Evolution & Extinction /
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
Web Sites about Evolution
Focussed on the Fossil Record
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Early Triassic Floras@
! Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012):
record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires:
Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel?
In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 96–97: 60–71.
See also here (abstract).
T.J. Algeo et al. (2015): Global review of the Permian–Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery: Part II. Accessible abstracts of some articles. Earth-Science Reviews, 149. Edited by Zhong-Qiang Chen, Thomas Algeo and Dave Bottjer.
T.J. Algeo et al. (2011):
teleconnections in the collapse and rebuilding of Early Triassic
marine ecosystems. In PDF,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 308: 1–11. See also
Note fig. 4: Interpretative reconstructions of terrestrial–marine teleconnections during the PTB crisis.
! J.M. Anderson et al. (1999): Patterns of Gondwana plant colonisation and diversification. Abstract, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28: 145-l67. See also here (in PDF).
B. Baresel et al. (2017): Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms. Sci. Rep., 7.! J.P. Benca et al. (2018): UV-B-induced forest sterility: Implications of ozone shield failure in Earth´s largest extinction. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4: e1700618. See also here and there:
M.J. Benton (2018):
mass extinctions: killing
models during the Permian–Triassic mass
extinction. In PDF,
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 376. See also
Note Fig. 3: Palaeogeographic map of the Permo-Triassic, showing the single supercontinent Pangaea, modelled climate belts, and the distribution of terrestrial tetrapods.
! M.J. Benton (2016): The Triassic. Open access, Current Biology, 26: R1214–R1218.
! M.J. Benton and A.J. Newell (2014): Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Gondwana Research.
M. Benton (2014), Abstract starts on PDF page 13, slow download (934 PDF pages!):
Recovery from the greatest mass extinction of all time: data and models.
Abstract volume, 4th International Palaeontological Congress, 2014, Mendoza.
See also here and there.
Phil Berardelli, Science now:
Fungus That Ate the World.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A. Bercovici et al. (2015): Terrestrial paleoenvironment characterization across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China. In PDF, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 98: 225-246. See also here.M. Bernardi et al. (2017): Tetrapod distribution and temperature rise during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B 285. See also here.
P. Blomenkemper et al. (2018):
hidden cradle of plant evolution in Permian tropical lowlands. Abstract,
Science, 362: 1414-1416. See also
(researchers from the University of Münster report on their findings), and
(Scinexx article, in German).
"... These fossils, which include the earliest records of conifers, push back the ages of several important seed-plant lineages. Some of these lineages appear to span the mass extinction event at the end of the Permian, which suggests that the communities they supported may have been more stable than expected over this transition ...".
D.J. Bottjer (2012): Life in the Early Triassic Ocean. Science, 338: 336-337.
! D.J. Bottjer et al. (2008): Understanding mechanisms for the end-Permian mass extinction and the protracted Early Triassic aftermath and recovery. In PDF, GSA Today, 18.
David J. BOTTJER (2004), Department of Earth Sciences, Univ of Southern California, Los Angeles: THE EARLY TRIASSIC AND THE SUPERCONTINENT CYCLE. Abstract, 2004 Denver GSA Annual Meeting.
Samuel A. Bowring, Douglas H. Erwin, and Yukio Isozaki: The tempo of mass extinction and recovery: The end-Permian example. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (PNAS, The National Academy of Sciences). 1999, 96(16): 8827-8828.
! A. Brayard et al. (2017): Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna. In PDF, Science Advances, 3. See also here.
The Bristol Palaeobiology Research Group,
Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK:
! The Permo-Triassic mass extinction and its aftermath.
L.A. Buatois et al. (2016):
Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. Abstract,
The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology,
! See also here (in PDF).
! S.D. Burgess et al. (2014): High-precision timeline for Earth´s most severe extinction. In PDF, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111. See also here.
D.J. Button et al. (2017):
extinctions drove increased global faunal cosmopolitanism on the supercontinent Pangaea.
Open access, Nature Communications, 8: 1–8.
"... 891 terrestrial vertebrate species spanning the late Permian through Early Jurassic. This key interval witnessed the Permian–Triassic and Triassic–Jurassic mass extinctions, the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangaea, and the origins of dinosaurs and many modern vertebrate groups. Our results recover significant increases in global faunal cosmopolitanism following both mass extinctions, driven mainly by new, widespread taxa, leading to homogenous ‘disaster faunas’. Cosmopolitanism subsequently declines in post-recovery communities. ..."
