all molecular traces of life having vanished long ago. We were wrong. Remnants of Ancient Life reveals how the new science of ancient biomolecules — pigments, proteins, and DNA that once functioned in living organisms tens of millions of years ago — is opening a new window onto the evolution of life on Earth. ..."

K. Grice et al. (2019): Fossilised Biomolecules and Biomarkers in Carbonate Concretions from Konservat-Lagerstätten. Open access, Minerals, 9.
Note figure 2: A typical analytical flowchart for the analysis of exceptionally preserved fossils, including nondestructive imaging techniques, and organic and inorganic geochemistry.

Guido Grimm, Department of Palaeobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm: Cladistic analyses of fossil and recent Cycadales based on morphological and molecular data. See also
here (abstract), and there (in German).

Guido Grimm, Department of Palaeobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm: Molekulare Paläontologie. Brief introduction (in German).

S. Guindon (2020): Rates and Rocks: Strengths and Weaknesses of Molecular Dating Methods. Open access, Frontiers in Genetics, 11.
"... molecular dating will undoubtedly keep playing a crucial role in biology in the future. Our understanding of important phenomena such as species diversification or dispersal, population migration and demography, or the molecular signature resulting from environmental changes, depends on our ability to date past evolutionary events. The wealth of available techniques to perform this task provides a powerful set of tools to make progress in this direction. ..."

NEAL S. GUPTA and RICHARD D. PANCOST: Biomolecular and Physical Taphonomy of Angiosperm Leaf During Early Decay: Implications for Fossilization. Abstract, Palaios 2004; v. 19; no. 5; p. 428-440.

Barbara W. Heavers, Jane Y. Meneray, Jane E. Obbink, and Harry J. Wolf: Molecular Evolution in Plants.

Heckman, D.S., et al. 2001: Molecular evidence for the early colonization of land by fungi and plants. Science 293: 1129-1133.

! J. Heinrichs et al. (2015): Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber. Open access, PLoS ONE 10: e0140977.

J.A. Heredia-Guerrero. et al. (2014): Infrared and Raman spectroscopic features of plant cuticles: a review. In PDF, Front. Plant. Sci., 5. See also here.

M.J. Hopkins et al. (2018): The inseparability of sampling and time and its influence on attempts to unify the molecular and fossil records. Free access, Paleobiology, 44: 561–574.
"... Although neither the molecular record nor the fossil record are perfect, the two records bear independent limitations, and what is missing from one is often available in the other. We must deal with the different and sometimes complex relationships between time and sampling to take full advantage of the complementary nature of the two records. ..."

K. Janssen et al. (2021): The complex role of microbial metabolic activity in fossilization. Open access, Biol. Rev.

P.E. Jardine et al. (2017): Shedding light on sporopollenin chemistry, with reference to UV reconstructions. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 238: 1–6. See also here (in PDF).

A.H. Knoll (2012): Systems Paleobiology. In PDF. See also
here (, or
there (YouTube).

! Michel Laurin (2012): Recent progress in paleontological methods for dating the Tree of Life. In PDF, Frontiers in Genetics, 3.

! I. Kögel-Knabner (2002): The macromolecular organic composition of plant and microbial residues as inputs to soil organic matter. In PDF, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34: 139-162.
See also here.

Andrew H. Knoll 1999: Enhanced: A New Molecular Window on Early Life. Science 285: 1025-1026.

! G.Q. Liu et al. (2022): The Molecular Phylogeny of Land Plants: Progress and Future Prospects. Open access, Diversity, 14 (from the Special Issue Ecology, Evolution and Diversity of Plants).
Note figure 1: Summary of phylogenetic relationships among major clades of land plants.

C.C. Loron et al. (2023): Molecular fingerprints resolve affinities of Rhynie chert organic fossils. Open access, Nature Communications, 4.
"... we demonstrate that the famously exquisite preservation of cells, tissues and organisms in the Rhynie chert accompanies similarly impressive preservation of molecular information. These results provide a compelling positive control that validates the use of infrared spectroscopy to investigate the affinity of organic fossils in chert. ..."

