Plant Anatomy & Taxonomy
Taxonomy, Systematics, Plant Classification
Cladistic Methods of Phylogenetic Analysis
Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany
Plant Anatomy & Taxonomy /
Taxonomy and Plant Classification
Taxonomy, Systematics, Plant Classification
Cladistic Methods of Phylogenetic Analysis
Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany
Teaching Documents about Classification and Phylogeny@
! Teaching Documents about Cladistics@
! Botanical Nomenclature and Taxonomy Databases@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Botany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
Databases of Technical Terms@
! Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
John Alroy, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara: How many named species are valid? PNAS, vol. 99: 3706-3711, 2002.
The American Society of Plant Taxonomists (ASPT). The American Society of Plant Taxonomists promotes research and teaching in the taxonomy, systematics, and phylogeny of vascular and nonvascular plants.
John R. Anderson, Georgia Perimeter College Geology:
The World of Geology,
Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.
Henry N. Andrews (1955): Index of generic names of fossil plants, 1820-1950, based on the Compendium index of paleobotany of the US Geological Survey. Provided by Google books. Also available in PDF.
R. Barclay, P. Wilf, D. Dilcher, A. Sokoloff, J. Leon-Guerrero
& C. Thurman:
The Cuticle Database Project aims to promote the understanding and identification
of living and fossil plants.
This project is a collaborative effort between researchers at Northwestern University,
The Field Museum, the Florida Museum of Natural History, and Pennsylvania State University.
See also here:
! R. Barclay, et al. (2007): The cuticle database: developing an interactive tool for taxonomic and paleoenvironmental study of the fossil cuticle record. PDF file, In: Jarzen, D. M., Steven, R., Retallack, G. J. and Jarzen, S. A. (eds.), Advances in Angiosperm Paleobotany and Paleoclimatic Reconstruction, Contributions Honouring David L. Dilcher and Jack A. Wolfe, Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt, pgs. 39-56.
Now available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
M.E. Barkworth et al. (2016): Report of the Special Committee on Registration of Algal and Plant Names (including fossils). In PDF, Taxon, 65: 670-672.
B & T World Seeds, France: Common Names Look-up. This is a browsable name list of about 25,000 common plant names and its scientific equivalent.
R.M. Bateman and J. Hilton (2010): (175–176) Proposals to modify the provisions in the Code for naming fossil plants. In PDF, Taxon 59.
! R.M. Bateman and J. Hilton (2009): Palaeobotanical systematics for the phylogenetic age: applying organ-species, form-species and phylogenetic species concepts in a framework of reconstructed fossil and extant whole-plants. Taxon, 58: 1254-1280. See also here. (abstract).
! P. Bengtson (1988): Open Nomenclature. Palaeontology, 31: 223-227. See also here.
The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Web Lift to Taxa. This NEW version of the UCMP Web Lift to Taxa breaks the long table of the old version into several shorter lists. See also The UCMP Express Web Lift.
(managed by Julian Humphries, University of Texas and Bill Fink, University of Michigan):
The Biodiversity and Biocollections webserver is one of the oldest (ancient by Internet time) sites to provide information
about biodiversity, biological collections, and associated software.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: DELTA. The DELTA format (DEscription Language for TAxonomy) is a flexible method for encoding taxonomic descriptions for computer processing. It has been adopted by the International Taxonomic Databases Working Group (TDWG) as a standard for data exchange. DELTA-format data can be used to produce natural-language descriptions, conventional or interactive keys, cladistic or phenetic classifications, and information-retrieval systems. See also:
Ten major natural history museum libraries, botanical libraries, and research institutions
have joined to form the Biodiversity Heritage Library Project. The group is
developing a strategy and operational plan to digitize the published literature
of biodiversity held in their respective collections.
For the first time in history, the core of our natural history and herbaria library
collections will be available to a truly global audience. Browse by titles, authors,
subjects, names, map, or year.