B. Cascales-Miñana et al. (2015): A palaeobotanical perspective on the great end-Permian biotic crisis. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).
! Zhong-Qiang Chen and Michael J. Benton (2012): The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Nature Geoscience.
R. Chatterjee et al. (2014): Dwarfism and Lilliput effect: a study on the Glossopteris from the late Permian and early Triassic of India. In PDF, Current Science. See also here and there (abstract).
Zhong-Qiang Chen et al. (2014): State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Global review of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery: Part I. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.
D. Chu et al. (2021): Metal-induced stress in survivor plants following the end-Permian collapse of land ecosystems. Open access, Geology, 49.D. Chu et al. (2016): Biostratigraphic correlation and mass extinction during the Permian-Triassic transition in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings of South China. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 146: 67–88.
D. Chu et al. (2015): Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life. Scientific reports.
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003):
during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2.
Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file,
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375.
Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.
! M.O. Clarkson et al. (2016): Dynamic anoxic ferruginous conditions during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery. Nature Communications, 7.
! F.L. Condamine et al. (2016): Global patterns of insect diversification: towards a reconciliation of fossil and molecular evidence? Scientific Reports, 6.
S. Dai et al. (2020):
of peat depositional environments in coal: A review. Free access,
International Journal of Coal Geology, 219.
"... No confirmed coal occurs in the Permian-Triassic boundary zone (PTBZ), or indeed, in the Lower Triassic in much of the world (generally refered to as a ‘coal gap’ time period ..."
Deutschlandfunk (a German radio station): An Sauerstoffmangel eingegangen. Easy to understand information about the Permian/Triassic mass extinction aftermath and thin air (with statements of Robert Berner, Robert Dudley, Raymond Huey, Peter Ward). In German. You can also listen to this article ("Audio on demand").
Maarten J. de Wit, Joy G. Ghosh, Stephanie de Villiers, Nicolas Rakotosolofo, James Alexander, Archana Tripathi, and Cindy Looy: Multiple Organic Carbon Isotope Reversals across the Permo-Triassic Boundary of Terrestrial Gondwana Sequences: Clues to Extinction Patterns and Delayed Ecosystem Recovery. PDF file, Journal of Geology, vol. 110, no.2, pp.227-246, 2002.
W.A. DiMichele (1999):
EVOLUTIONARY AND PALEOECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF TERRESTRIAL FLORAL CHANGES IN THE LATE PALEOZOIC TROPICS.
Abstract, 1999 GSA Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado; The Geological Society of America (GSA).
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! A.A. Dineen et al. (2014): Quantifying functional diversity in pre-and post-extinction paleocommunities: A test of ecological restructuring after the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 136: 339-349.
Dan Dorritie, Berkeley Echo Lake Camp: Killer in our midst. About 250 pages, exclusive of the approximately 150 page bibliography.
X. Duan et al. (2018): Early Triassic Griesbachian microbial mounds in the Upper Yangtze Region, southwest China: Implications for biotic recovery from the latest Permian mass extinction. Open access, PLoS ONE, 13: e0201012.
A.M. Dunhill et al. (2016): Dinosaur biogeographical structure and Mesozoic continental fragmentation: a network-based approach. In PDF, Journal of Biogeography.
C. Elliott-Kingston et al. (2014): Damage structures in leaf epidermis and cuticle as an indicator of elevated atmospheric sulphur dioxide in early Mesozoic floras. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 208: 25-42.
! Douglas H. Erwin (2001): Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from mass extinctions. PNAS 98: 5399-5403.
! Douglas H. Erwin, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (website hosted by Stanley Zane Guffey, Division of Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville): Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from mass extinctions. PDF file.
! D.H. Erwin (1996): The mother of mass extinctions. In PDF, Scientific American.
Yoichi Ezaki et al., Department of Geosciences, Osaka City University, Sugimoto, Osaka, Japan: Earliest Triassic Microbialite Micro- to Megastructures in the Huaying Area of Sichuan Province, South China: Implications for the Nature of Oceanic Conditions after the End-Permian Extinction. Abstract, PALAIOS, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 388-402.