! L. Lopez Cavalcante et al. (2023): Analysis of fossil plant cuticles using vibrational spectroscopy: A new preparation protocol. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 316.
See also here.
"... alarming changes were caused by the use of Schulze’s solution, which resulted in the addition of both NO2 and (O)NO2 compounds in the cuticle. Consequently, a new protocol using H2CO3, HF, and H2O2 for preparing fossil plant cuticles aimed for chemical analyses is proposed, which provides an effective substitute to the conventional methods ..."

! R. López-Antoñanzas et al. (2022): Integrative Phylogenetics: Tools for Palaeontologists to Explore the Tree of Life. Open access, Biology, 11: 1185. biology11081185.
"... The statistical techniques mentioned above have only begun to be applied to questions in palaeontology over the past decade but have found extensive applications in phylogenetic comparative analysis, quantitative genetics, and ecology. Complementary methodologies that combine morphological and molecular approaches can provide novel answers to broad evolutionary and deep-time questions ..."

Y. Lu et al. (2013): Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy – Part 1: The Araucariaceae family. Biogeosciences, 10, 1943–1962,

Y. Lu et al. (2012): Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy - Part 1: The Araucariaceae family. In PDF, Biogeosciences Discuss., 9: 10513-10550.

! MAdLand — Molecular Adaptation to Land: Plant Evolution to Change.
The MAdLand community has made contributions to publicly available data resources for plant (evolutionary) biology and expanded the list of organismal systems accessible for research. Note the statement of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) for the established Priority Programme SPP 2237. Worth checking out:
MAdLand Publications.
The interactive and downloadable Plant Evolution Poster.
Exhibition posters "Grün, Steine, Erde. Unsere Welt im Wandel" (in German, by M. Schreiber and S. Gould).

S. Magallón et al. (2015): A metacalibrated time-tree documents the early rise of flowering plant phylogenetic diversity. In PDF, New Phytologist.

C.R. Marshall (2019): Using the Fossil Record to Evaluate Timetree Timescales. Open access, Front Genet., 10.

A. Martín-González et al. (2009): Double fossilization in eukaryotic microorganisms from Lower Cretaceous amber. Open access, BMC Biol., 7.

Patrick T. Martone et al. (2009): Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell-Wall Architecture. Abstract, Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 2, 169-175. See also here.

L. Marynowski et al. (2008): Systematic relationships of the Mesozoic wood genus Xenoxylon: an integrative biomolecular and palaeobotanical approach. PDF file, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 247: 177-189.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L. Marynowski et al. (2011): Effects of weathering on organic matter Part II: Fossil wood weathering and implications for organic geochemical and petrographic studies. Abstract, Organic Geochemistry, 42: 1076-1088.

L. Marynowski et al. (2007): Biomolecules preserved in ca. 168 million year old fossil conifer wood. PDF file, Naturwissenschaften, 94: 228-236.

! S. Mathews (2009): Phylogenetic relationships among seed plants: persistent questions and the limits of molecular data. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 96: 228-236.

S.A. Newman et al. (2019): Experimental preservation of muscle tissue in quartz sand and kaolinite. Abstract, Palaios, 34: 437–451.
See also here (in PDF).

Thanh Thuy NGUYEN TU (Laboratory of Paleobotany and Paleoecology, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris), Jiri KVACEK, David ULICNÝ, Hervé BOCHERENS, André MARIOTTI, Jean BROUTIN: Isotope reconstruction of plant palaeoecology: Case study of Cenomanian floras from Bohemia. Abstract.

Karl J. Niklas (1981): The Chemistry of Fossil Plants. Abstract, BioScience, 31: 820-825.