Go to: Plants. Currently mor then 1500 titles tagged with "Plants". Superbly done!
Comment: Using "View text" is much quicker (for a first glance) then "View image".
Biology Encyclopedia (by Advameg, Inc.): History of Taxonomy.
L. Borgen, W. Greuter, D. L. Hawksworth, D. H. Nicolson & B. Zimmer, Officers of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT): Announcing a test and trial phase for the registration of new plant names (1998-1999). Subject to ratification by the XVI International Botanical Congress (St Louis, 1999) of a rule already included in the International code of botanical nomenclature (Art. 32.1-2 of the Tokyo Code), new names of plants and fungi will have to be registered in order to be validly published after the 1st of January 2000. To demonstrate feasibility of a registration system, IAPT undertakes a trial of registration, on a non-mandatory basis, for a two-years period starting 1 January 1998.
Peter D. Bostock, Queensland Herbarium, Department of Environment, Queensland, Australia: TRANSLAT. Pagina domestica linguae Latinae botanices, computer translation of botanical latin. TRANSLAT, a downloadable free-ware program, uses indexed on-disk databases of verbs, adjectives, nouns, pronouns, phrases and adverbs, (including conjunctions and prepositions), to match stems and terminations (flexions or endings), or the whole word, if indeclinable, of botanical Latin words to provide both a literal/figurative English meaning, and an optional associated statement of the grammar. Also accessable via http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2821/index.html
Geoffrey C. Bowker (1999): The Game of the Name: Nomenclatural Instability in the History of Botanical Informatics. PDF file, go to page 74 (PDF page 86). Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems.
Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden:
The Paleoplant Website.
An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Evolutionary Theory. Lecture notes. Taxonomic classification and theory of evolution.
B. Boyle et al. (2013):
taxonomic name resolution service: an online tool for automated standardization of plant names.
BMC Bioinformatics, 14: 16.
The TNRS user interface is freely accessible via the TNRS website at http://tnrs.iplantcollaborative.org/.
D.E.G. Briggs, W.L. Crepet, D. Goujet, and G. Plodowski (Paleo21): Systematics - The Sine Qua Non of Paleontology.
P.D. Cantino et al. (2007): Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. PDF file, Taxon, 56: 822-846.
Gerald (Gerry) Carr, Botany Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu: Vascular Plant Family Access Page. This is a collection of descriptions and captioned images of flowering plant families (magnolias, lilies, etc.) and non-flowering plant families (cycads, conifers, ferns and fern allies). The images are all in color and are 400 x 600, 600 x 400, or 400 x 400 pixels in size. More than 225 families are represented among the several hundred images in this category.
Steven M. Carr, Genetics, Evolution, and Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Canada: Principles of Systematics. Lecture notes with links.
! Maarten J.M. Christenhusz et al. (2011): A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. PDF file, Phytotaxa, 19: 55-70.
C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (2018): Nomenclatural status of the palaeobotanical “artificial taxa” established in Brongniart’s 1822 “Classification” paper. – Fossil Imprint, 74: 9–28,
! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (2010): Botanical nomenclature and plant fossils, Abstract, Taxon, 59: 261-268. See also here (in PDF).
C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (2010): (101-103) Proposals to modify the provisions in the Code for naming plant fossils. In PDF, Taxon, 59: 303-313.
I. Cojocaru (2010): Orientations in Macrotaxonomy. PDF file.
Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities (CETAF). CETAF is a networked consortium of scientific institutions in Europe formed to promote training, research and understanding of systematic biology and palaeobiology. Go to: Links to taxonomic organisations, programs and initiatives.
R.S. Cowan et al. (2006): 300,000 species to identify: problems, progress, and prospects in DNA barcoding of land plants. In PDF, Taxon, 55: 611-616.
C.J. Cox et al. (2014): Conflicting Phylogenies for Early Land Plants are Caused by Composition Biases among Synonymous Substitutions. Syst. Biol., 63: 272-279.