Z. Feng et al. (2020):
rainforest to herbland: New insights into land plant responses to the
end-Permian mass extinction. Free access,
Note fig. 8: Tomiostrobus sinensis Feng, whole plant reconstruction.
Note fig. 9: Reconstructions of the late Permian and Early Triassic vegetation in Southwest China.
! C.R. Fielding et al. (2019): Age and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction constrained by multiproxy analysis. Open access, Nature Communications.
W.J. Foster (2017): Subsequent biotic crises delayed marine recovery following the late Permian mass extinction event in northern Italy. Open access, PLoS ONE 12(3): e0172321.
C.B. Foster and S.A. Afonin (2005): Abnormal pollen grains: an outcome of deteriorating atmospheric conditions around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 162: 653-659.
N.C. Fraser and H.-D. Sues (2012): The beginning of the "Age of Dinosaurs": a brief overview of terrestrial biotic changes during the Triassic. Abstract, Earth and Environmental Science, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.
Thomas Galfetti et al. (2007):
boundary event: Evidence for global climatic change in the wake of the
end-Permian biotic crisis. PDF file,
Geology, 35: 291-294.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s
See also here (abstract).
! R. Gastaldo (2019): Ancient plants escaped the end-Permian mass extinction. Free access, Nature, NEWS AND VIEWS.
GASTALDO, Robert A., ADENDORFF, Rose, BAMFORD, Marion, LABANDEIRA, Conrad, NEVELING, Johann, and SIMS, Hallie: TAPHONOMIC TRENDS OF MACROFLORAL ASSEMBLAGES ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE KAROO BASIN, SOUTH AFRICA. Abstract, 2004 Denver Annual Meeting (November 7-10, 2004.! The Geological Society of London:
Léa Grauvogel-Stamm and Sidney R. Ash (2005): Recovery of the Triassic land flora from the end-Permian life crisis. Abstract, C. R. Palevol, 4.
E.L. Gulbranson et al. (2020): When does large woody debris influence ancient rivers? Dendrochronology applications in the Permian and Triassic, Antarctica. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 541. See also here (in PDF).
! D.W. Haig et al. (2015): Early Triassic (early Olenekian) life in the interior of East Gondwana: mixed marine–terrestrial biota from the Kockatea Shale, Western Australia. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 417: 511-533. See also here (abstract).
Karina G. Hankins, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA: PALEOECOLOGY OF THE BIOTIC RECOVERY FROM THE END-TRIASSIC MASS EXTINCTION, LOWER JURASSIC SUNRISE FORMATION, NEW YORK CANYON, WEST-CENTRAL NEVADA. Abstract, GSA Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 2001.
E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237.
E. Hermann et al. (2011): Terrestrial ecosystems on North Gondwana following the end-Permian mass extinction. Abstract.
C. Heunisch and H.G. Röhling (2016): Early Triassic phytoplankton episodes in the Lower and Middle Buntsandstein of the Central European Basin. Abstract, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 167. See also here (in PDF).
! P.A. Hochuli et al. (2016): Severest crisis overlooked - Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Scientific Reports.
! Peter A. Hochuli et al. (2010):
demise and recovery of plant ecosystems across the end-Permian
extinction event. PDF file, Global and Planetary Change.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
R. Hofmann et al. (2011):
trace fossil evidence for an early recovery signal in the aftermath of the
end-Permian mass extinction. Abstract,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 310: 216-226.
See also: Early Triassic recovery from the end-Permian extinction of benthic ecosystems in the palaeotropics. In PDF, thesis 2014, University of Zurich. Article "New trace fossil evidence for an early recovery signal in the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction" starting on PDF page 21.
B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 335.
! M. Holz (2015): Mesozoic paleogeography and paleoclimates - a discussion of the diverse greenhouse and hothouse conditions of an alien world. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences.
Shi-xue Hu et al. (2011): The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B 278. See also here.
V.A. Hudspith et al. (2015): Latest Permian chars may derive from wildfires, not coal combustion. Reply, in PDF, Geology, 43.
V.A. Hudspith et al. (2014): Latest Permian chars may derive from wildfires, not coal combustion. In PDF, Geology, 42: 879-882. See also here (abstract).