! M. Nip et al. (1986): Analysis of modern and fossil plant cuticles by Curie point Py-GC and Curie point Py-GC-MS: recognition of a new, highly aliphatic and resistant biopolymer. In PDF.

Wolfgang Oschmann, Christian Dullo, Volker Mosbrugger & Fritz F. Steininger, "PALÄONTOLOGIE IM 21. JAHRHUNDERT". Go to: Molecular Palaeobiology (in German).

A. Otto and B.R.T. Simoneit (2001): Chemosystematics and diagenesis of terpenoids in fossil conifer species and sediment from the Eocene Zeitz formation, Saxony, Germany. In PDF, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65: 3505-3527.
See also here.

! Palaeontologia Electronica: Fossil Calibration Database (project developed by the Working Group "Synthesizing and Databasing Fossil Calibrations: Divergence Dating and Beyond").
The mission of the Fossil Calibration Database is to provide vetted fossil calibration points that can be used for divergence dating by molecular systematists. The curated collection of well-justified calibrations also promote best practices for justifying fossil calibrations and citing calibrations properly. Raising the Standard in Fossil Calibration! See also:
D.T. Ksepka et al. (2015): The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Resource for Divergence Dating. Abstract, Systematic Biology.

! J.F. Parham et al. (2012): Best Practices for Justifying Fossil Calibrations. In PDF, Syst Biol., 61: 346-359. See also here

Penn State News: Turn back the molecular clock, say Argentina´s plant fossils (December 02, 2014). See also here (RedOrbit, December 05, 2014).

! K.J. Peterson et al. (2007): Molecular palaeobiology. Free access, Palaeontology, 50: 775-809.

N.D. Pires and L. Dolan (2012): Morphological evolution in land plants: new designs with old genes. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367: 508-518.

Imogen Poole and Pim F. van Bergen (2006): Physiognomic and chemical characters in wood as palaeoclimate proxies. PDF file, Plant Ecology, 182: 175-195.

Imogen Poole, Pim F. van Bergen, Johan Kool, Stefan Schouten and David J. Cantrill: Molecular isotopic heterogeneity of fossil organic matter: implications for δ13Cbiomass and δ13Cpalaeoatmosphere proxies. PDF file, Organic Geochemistry 35(11-12) (2004) 1261-1274 (via Virtual Journal Geobiology, volume 3, Issue 9, September 2004, section 2B).

Y. Qu et al. (2019): Evidence for molecular structural variations in the cytoarchitectures of a Jurassic plant. Free access, Geology, 47: 325–329.

Pim F. van Bergen and Imogen Poole (2002): Stable carbon isotopes of wood: a clue to palaeoclimate? PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 182: 31-45.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Proost and M. Mutwil (2016): Tools of the trade: studying molecular networks in plants. Abstract, Current Opinion in Plant Biology.

S.S. Renner (2022): Plant Evolution and Systematics 1982–2022: Changing Questions and Methods as Seen by a Participant. In PDF, Progress in Botany.
See also here.
"... With DNA data came lab work, bioinformatics, and both the need and the possibility to collaborate, which brought systematists out of their niche, gave comparative biology a huge push, and resulted in a better integration of biodiversity studies within biology. ..."

! Mark Ridley (2004): Evolution (Third edition). In PDF. 786 pages, Blackwell Publishing company. See likewise here (Google books), or there.
Note especially:
Chapter 1.3, "A short history of evolutionary biology", Start at PDF-page 33.
! Part 5, Macroevolution. Chapter 18, "The History of Life", Start at PDF-page 558.
About plant evolution note:
Chapter 3, "The Evidence for Evolution", Start at PDF-page 43.
Chapter 14, "Speciation", Start at PDF-page 416.
Chapter 19, "Evolutionary Genomics", Start at PDF-page 591.

Dmitry A. Ruban (2012): Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new? In PDF, Geologos, 18: 37-42.

Bruce Runnegar, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, (Center for Astrobiology, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics), UCLA, Los Angeles, CA: UCLA ESS116 PALEONTOLOGY FALL 2002. Images and schemes. Go to: Molecular evolution and paleontology.