Peter R. Crane (2004): Fossils and plant phylogeny. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1683-1699. See also here.
Division of Botany and Zoology,
Australian National University
Introductory Glossary of Cladistic Terms.
Invited contribution of the Society of Australian Systematic Biologists (SASB).
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J.A.T. da Silva (2016): In defense of the use of italic for latin binomial plant names. In PDF, Polish Botanical Journal, 61: 1–6.
Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS): The Paleobotany Project. The DMNS Paleobotany Project acts as a repository of images (and accepted nomenclature) of Late Cretaceous through Eocene fossil plants from the Western Interior of North America.
Digiphyll (State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart).
Digiphyll is designed as an educational portal to provide effective assistance in identifying fossil plant material. Excellent! Please note:
Manual: How to use this portal (in PDF).
Glossary: Leaf morphology (in PDF).
! Worth to check out: The fact sheets (PDF files, 36 taxa). Click the button "Downloads".
! D.L. Dilcher (1974): Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains. In PDF, The Botanical Review, 40: 1–157. See also here.
Christopher J. Earle, University of Washington, Seattle: The Gymnosperm Database. You may enter the taxonomic tree at the highest level (order or family) and then navigate to the species. At each level, information on the taxon at hand is provided, along with bibliographic citations that will take you to more detailed information about the species.
The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh: Multisite Living Collections Searches. The data available in these searches are extracted from the on-line Living Collections databases at The Royal Horticultural Society (UK), World Conservation Monitoring Centre (Threatened Plants), The Sir Harold Hillier Gardens and Arboretum (UK), Holden Arboretum (USA), Arnold Arboretum (USA), Cornell Plantations (USA), Phipps Conservatory and Botanic Gardens (USA), The New York Botanical Garden (USA) and The Desert Botanical Garden (USA).
Douglas J. Eernisse, Department of Biological Science, California State University, Fullerton:
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
ETI BioInformatics: Taxonomy and online databases.
A.J. Fazekas et al. (2012): DNA barcoding methods for land plants. In PDF.
Joe Felsenstein, Department of Genome Sciences and Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle: Phylogeny programs available elsewhere. Links to 383 phylogeny packages (free and non-free ones) and 52 free servers.
Rob Fensome, Andrew MacRae, and Graham Williams, Project of the Geological Survey of Canada (Atlantic): Dinoflagellate Classification Database (DINOFLAJ). DINOFLAJ is a database system containing a current classification of fossil and living dinoflagellates down to generic rank, and an index of fossil dinoflagellates at generic, specific, and infraspecific ranks.
J.R. Flores (2020): Rooting morphologically divergent taxa–slow-evolving sequence data might help. Free access, bioRxiv preprint, doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.15.983684.
CATALOGUS II: PLANTAE.
Table of contents.
See also here. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M. Foote and D.M. Raup (2010): Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa. In PDF, Paleobiology, 22: 121-140.
Andrew N Gagg & Roger Whitehead: BABEL. A bibliography and source list to works in numerous European languages for the vernacular names of European wild plants.
Mark A. Garland, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Names of Plants.
A pronunciation guide for scientific Latin.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
What Scientific Names of Plants Mean.
Die Globale Taxonomie Initiative GTI, Nationale Kontaktstelle Deutschland
(part of the Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD,
hosted by Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
The objectives of the GTI are the provision of sufficient taxonomic capacities
to fullfill the aims of the CBD, i.e. the protection and sustainable
use of the components of biodiversity. See especially:
Why does the world need taxonomy?
See also: Identification helps and keys for Animals, Plants and Fungi from all regions.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Chuck Griffith: A Dictionary of Botanical Epithets.
N. Haider (2018): A Brief Review on Plant Taxonomy and its Components. In PDF, The Journal of Plant Science Research, 34: 275-290. See also here.