Raymond B. Huey and Peter D. Ward: Hypoxia, Global Warming, and Terrestrial Late Permian Extinctions. Science, Vol 308, Issue 5720, 398-401; 2005.
! P. Hull (2015): Life in the aftermath of mass extinctions. In PDF, Current Biology. See also here (abstract).
P.M. Hull et al. (2015): Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems. In PDF, Nature, 528: 345-351.
! R.B. Irmis and J.H. Whiteside (2011): Delayed recovery of non-marine tetrapods after the end-Permian mass extinction tracks global carbon cycle. Abstract, Proc. R. Soc. B. See also here (in PDF).
Yukio Isozaki (2009): Integrated "plume winter" scenario for the double-phased extinction during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition: The G-LB and P-TB events from a Panthalassan perspective. PDF file, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36: 459-480.
David Jablonski, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago: Extinction: Past and present. PDF file, Nature 427: 589; 2004.
David Jablonski, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago: The interplay of physical and biotic factors in macroevolution. PDF file, In: A. Lister and L. Rothschild, eds., Evolution on Planet Earth: The impact of the physical environment. New York: Academic Press, 235-252; 2003.
Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC):
Permian - Triassic.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Klaus-Peter Kelber: Beyond the Permian-Triassic extinction events: The highly diverse Lower Keuper flora (Ladinian, Triassic) of southern Germany. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.
! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
D.V. Kent and G. Muttoni (2003): Mobility of Pangea: Implications for Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Paleoclimate. In PDF.
Hans Kerp, Abdallah Abu Hamad, Klaus Bandel & Birgit Niemann: A new Upper Permian flora from the Middle East with typical Triassic Gondwana elements. Abstract, The 15th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Naturalis, National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands, 12-13th November 2004.
Richard A. Kerr, Science magazine, April 2005: Gasping for Air in the Permian. Abstract. Thin air may have forced animals down from higher latitudes 250 million years ago, crowding them into the lowlands and possibly helping along the largest extinction in the history of the planet, according to a study of Science. See also here.
S. Kershaw (2017): Palaeogeographic variation in the Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites: A discussion of microbial and ocean processes after the end-Permian mass extinction. Journal of Palaeogeography.
KIDDER, David L. and WORSLEY, Thomas R., Geological Sciences, Ohio Univ, Athens: DID THE END-PERMIAN EXTINCTION DELAY TRIASSIC RECOVERY BY AFFECTING THE EARTH SYSTEM? Abstract.
D. Klärner (2016), Frankfurter Allgemeine (FAZ):
schicksalhaften Wälder. In German.
About P.A. Hochuli et al. (2016): Severest crisis overlooked ...
V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2009): Paleofloristic evidence of climate change near and beyond the Permian-Triassic boundary. PDF file, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 284: 326-336.
Evelyn Kustatscher, Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert & Michael Wachtler: Seedferns and horsetails from the Anisian plant locality Kühwiesenkopf / Monte Prà della Vacca (Dolomites, N-Italy). Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.
Evelyn Kustatscher, Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Guido Roghi & Luisa Passoni: Triassic plant fossils from N-Italy: a general overview. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.
! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): Floral Assemblages and Patterns of Insect Herbivory during the Permian to Triassic of Northeastern Italy. PLoS ONE. 11. See also here (in PDF).
S. Lindström and S. McLoughlin (2007): Synchronous palynofloristic extinction and recovery after the end-Permian event in the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica: Implications for palynofloristic turnover across Gondwana. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 145: 89-122. See also here.
Barry Lomax et al. (2001):
Rapid (10-yr) recovery of terrestrial productivity in
a simulation study of the terminal Cretaceous impact event. PDF file,
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 192 (2001): 137-144.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
C.V. Looy et al. (2021): Proliferation of Isoëtalean Lycophytes During the Permo-Triassic Biotic Crises: A Proxy for the State of the Terrestrial Biosphere. In PDF, Front. Earth Sci. 9: 615370. See also here (open access).
Cindy V. Looy, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ecological success of Early Triassic isoetaleans. A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergi from the Early Triassic.