B. Saladin et al. (2017): Fossils matter: improved estimates of divergence times in Pinus reveal older diversification. BMC Evolutionary Biology.

! P. Sarkar et al. (2009): Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles. In PDF, Journal of Experimental Botany, 60: 3615–3635. See also here.

! M.H. Schweitzer (2023): Paleontology in the 21st Century. Free access, Biology, 12, 487. https://

M.H. Schweitzer (2004): Molecular paleontology: some current advances and problems. In PDF, Annales de paléontologie, 90: 81-102.
See also here.

Mary Higby Schweitzer, Department of Microbiology and Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman: Palaeontologia Electronica, Volume 5, Issue 2, (Coquina Press), 2003. Go to Reviews and Previews: THE FUTURE OF MOLECULAR PALEONTOLOGY (also available in PDF).

Mark Shwartz, Stanford Report, April 4, 2001: Geochemists find evidence that flowers may have evolved 250 million years ago.

ScienceDaily: Oily fossils provide clues to the evolution of flowers.

! H. Sauquet et al. (2017): The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification. Nature Communications, 8.

H. Sauquet et al. (2012): Testing the Impact of Calibration on Molecular Divergence Times Using a Fossil-Rich Group: The Case of Nothofagus (Fagales). In PDF, Syst. Biol., 61: 289-313.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B. Artur Stankiewicz et al. (1998): Chemical preservation of plants and insects in natural resins. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 265: 641-647. See also here.

T.S. Slater et al. (2023): Taphonomic experiments reveal authentic molecular signals for fossil melanins and verify preservation of phaeomelanin in fossils. Free access, Nature Communications, 14.

B.A. Stankiewicz et al. (1998): Molecular taphonomy of arthropod and plant cuticles from the Carboniferous of North America: implications for the origin of kerogen. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 155: 453-462.
See also here.

Alfred E. Szmidt, Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå University, Sweden: Molecular evolution of plants. Phylogeny of Eurasian pines based on chloroplast DNA sequences.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D. Tautz (2006), starting on PDF page 09: Morphologie versus DNA-Sequenzen in der Phylogenie-Rekonstruktion. PDF file, in German. Species, Phylogeny and Evolution 1. Themenheft Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen: Der Stellenwert der Morphologie in der heutigen Phylogenetische Systematik.

M. Tripp et al. (2023): Biomarkers Differentiate True Ferns from Seed Ferns & Present a Unique Preservation Mode in Siderite Concretions (Mazon Creek). In PDF, 31st International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry (IMOG) Montpellier, France.
"... Through scrutiny of the unusual occurrence of predominant C30 hopanoid and aromatised arborane/fernane biomarkers in Carboniferous ‘true ferns’ (e.g. Pecopteris sp.), we demonstrate the value of studying the biomarker preservation of individual fossil specimens ..."

Kyle Trostle (2009), Franklin and Marshall College, Earth and Environment Department, Lancaster, PA: Diagenetic History of Fossil Wood from the Paleocene Chickaloon Formation, Matanuska Valley, Alaska. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

V. Vajda et al. (2021): Geochemical fingerprints of ginkgoales across the triassic-jurassic boundary of greenland. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 182: 649–662. See also here.

! V. Vajda et al. (2017): Molecular signatures of fossil leaves provide unexpected new evidence for extinct plant relationships. In PDF, Nature Ecology & Evolution. See also here and there.

Pim F. van Bergen and Imogen Poole (2002): Stable carbon isotopes of wood: a clue to palaeoclimate? PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 182: 31-45.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! P.F. van Bergen et al. (2004): Structural biomacromolecules in plants: what can be learnt from the fossil record. In: A.R. Hemsley and I. Poole (eds.): The Evolution of Plant Physiology. Provided by Google books.