The Harvard University Herbaria: The Botanical Authors Database. The authority table of botanical authors make use of the internationally accepted standards to verify the entry of author names in the type specimen and Gray Card Index databases in the Harvard University Herbaria.
P.S. Herendeen (2015):
of the Nomenclature Committee on Fossils: 9.
Taxon 64: 1306-1312.
About Bucklandia, Nilssonia, Equisetites, Equisetum columnare (Equisetites columnare), Carpolithus, Calamites, Scytophyllum, Cheirolepidaceae, etc.
! Patrick S. Herendeen:
Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Fossil Plants: 8. PDF file, Taxon, Volume 60, Number 3, June 2011 , pp. 921-923. See also here.
Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Fossil Plants: 7. PDF file, Taxon, Volume 60, Number 3, June 2011 , pp. 902-905. See also here.
Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum (named for now retired Dr.
Ken Hooper, a Carleton University micropaleontologist)
Department of Earth Sciences,
Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada).
The principle objective of this museum is to provide a state-of-the-art summary of items of
geological interest, emphasizing areas currently being studied by students and research faculty.
For some special topics you may navigate from here or from there (The archives).
! Classification Systems - What´s in a Name?
! Terrestrialization - Who, Why, How, and When.
M. Hrabovský (2020): LEAF EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICATION. 1. LYCOPODIOPSIDA. In PDF, Acta Botanica Universitatis Comenianae, 55.
IAPT-MARY SUPRAGENERIC NAMES DATABASE: The Indices Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium Project is supported by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy and the Norton-Brown Herbarium of the University of Maryland. Select database to search: INDEX NOMINUM SUPRAGENERICORUM PLANTARUM VASCULARIUM.
ICAL-Botany, hosted and maintained by the Missouri Botanical Garden: The Interactive Collections Availability List. Here you will find a list of botanical collections that are either: orphaned and available for adoption by an institution, or underutilized and in need of further investigation by research students and scientists. ICAL-Botany also allows you to notify the world-wide botanical community through an automatic distribution list that you have a collection that either needs a new home or needs further study. Links worth checking out: Orphaned Collections Needs Home Now! Maintained by the Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), California at Berkeley.
Index Nominum Genericorum (ING). The ING, a collaborative project of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) and the Smithsonian Institution, was initiated in 1954 as a compilation of generic names published for all organisms covered by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Current work on the ING is supported by the Smithsonian Institution, IAPT, and the University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. The content of the database was developed over a 40-year period by the efforts of more than 100 collaborators. Enter a generic name in the ING Generic Name Query Form. Search by the full spelling of the name or if you are uncertain you can use a wild card search by entering a string of letters followed by an asterisk (e.g., Asteranth*).
International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT).
IAPT is dedicated to organismal biodiversity the extent, recognition, organization,
evolution, and naming of plants and fungi, both
living and fossil. See especially:
! International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.
Code of Nomenclature for
algae, fungi, and plants
Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Prepared and edited by J. McNeill et al., International Association for Plant Taxonomy.
! International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). The author of this Code is the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Adopted by the International Union of Biological Sciences.
! International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Adopted by the Sixteenth International Botanical Congress St Louis, Missouri, July-August 1999.
! International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th edition, 1999).
Fossil Plant Names Index (IFPNI).
An online registration of fossil plant names. IFPNI is headquartered at the Fundamental Botanical Library, National Institute of Carpology (Gaertnerian Institution), Moscow.
International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI): IOPI manages a series of cooperative international projects that aim to create databases of plant taxonomic information. IOPI Database of Plant Databases (DPD). DPD is a global list of plant databases, to tell you who is putting together what data and where.
International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI): IOPI manages a series of cooperative international projects that aim to create databases of plant taxonomic information. The Global Plant Checklist Project. A Global Plant Checklist, encompassing about 300,000 vascular plant species and over 1,000,000 names, is IOPI's first priority. Eventually, the Checklist will also include non-vascular plants (mosses and liverworts, and even lichens and algae if they have not been dealt with elsewhere). A provisional Checklist is in operation.