C. V. Looy1, W. A. Brugman1, D. L. Dilcher2, and H. Visscher1. 1Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University; 2Paleobotany Laboratory, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville: The delayed resurgence of equatorial forests after the Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis. PNAS Online, Vol. 96, Issue 24, 13857-13862, November 23, 1999.
! C. Mays et al. (2020): Permian–Triassic non-marine algae of Gondwana—Distributions, natural affinities and ecological implications. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 212.
C. Mays et al. (2019):
Permian–Triassic floristic timeline reveals early collapse
and delayed recovery of south polar terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF,
Note figure 11: Timeline of Permian–Triassic floral and palynological bioevents, geochemical and sedimentological features, and stages in terrestrial ecosystem evolution, recorded from eastern Australian basins.
C. Mays and S. McLoughlin (2019): Caught between mass extinctions - the rise and fall of Dicroidium. In PDF.
J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here
! Jennifer C. McElwain and Surangi W. Punyasena (2007): Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22: 548-557. See also here (abstract).
D.D. Mckenna et al. (2015): The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology, 40: 835–880.
K.M. Meyer et al. (2011):
that high primary productivity delayed recovery from end-Permian
mass extinction. In PDF,
Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 302.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (abstract).
Per Michaelsen (2002): Mass extinction of peat-forming plants and the effect on fluvial styles across the Permian-Triassic boundary, northern Bowen Basin, Australia. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 179: 173-188. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Richard Monastersky, Science News, 1996 (website by Find Article): Global crisis: the fungi stand alone - mass extinction at the end of the Permian period.
A.J. Newell et al. (2010): Disruption of playa-lacustrine depositional systems at the Permo-Triassic boundary: evidence from Vyazniki and Gorokhovets on the Russian Platform Journal of the Geological Society, London, 167: 695-716.
K.J. Niklas (2015): Measuring the tempo of plant death and birth. In PDF, New Phytologist.
H. Noroozpour et al. (2013): Permo-Triassic Deposits of Shorjestan Area, Central Iran: The Palynological Report of the Greatest Phanerozoic Disaster in Iran. In PDF.
Michael J. Novacek and Elsa E. Cleland (2001): The current biodiversity extinction event: Scenarios for mitigation and recovery. Abstract, PNAS, 98: 5466-5470.
! H. Nowak et al. (2020): Palaeophytogeographical Patterns Across the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Open access, Front. Earth Sci.
H. Nowak et al. (2019):
mass extinction for land plants at the
Permian–Triassic transition. In PDF,
"... In the current state, there is no convincing evidence for a global mass extinction among land plants at the end of the Permian. Considering previous studies, it appears that none of the major mass extinctions in the animal fossil record was mirrored by a mass extinction in plants ... . The fossil record of land plants is marked by almost uninterrupted periods of diversification or relatively stable diversity. ..."
See also here (Südtirolnews, in German) and there (salto bz, in German).
! Dennis W. Nyberg, University of Illinois at Chicago: Biology of Populations and Communities. Lecture notes. Navigate from EXAM 1, 2, or 3 Material (chiefly PDF files). Go to: Ecological Restoration.
Claire O'Connell, The Irish Times, January 15, 2017: "Our climate is changing at a faster pace than ever before in geological history". Interview with J. Jennifer McElwain, University College Dublin, School of Biology and Environmental Science.
W.G. Parker (2011):
the Age of Dinosaurs and Our Modern Biota. Book Review, 0pen access,
BioScience, 61: 570–571. See also
Note the Triassic landscape reconstruction on the cover.
J.L. Payne and B. Van de Schootbrugge (2007): Life in Triassic oceans: links between planktonic and benthic recovery and radiation. PDF file; In: P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll (eds.), The Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea.
J.L. Payne et al. (2006): The Pattern and Timing of Biotic Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction on the Great Bank of Guizhou, Guizhou Province, China. In PDF, Palaios, 21: 63-85.
! J.L. Payne et al. (2004): Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction. In PDF, Science, 305, Issue 5683: 506-509. See also here (abstract).
H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004):
The complexity of
Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.
Hermann W. Pfefferkorn, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA: Commentary: Recuperation from Mass Extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96.
A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 216.
S.B. Pruss and D.J. Bottjer (2004): Late Early Triassic microbial reefs of the western United States: a description and model for their deposition in the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211: 127-137.