Q. Wang and K.-S. Mao (2015): Puzzling rocks and complicated clocks: how to optimize molecular dating approaches in historical phytogeography. In PDF, New Phytologist. 209: 1353-1358.
See also here. (abstract).

Jing-Ke Weng and Clint Chapple (2010): The origin and evolution of lignin biosynthesis. New Phytologist, 187: 273-285.

G.D.A. Werner et al. (2014): A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms. Nature Communications, 5: 4087.

Friedrich Widdel and Ralf Rabus (2001): Anaerobic biodegradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. PDF file, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 12: 259-276.

! J. Wiemann and P.R. Heck (2023): Quantifying the impact of sample, instrument, and data processing on biological signatures detected with Raman spectroscopy bioRxiv,
"... Quantification of the impact of sample size, instrument features, and spectral processing on the occupation of ChemoSpace [a compositional space] provides an analytical framework for the extraction of molecular biosignatures from spectroscopic fingerprints of tissues from extant and extinct organisms
[...] ChemoSpace approach to biosignatures represents a powerful tool for exploring, denoising, and integrating molecular biological information from modern and ancient organismal samples.

! P. Wilf and I.H. Escapa (2016): Molecular dates require geologic testing. In PDF, New Phytologist, 209: 1359-1362.. See also here.

! P. Wilf and I.H. Escapa (2015): Green Web or megabiased clock? Plant fossils from Gondwanan Patagonia speak on evolutionary radiations. In PDF, New Phytologist, 207: 283-290.

C. Witkowski (2014): Mimicking Early Stages Of Diagenesis In Modern Metasequoia Leaves Implications For Plant Fossil Lagerstätten. In PDF, Thesis in Global Environmental Studies, Department of Science and Technology, Bryant University (Master of Science in Global Environmental Studies).
See also here. Abstract, Session No. 17: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Taphonomy: The Impact of Morphological, Molecular, and Isotopic Changes on Environmental Proxies. Northeastern Section, 49th Annual Meeting, The Geological Society of America.

Andrea D. Wolfe, Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus: The ISSR Resource Website.

Ewan Wolff, Montana State University Geoscience Education Web Development Team: Advances in Paleontology.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! G. Wörheide et al. (2016): Molecular paleobiology — Progress and perspectives. Abstract, Palaeoworld, 25: 138–148. See also here (in PDF).

D. Yang and G.J. Bowen (2022): Integrating plant wax abundance and isotopes for paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate reconstructions: a multi-source mixing model using a Bayesian framework. Open access, Clim. Past, 18: 2181–2210.

H. Yang et al. (2005): Biomolecular preservation of Tertiary Metasequoia Fossil Lagerstätten revealed by comparative pyrolysis analysis. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 134: 237-256.
See also here.

S. Yashina et al. (2012): Regeneration of whole fertile plants from 30,000-y-old fruit tissue buried in Siberian permafrost. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 4008-4013.
See also here.
"... This natural cryopreservation of plant tissue over many thousands of years demonstrates a role for permafrost as a depository for an ancient gene pool, ..."
Also worth checking out: Scientists revive a 30,000 year old Pleistocene-era plant (by Gareth Branwyn, October 7, 2022).

! H.S. Yoon et al. (2004): A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes. PDF file, Mol. Biol. Evol., 21: 809-818. See also here.

M. Zech (2006): The Use of Biomarker and Stable Isotope Analyses in Palaeopedology. Reconstruction of Middle and Late Quaternary Environmental and Climate History, with Examples from Mt. Kilimanjaro, NE Siberia and NE Argentina. Dissertation, University of Bayreuth, Germany.
See also here.

D. Zinniker et al. (1998): Techniques and advances in molecular paleobotany: Methods for evaluating hypotheses of plant evolution and phylogeny by molecular fossils. Abstract, 1998 Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America Baltimore.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

E.L. Zodrow et al. (2010): Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada). In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 84: 71-82.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated April 18, 2024

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