International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI): IOPI manages a series of cooperative international projects that aim to create databases of plant taxonomic information. The Species Plantarum Project (SPP). SPP is a long term project to record essential taxonomic information on vascular plants worldwide. It is being published in hardcopy as "Flora of the World". It includes accepted names and synonyms with places of publication and types, short descriptions of all taxa from family to infraspecific rank, keys, distributions, references to literature comments, etc.
International Plant Names Index (IPNI). IPNI is a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of all seed plants. Its goal is to eliminate the need for repeated reference to primary sources for basic bibliographic information about plant names.
Mark Isaak, About.com: Curiosities of Biological Nomenclature.
Keith Karoly, Biology Department, Reed College, Portland, OR: Vascular Plant Diversity. An internet guide. Go to: Introduction to Plant Taxonomy.
M. Kearney (2002): Fragmentary taxa, missing data, and ambiguity: mistaken assumptions and conclusions. PDF file, Systematic biology, 51: 369-381.
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew:
! The Kew Herbarium Catalogue . This Herbarium houses approximately 7 million specimens, collected from all around the world. Navigate from advanced search.
! The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew:
Botanical information from Kew and beyond.
Go to: The International Plant Names Index (IPNI). IPNI is a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of all seed plants. See also: Vascular Plant Families and Genera. The data presented here are taken from the publication Vascular Plant Families and Genera compiled by R. K. Brummitt and published by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in 1992.
Nikita Julievich Kluge, Department of Entomology, S.-Petersburg State University. Russia: General Principles of Biological Systematics. Chapter 1 from the book "Modern Systematics of Insects".
! Sandra Knapp et al. (2011): Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne: What does e-publication mean for you? In PDF, Taxon, 60: 1498-1501.
S. Knapp et al. (2004): Stability or stasis in the names of organisms: the evolving codes of nomenclature. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 359: 611-622.
! W.J. Kress and L. Penev (2011): Innovative electronic publication in plant systematics: PhytoKeys and the changes to the "Botanical Code" accepted at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne. In PDF, PhytoKeys, 6: 1-4.
L. Kunzmann et al. (2013): Die Innovation von Melbourne: eine fossile Pflanze – ein Name. PDF file, in German. Senckenberg natur forschung museum, 143: 222-229. See also here.
Z. Kvacek (2008): The role of types in palaeobotanical nomenclature. In PDF, Acta Mus. Nat. Pragae, Ser. B, Hist. Nat., 64: 89-96.
E. Levetin and K. McMahon: Plants
and Society, Fifth Edition.
here. Go to:
2. Introduction to Plant Life: Botanical Principles.
! Plant Systematics and Evolution. In PDF.
For other chapters navigate from here.
! Norman MacLeod, Natural History Museum, London: PalaeoMath. Aspects of quantitative analysis in paleontological contexts. Each essay (from the Palaeontological Association Newsletter since 2004) is written for the novice data analyst, especially those who always wanted to gain knowledge of this subject, but never had the opportunity to do so and haven´t managed to make much progress through self-education. Including some MS Excel spreadsheets providing examples and data.
J. McNeill et al. (2012):
for proposals to conserve or reject names. In PDF,
Taxon, 61: 248-251.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! John McNeill & Nicholas J. Turland (2011): Major changes to the Code of Nomenclature - Melbourne, July 2011. Taxon, 60: 1495-1497.
! James S. Miller et al. (2011): Outcomes of the 2011 Botanical Nomenclature Section at the XVIII International Botanical Congress. In PDF, PhytoKeys, 5: 1-3.