Sara Brady PRUSS, Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA, & David J. BOTTJER, Earth Sciences, Univ of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA: LOWER TRIASSIC MICROBIALITES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS FOLLOWING THE END-PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION. Abstract, Geological Society of America, 2004 Denver Annual Meeting (November 7-10, 2004).
PRUSS, Sara and BOTTJER, David, Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA: GEOBIOLOGY OF MASS EXTINCTION RECOVERY INTERVAL ANACHRONISTIC FACIES: MICROBIAL REEFS IN THE EARLY TRIASSIC. Abstract.
M.R. Rampino and Y. Eshet (2017):
fungal and acritarch events as time markers for the latest Permian
mass extinction: An update. In PDF,
Geoscience Frontiers. Open Access funded by China University of Geosciences (Beijing).
"The fungal event, evidenced by a thin zone with >95% fungal cells (Reduviasporonites) and woody debris, found in terrestrial and marine sediments, and the acritarch event, marked by the sudden flood of unusual phytoplankton in the marine realm. These two events represent the global temporary explosive spread of stress-tolerant and opportunistic organisms on land and in the sea just after the latest Permian disaster".
! P.M. Rees (2002): Land-plant diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Geology, 30: 827-830. See also here (abstract).
McGowan, Alistair J., &
Ziegler, Alfred M.:
PATTERNS OF GLOBAL PLANT DIVERSITY,
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE IN THE PERMIAN AND TRIASSIC.- Abstract, Summit 2000, 2000 GSA Annual Meeting, Reno, Nevada;
The Geological Society of America (GSA).
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B.L. Rego et al. (2012): Within- and among-genus components of size evolution during mass extinction, recovery, and background intervals: a case study of Late Permian through Late Triassic foraminifera. In PDF, Paleobiology, 38: 627-643.
! Gregory J. Retallack et al. (2011): Multiple Early Triassic greenhouse crises impeded recovery from Late Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).
G.J. Retallack and E.S Krull (1999):
ecological shift at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. In PDF,
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G.J. Retallack (1999): Postapocalyptic greenhouse paleoclimate revealed by earliest Triassic paleosols in the Sydney Basin, Australia. Abstract, GSA Bulletin, 111: 52-70. See also here (in PDF.)
! G. J. Retallack (1995): Permian-Triassic Life Crisis on Land. Abstract, Science, 267: 77-80. See also here (in PDF).
E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2014):
history across the Permian–Triassic boundary in Pakistan (Amb section, Salt Range).
Gondwana research, 27: 911-924.
See also here, and there (in PDF).
Vince Stricherz, UW Today (University of Washington, Seattle, WA):
oxygen likely made "Great Dying" worse, greatly delayed recovery.
About some results of Peter Ward and Raymond Huey, University of Washington.
"... nearby populations of the same species were cut off from each other because even low-altitude passes had insufficient oxygen to allow animals to cross from one valley to the next. ..."
"... it appears the greatly reduced oxygen actually created impassable barriers that affected the ability of animals to move and survive ..."
! Gregory J. Retallack (Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene), John J. Veevers & Ric Morante (School of Earth Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia): Global coal gap between Permian-Triassic extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin, February 1996.
Peter D. Roopnarine et al. (2007): Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 274: 2077-2086. See also here.
S. Ros-Franch et al. (2014): Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record. In PDF.M. Ruta et al. (2013): Decoupling of morphological disparity and taxic diversity during the adaptive radiation of anomodont therapsids. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 280. See also here.
Sarda Sahney and Michael J Benton (2008): Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time. Proc. R. Soc. B, 275: 759-765. See also here (PDF file).
R. Saito (2015): Biotic and Ocean-redox Changes in the Aftermath and Recovery Following the End-Permian Mass Extinction. Table of contents and abstract, in PDF.
R. Saito et al. (2013): A terrestrial vegetation turnover in the middle of the Early Triassic. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 105: 152-159. see also here (in PDF).
Urs Schaltegger et al. (2008): Precise U-Pb age constraints for end-Triassic mass extinction, its correlation to volcanism and Hettangian post-extinction recovery. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267: 266-275.
E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2020):
shifts in an Early Triassic subtropical ecosystem.
