Palaeobotanical Tools /
Digital Image Processing
Preparation and Conservation
Managing Fossil Collections
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Photography and Scanning
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Imaging Fossils Using UV-Light (Black-Light Photography)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Cameras With Focus Bracketing or Built-In Focus Stacking
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Microscopy@
! Scientific Drawing@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
This site offers writing tips, desktop publishing tutorials and
information about desktop publishing software.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! A. Agarwala et al.: Interactive Digital Photomontage. In PDF. See also here.! Georg von Arx et al. (2016): Quantitative Wood Anatomy — Practical Guidelines. In PDF, Front. Plant Sci., 7. See also here.
Paul A. Barber and Philip J. Keane (2007):
novel method of illustrating microfungi. PDF file,
Fungal Diversity, 27: 1-10.
Snapshot archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Dee Breger (The Silicofossil Group, The Micropalaeontological Society TMS): Colouring-in micrographs - bringing images from the cloistered lab to the general public. See also: Gallery. Some false coloured images.
Cambridge in Colour:
This is an online learning environment where photographers can come to improve their skills.
! Sharpness Tutorial.
Karen Carr Studio,
Silver City, NM:
You Can Paint Digitally!
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Curtis Clark, Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona: Graphic Publication for Biologists. Useful hints, not only for biologists. How to make graphs and diagrams, working with illustrations, working with photographs, etc.
E. Frow (2012): Drawing a Line: Setting Guidelines for Digital Image Processing in Scientific Journal Articles Social Studies of Science, 42: 369-392.
! J.A. Cunningham et al. (2014): A virtual world of paleontology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 347-357.
C. Haug et al.: New Methods to Document Fossils from Lithographic Limestones of Southern Germany and Lebanon. PDF file, Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 12. About composite imaging.
Richard Hill, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona: Experiments in scanning fossils. Examples. The trick is to select small areas in the scanning software and then use the highest resolution.
The Image: Gifology. Understanding GIF files and GIF animation.! ImageJ: ImageJ is an open source image processing program for multidimensional image data with a focus on scientific imaging. See also here. Don´t miss the
ImageProcessingPlace.com. Digital image processing books and other educational resources. Go to: Tutorials. All downloadable files in this site are compressed in zip format.
T.S. Karim et al. (2016): Digitization workflows for paleontology collections. Palaeontologia Electronica.S. Lautenschlager (2016): Reconstructing the past: methods and techniques for the digital restoration of fossils. Abstract, R. Soc. sci., 3. See also here (in PDF).
MicroWorld Resources and News,
Guide to Microscopy and Microanalysis on the Internet:
Image Analysis, Image Processing, and 3-D Reconstruction.
Link page of FAQs, meta lists, online tutorials, and source code links.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G. Montesanto (2015): A fast GNU method to draw accurate scientific illustrations for taxonomy. Zookeys, 515: 191–206.
! A.J. North (2006): Seeing is believing? A beginners´ guide to practical pitfalls in image acquisition. See also here (in PDF).
M.P. Pound et al. (2017): Deep Machine Learning provides state-of-the-art performance in image-based plant phenotyping. GigaScience. See also here (in PDF).
! K.M. Pryer et al. (2020): Using computer vision on herbarium specimen images to discriminate among closely related horsetails (Equisetum). Open access, Applications in plant sciences, 8.
J.B. Riding and M.J. Head (2017): Preparing photographic plates of palynomorphs in the digital age. Palynology, 42. See also here (in PDF).
! Mike Rossner and Kenneth M. Yamada (2004): What´s in a picture? The temptation of image manipulation. In PDF, J. Cell Biol., 166: 11-15.
Extensions/Suffixes (in German).
Index to the most used extensions.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! J. Schindelin et al. (2012): Fiji - an Open Source platform for biological image analysis. Open access, Nat Methods, 9: 10.1038/nmeth.2019.
C.A. Schneider et al. (2012): NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. In PDF, Nature methods.
! P.A. Selden (2014): A workflow for digital photography of fossil specimens. In PDF, The Geological Curator, 10: 93-97.
! Seam Carving GUI.
Seam carving for content-aware image resizing. Free download!
Also available as
For more see here, and there (Wikipedia), or read about the nuts and bolts (PDF file, by Shai Avidan (Mitsubishi) and Ariel Shamir, ACM Transactions on Graphics, Volume 26).
! Department of Paleobiology,
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.:
This website provides information about taking proper care of illustrations and discusses techniques for
creating palaeontological and other scientific illustrations. Go to:
! What is paleontological illustration, and Illustration Care. To provide archival care (conservation treatment) for historical illustrations. Don´t miss the
Historical Art Gallery and the Bibliography of Historical Art. Some highlights from the Department of Paleobiology. Last but not least:
! Reconstructing an ancient environment. Reconstructing of invertebrates, vertebrates and fossil plants.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
U.S. Geological Survey (Open-File Report 99-430 Online version 1.0): Public Review Draft – Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization (PostScript Implementation). Prepared in cooperation with the Geologic Data Subcommittee of the Federal Geographic Data Committee.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Image editing.
! Image sharpening.
! Photo manipulation.
See especially: ! "Photoshopped".
Sirelious White (2006):
Dissection of Radiographs, Using the Early
Cretaceous Bird Confuciusornis and Photoshop
CS2TM. PDF file, Diss., University
of New Orleans.
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