B.R. Moore et al. (2016):
Critically evaluating the theory and performance of Bayesian
analysis of macroevolutionarymixtures. In PDF, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.,
"... the inability to correctly compute the likelihood or to correctly specify the prior for rate-variable trees precludes the use of Bayesian approaches for testing hypotheses regarding the number and location of diversification-rate shifts using BAMM."
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD: The NCBI Taxonomy Homepage. The NCBI taxonomy database does not follow a single taxonomic treatise but rather attempts to incorporate phylogenetic and taxonomic knowledge from a variety of sources, including the published literature, web-based databases, and the advice of sequence submitters and outside taxonomy experts. See also here.
The Natural History Museum London:
Nature online > The science of natural history > Taxonomy and systematics
in a name? A history of taxonomy by Sandra Knapp.
See also: Nature online > The science of natural history > Natural history biographies.
Hannes Löser, Hermosillo, Sonora, México: PaleoTax. PaleoTax is a database management system to record taxonomic, geographic and stratigraphic data in biology and palaeontology and dedicated to taxonomists.
University of Maryland at College Park Libraries: Plants: Common and Scientific Names: A Guide to Sources. This site is a selected list of information sources for plant names. The topics range from plants in general, to specific categories such as exotic plants and trees, shrubs and vines. The areas covered include: taxonomy, classification and nomenclature of plants.
! S. Mathews (2009): Phylogenetic relationships among seed plants: persistent questions and the limits of molecular data. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 96: 228-236.
! S.C. Matthews (1973): Notes on open Nomenclature and on synonymy lists. Palaeontology, Volume 16, Part 4, 1973, Pages 713-719. Accessible through the www.palass.org website.
Ian Miller and Rose Prevec, Palaeontologia Electronica Volume 9, Issue 2 (2006): Palaeobotany in the Digital Age: Unearthing the Future of Taxonomy.
The Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri: w3TROPICOS. The Missouri Botanical Garden announces live access to its TROPICOS Nomenclatural database system through the World Wide Web. Information is available for over 750,000 scientific plant names. The records frequently have links to other associated names, types, synonymy, and bibliographic references.
! B.R. Moore et al. (2016): Critically evaluating the theory and performance of Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures. In PDF, PNAS, 113: 9569–9574. See also here.
! The International Fossil Plant Names Index (IFPNI).
The goal of IFPNI, an independent non-profit-making project which is dedicated to the promotion of fossil plant science, is to compile and maintain a comprehensive literature based record of the scientific names of fossil plants.
! Daniel L. Nickrent, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois: Elements of Plant Systematics. Lecture notes. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Go to: A Look at the History of Plant Classification.
! The North American Rock Garden Society (NARGS): Dictionary of Specific Epithets.
Mark E. Olson (2012): Linear Trends in Botanical Systematics and the Major Trends of Xylem Evolution. In PDF.
Calibration Database (project developed by
the Working Group "Synthesizing and Databasing Fossil Calibrations:
Divergence Dating and Beyond").
The mission of the Fossil Calibration Database is to provide vetted fossil calibration points that can be used for divergence dating by molecular systematists. The curated collection of well-justified calibrations also promote best practices for justifying fossil calibrations and citing calibrations properly. Raising the Standard in Fossil Calibration! See also:
D.T. Ksepka et al. (2015): The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Resource for Divergence Dating. Abstract, Systematic Biology.
! J.D. Palmer et al. (2004): The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1437-1445.
J.F. Parham et al. (2012): Best Practices for Justifying Fossil Calibrations. In PDF, Syst Biol., 61: 346-359. See also here (abstract).
L. Penev et al. (2011): XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature. In PDF. See also here.
Ray Phillips, Information Technology Services, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: World Wide Flowering Plant Family Identification. Select the characters that are present in the specimen being identified and press "Submit". Database is part of "Biology 211: Flowering Plant Taxonomy", an introduction to the principles and practice of flowering plant taxonomy.