Frontiers in Earth Science, 8: 588696.
"... The Permian–Triassic, the Griesbachian–Dienerian, and the middle–late Smithian boundary stand out with abrupt shifts between lycophyte-dominated vegetation and gymnosperm-dominated vegetation. ..."
! E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2012): Palynology of the Lower Triassic succession of Tulong, South Tibet - Evidence for early recovery of gymnosperms. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 339-341: 12-24.
E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al.: Terrestrial ecosystems during and following the end-Permian mass extinction - or from spore spike to spore spike. In PDF.
M. Schobben et al. (2013): Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Gondwana Research.
! M.A. Sephton et al. (2015): Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis? In PDF, Geology, 43: 159–162.
M.A. Sephton et al. (2015): Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis?. In PDF. See also here.
! M.A. Sephton et al. (2005): Catastrophic soil erosion during the end-Permian biotic crisis. In PDF.
D.E. Shcherbakov et al. (2021):
microconchids from the uppermost Permian and Lower Triassic lacustrine strata of the
Cis-Urals and the Tunguska and Kuznetsk basins (Russia). Abstract,
"...Microconchids dispersed extensively and rapidly in the aftermath of the Permian–Triassicmass extinction into both marine and continental basins at low and moderately high latitudes, which were notably different in salinity, temperature, depth and redox conditions. ..."
! D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): Insect recovery after the Permian/Triassic crisis. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 125-131.
! X. Shi (2016): Fossil plants and environmental changes during the Permian-Triassic transition in Northwest China. Doctoral dissertation, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, China University of Geosciences Wuhan. See also here (abstract).
! G.R. Shi and J.B. Waterhouse (2010): Late Palaeozoic global changes affecting high-latitude environments and biotas: an introduction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298: 1-16.
C.A. Sidor et al. (2013): Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, PNAS, 110: 8129-8133.
! D. Silvestro et al. (2015): Revisiting the origin and diversification of vascular plants through a comprehensive Bayesian analysis of the fossil record. In PDF, New Phytologist, 207: 425-436.
H. Song et al. (2018): Decoupled taxonomic and ecological recoveries from the Permo-Triassic extinction. Open access, Science Advances, 4.
H. Song et al. (2014): Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian-Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath.
M.B. Steiner et al. (2003): Fungal abundance spike and the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Supergroup (South Africa). In PDF.
Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic Life on Land: The Great Transition. Google books.
Y. Sun et al. (2012):
hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse. In PDF,
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (in PDF) and there (abstract). Also worth to check out:
N. Goudemand et al. (2013): Comment on "Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse". Science 339 (6123), 1033.
Y. Sun et al. (2013): Response to Comment on "Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse". See also here (in PDF).
R. Tewari et al, (2015): The Permian-Triassic palynological transition in the Guryul Ravine section, Kashmir, India: implications for Tethyan-Gondwanan correlations. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 149: 53-66.
Richard J. Twitchett (2007): Lilliput effect in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 252: 132-144.
Richard J. Twitchett, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.): Incompleteness of the Permian-Triassic fossil record: a consequence of productivity decline? Abstract.
Dieter Uhl et al. (2010): Evidence of paleowildfire in the early Middle Triassic (early Anisian) Voltzia Sandstone: The oldest post-Permian macroscopic evidence of wildfire discovered so far. Abstract, PDF file, Palaios, 25: 837-842. See also here.
V. Vajda et al. (2020): End-Permian (252 Mya) deforestation, wildfires and flooding—An ancient biotic crisis with lessons for the present. Free access, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 529.
Vivi Vajda and Stephen McLoughlin (2007):
and recovery patterns of the vegetation across the
Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary - a tool for unravelling
the causes of the end-Permian mass-extinction. PDF file,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 144: 99-112. See fig. 3!
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2009): Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. In PDF.
Han van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al.: Vegetation successsion through the end-Permian ecologic crisis. (Powerpoint presentatation).
C. Virgili (2008): The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 34: 123-158.
Henk Visscher et al. (2011):
virulence at the time of the end-Permian biosphere crisis? Abstract,
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
Fungi helped destroy forests during mass extinction 250 million years ago. By Robert Sanders, UC Berkely News Center, August 5, 2011.