Ray Phillips, Information Technology Services, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: Biology 211: Flowering Plant Taxonomy. An introduction to the principles and practice of flowering plant taxonomy. Visit the Guide to Flowering Plant Family Recognition. This is a descriptive and photographic tour of some families in the Magnoliophyta (60 flowering plant families).
The Plant Fossil Names Registry (PFNR):
Developed and maintained in the National Museum Prague since 2014 under the
auspices of the International Organisation of Palaeobotany (IOP).
The Plant Fossil Names Registry is a database of names registering preferentially new, but also previously published names of plant fossils and associated nomenclatural acts.
The Field, Penpol, Lostwithiel, Cornwall: Plants For A Future - Database Search, and The Species Database. A resource and information centre for edible and other useful plants. Plants for a Future is a project based in Devon and Cornwall which seeks to gather together and disseminate information on the many useful properties of plants, particularly those plants which are less common in today's society. The database contains over 7000 species.
M.P. Pound et al. (2017): Deep Machine Learning provides state-of-the-art performance in image-based plant phenotyping. GigaScience. See also here (in PDF).
! PPG I (2016); This project was organized by Eric Schuettpelz: A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Free access, Journal of Systematics and Evolution.J. Pšenièka and E.L. Zodrow (2006, starting on PDF page 18 (Sec1:16)): Pennsylvanian fern taxonomy: New approach through the compact model. In PDF, Newsletter on Carboniferous Stratigraphy, 24.
! M.N. Puttick et al. (2018): The Interrelationships of Land Plants and the Nature of the Ancestral Embryophyte. Free access, Current Biology, 28: 733–745.
! D.L. Rabosky et al. (2017): Is BAMM flawed? Theoretical and practical concerns in the analysis of multi-rate diversification models. In PDF, Syst. Biol., 66: 477–498. See also here.
A.P. Rasnitsyn (2006):
of evolution and methodology of taxonomy.
PDF file, Paleontological Journal, 40 (Suppl. 6): S679-S737.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland: FindIT, Links to Web Sites of Botanical Interest, Dictionaries. Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology - Life Sciences - e.g. Biology, Botany, Cell Biology, Ecology, Evolution, Molecular Biology, Systematics, etc. Excellent!
James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland: Advanced Plant Taxonomy. Systems of classification for magnoliophyta, history of systematic botany, approaches to biological classification, taxonomic hierarchy, types of data.
! G. Rouhan and M. Gaudeul (2014): Plant taxonomy: a historical perspective, current challenges, and perspectives. Abstract, Molecular Plant Taxonomy, pp. 1-37; In: Pascale, B. (ed.), Molecular Plant Taxonomy: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 1115. See also here (in PDF), and there.
B. Saladin et al. (2017): Fossils matter: improved estimates of divergence times in Pinus reveal older diversification. BMC Evolutionary Biology.
! Schmidt, Diane, Allison, Melody M., Clark, Kathleen A., Jacobs, Pamela F. and Porta, Maria A.,
Libraries Unlimited (a member of the Greenwood Publishing Group):
Guide to Reference and Information Sources in Plant Biology.
This directory contains the URLs and annotations for Web-accessible resources. Go to:
Systematics and Identification.>
! Judith E. Skog, International Association for Plant Taxonomy:
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 4. PDF file, Taxon (2003), 52: 341-341.
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 5. PDF file, Taxon (2005), 54: 175-176.
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 6. PDF file, Taxon (2005), 54: 827-827.
TDWG Subgroup on Biological Collection Data:
Information Models, and Data Dictionaries
for Biological Collections.
Working Group on Taxonomic Databases.
From 2001 on, the subgroup was replaced by the CODATA/TDWG Task Group on Access to Biological Collection Data (ABCD).
V. Teodoridis et al. (2011): The integrated plant record vegetation analysis: internet platform and online application. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Ser. B, 67: 159-165.
Bioinformatics Working Group, Texas A&M University: Vascular Plant Family Finder. Internet information for a given family.! S.A. Thomson et al. (2018): Taxonomy based on science is necessary for global conservation. Open access, PLoS Biol, 16: e2005075.
TreeBASE. TreeBASE is a relational database of phylogenetic information hosted by the University at Buffalo. In previous years the database has been hosted by Harvard University Herbaria, Leiden University EEW, and the University of California, Davis. TreeBASE stores phylogenetic trees and the data matrices used to generate them from published research papers.
TRY Plant Trait Database.
Quantifying and scaling global plant trait diversity.
TRY is a network of vegetation scientists headed by Future Earth and the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, providing a global archive of curated plant traits. Please take notice:
! J. Kattke et al. (2011): TRY – a global database of plant traits. Global Change Biology, 17: 2905–2935.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA): PLANTS Database. The PLANTS database focuses on vascular plants, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and lichens of the U.S. and its territories. It includes names, checklists, automated tools, identification information, species abstracts, distributional data, crop information, plant symbols, plant growth data, plant materials information, plant links, references, and other plant information.
J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al. (2017): Differentiation of the fossil leaves assigned to Taeniopteris, Nilssoniopteris and Nilssonia with a comparison to similar genera, Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 237: 100–106.See also here (in PDF).
Based on a scientific database, the program can be used for the visual determination of plants.
Now with around 22000 images, mostly with geo-referenced information.
You can search using taxon names or
via plant characters.
Worth checking out: Dalitz, H. and Homeier, J. (2004): Visual Plants - An image based tool for plant diversity research. Lyonia, 6: 47-59.
See also here (in German).
M. Vorontsova, Herbarium, Kew Gardens:
changes for names of algae, fungi, plants and plant fossils.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
L. Watson Albany, Australia, and M. J. Dallwitz CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia (page hosted by DELTA):
The Families of Flowering Plants.
Descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval.
Version: 25th November 2009. The Intkey software is required.
Also worth to check out: Static information. Character list, implicit attributes, notes on the APG classification, etc.
Q.D. Wheeler et al. (2012): Mapping the biosphere: exploring species to understand the origin, organization and sustainability of biodiversity. In PDF, Systematics and Biodiversity, 10.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
List of years in paleontology. These entries cover events related to the study of paleontology which occurred in the listed year. Go to:
! 2017 in paleontology. Excellent! See especially:
! 2016 in paleobotany.
! 2017 in paleobotany. These websites records new taxa of fossil plants that are scheduled to be described during the year 2017, as well as other significant discoveries and events.
! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Systematics. Scientific classification.
Hugh D. Wilson, Department of Biology Herbarium (TAMU), Texas A&M University (with support from the Texas A&M Center for the Study of Digital Libraries), BOTANY 201--TAXONOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS: Lab 1 - Exercise in Basic Taxonomy: Classification, Nomenclature, and Identification.
J. Witteveen (2016): Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History. Open access, Journal of the History of Biology, 49: 135–189.
Steven J. Wolf, Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Stanislaus:
Lecture notes about plant taxonomy and systematics,
history of plant taxonomy, identification keys used to identify plants,
plant nomenclature, etc.
of Plant Taxonomy.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut:
! Compendium Index of North American Paleobotany. The Compendium Index presently covers fossil floras from North America, including Greenland, starting in the Triassic Period and extending to Pleistocene. This is a digitized version of a card-file index of approximately 20,000 images and text of descriptions of fossil plant species, maintained at Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History as a classification and identification tool.
Curious Scientific Names.
Some weird and wacky scientific names in biological nomenclature.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G. Zijlstra et al. (2016): (2438–2439) Proposal to conserve the names Taeniopteris and T. vittata with a conserved type (fossil Tracheophyta: "Taeniopterides"). Taxon, 65: 399-400.
G. Zijlstra (2014): Important changes in the rules of nomenclature, especially those relevant for palaeobotanists. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 207: 1-4.
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