Forest-killing fungi could multiply in a warming world. By Bob Berwyn, August 8, 2011.
! Henk Visscher, Henk Brinkhuis, David L. Dilcher, William C. Elsik, Yoram Eshet, Cindy V. Looy, Michael R. Rampino, and Alfred Traverse: The terminal Paleozoic fungal event: Evidence of terrestrial ecosystem destabilization and collapse. PNAS, Vol. 93, Issue 5, 2155-2158, March 5, 1996.
! Henk Visscher, Cindy V. Looy, Margaret E. Collinson, Henk Brinkhuis, Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Wolfram M. Kürschner, and Mark A. Sephton: Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis. Abstract, PNAS, August 31, 2004; vol. 101, no. 35: 12952-12956.
Wang Zi-qiang (1996): Recovery of vegetation from the terminal Permian massextinction in North China. Abstract, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 91: 121-142.
T. Wappler et al. (2015): Plant-insect interactions from Middle Triassic (late Ladinian) of Monte Agnello (Dolomites, N-Italy) - initial pattern and response to abiotic environmental perturbations. PeerJ.
P.D. Ward (2006): Impact from the Deep. Scientific American.
P. Ward et al. (2006): Confirmation of Romer´s Gap as a low oxygen interval constraining the timing of initial arthropod and vertebrate terrestrialization. In PDF, PNAS, see also here.
J.H. Whiteside et al. (2015): Extreme ecosystem instability suppressed tropical dinosaur dominance for 30 million years. In PDF, PNAS.
P. Widmann et al. (2020): Dynamics of the Largest Carbon Isotope Excursion During the Early Triassic Biotic Recovery. Open access, Front. Earth Sci., 8.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Fern spike.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Triassic first appearances
! Category:Triassic plants
P.B. Wignall (2008): The end-Permian crisis, aftermath and subsequent recovery. In PDF, Origin and Evolution of Natural Diversity: ...
! A.M.E. Winguth (2016): Changes in productivity and oxygenation during the Permian-Triassic transition. Geology, 44: 783–784.
H. Wu et al. (2012): Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cycles of the early Triassic Daye Formation, South China and their geochronological and paleoclimatic implications. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 22: 748-759.
Q. Wu et al. (2021):
U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change,
and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology.
"... The great loss of highly diverse and abundant Cathaysian floras and the widespread invasion of the Angaran floras under arid climate conditions in the North China block happened during the late Cisuralian to Guadalupian, but its exact timing is uncertain due to the long hiatus. ..."
Shucheng Xie et al. (2011):
blooms tied to volcanism during the 5 m.y. Permo-Triassic biotic crisis: Reply. In PDF,
Geology. See especially:
Shucheng Xie et al. (2010): Cyanobacterial blooms tied to volcanism during the 5 m.y. Permo-Triassic biotic crisis.
H.F. Yin and H.J. Song (2013): Mass extinction and Pangea integration during the Paleozoic– Mesozoic transition. Sci. China Ser., D, 56: 1791–1803. See also here (in PDF).
H. Yin et al. (2007):
protracted Permo-Triassic crisis and multi-episode extinction
around the Permian-Triassic boundary. In PDF,
Global and Planetary Change.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J. Yu et al. (2015), starting on PDF page 48: Vegetation changeover across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Southwest China. Extinction, survival, recovery and palaeoclimate: a critical review. In PDF, abstract, Agora Paleobotanica, A tribute to Bernard Renault, Autun.
! J. Yu et al. (2015): Vegetation changeover across the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Southwest China: Extinction, survival, recovery and palaeoclimate: A critical review. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here (summary by David De Vleeschouwer).
J. Yu et al. (2010): Annalepis, a pioneering lycopsid genus in the recovery of the Triassic land flora in South China. In PDF, Comptes Rendus Palevol., 9: 479-486. See also here.F. Zhang et al. (2018): Multiple episodes of extensive marine anoxia linked to global warming and continental weathering following the latest Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Science Advances, 4. See also here .
! D. Zheng et al. (2018): Middle-Late Triassic insect radiation revealed by diverse fossils and isotopic ages from China. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 4.
Z. Zhu et al. (2019): Altered fluvial patterns in North China indicate rapid climate change linked to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Open access, Scientific Reports, 9.
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