Links for Palaeobotanists

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Preparation and Conservation
Managing Fossil Collections
Transfer Technique
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Latex Casts
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Cameras With Focus Bracketing or Built-In Focus Stacking
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Superresolution (SR)
Image Processing
Imaging Fossils Using UV-Light (Black-Light Photography)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Writing, Translating and Drawing

! Panorama Creation and Stitching Tools@
! Tutorials, Tips and Tricks to Adobe Photoshop@

Photography and Scanning

Adobe Forum: Descreening scanned photos.

Jürgen Albrecht, Berlin: Grundlagen der Medientechnik (in German). Go to: Digitale Bildbearbeitung, and Unterschiedliche Scannerauflösung. See also here.

Amateur Photographer:
DSLR reviews.
Master your Olympus: Using the Focus Stacking and Bracketing modes (2016).

Department of Geological Sciences (High-Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Facility), University of Texas, Austin: Image Folio. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
High-resolution X-ray CT (Computed Tomography) is a completely nondestructive technique for visualizing features in the interior of opaque solid objects, and for obtaining digital information on their 3-D geometries and properties. What is X-ray CT? Eexcerpted and adapted from: Denison, C., Carlson, W.D., and Ketcham, R.A. 1997. Three-dimensional quantitative textural analysis of metamorphic rocks using high-resolution computed X-ray tomography: Part I. Methods and techniques. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 15: 29-44.

A. Baacke (2013): Fotografie zwischen Kunst und Dokumentation. Thesis, in PDF, Freie Universität Berlin (in German).
"The topics within this work are looked at from art-historical, art-theoretical, cultural and scientific perspectives. This document aims to expand the state of research by providing a wide-ranging look at the works of Bernd and Hilla Becher, Albert Renger-Patzsch, August Sander and Karl Blossfeldt".

Paul A. Barber and Philip J. Keane (2007): A novel method of illustrating microfungi. PDF file, Fungal Diversity, 27: 1-10.

L. Barlow et al. (2020): Laser-stimulated fluorescence reveals unseen details in fossils from the Solnhofen Limestone (Upper Jurassic, Bavaria, Germany). In PDF,

Jacci Howard Bear, Scanning Resolution, Scaling, File Size. Getting a great scan by understanding resolution, bit depth, file formats and sizes, and scaling options.

! Stefan Bengtson, (Department of Palaeozoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm); In: Palaeontologia Electronica, Volume 3, Issue 1; 2000 (Coquina Press): Teasing Fossils out of Shales with Cameras and Computers. Simple yet effective methods are available (using Adobe Photoshop) to enhance photographic images of low-contrast and low-relief specimens, such as fossils in shales, without manipulating or retouching the photographs. By applying polarizing filters to camera and light-source(s) in a way analogous to crossing nicols in a petrographic microscope, dramatic results can be achieved where there is a difference in reflectance between fossil and matrix, as with many coalified fossils. Excellent!

! A. Bercovici et al. (2009): Improving depth of field resolution for palynological photomicrography. PDF file, Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol. 12.

V. Blagoderov et al. (2012): No specimen left behind: industrial scale digitization of natural history collections. In PDF, Zookeys, 2012, (209): 133-146.

Dee Breger (The Silicofossil Group, The Micropalaeontological Society TMS): Colouring-in micrographs - bringing images from the cloistered lab to the general public. See also: Gallery. Some false coloured images.

Edwin Brosens: Studio Photography: Fossils.

J. Buehl (2014): Toward an Ethical Rhetoric of the Digital Scientific Image: Learning From the Era When Science Met Photoshop, Technical Communication Quarterly, 23. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).

Richard Burke, eHow: How to Scan Images From Magazines or Books.

Camera Creativ. A source for digital camera news, comprehensive reviews and comparisons of digital cameras.
Compare digital cameras.
Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II versus Olympus OM-D E-M10 Mark II?.

William D. Carlson (2006): Three-dimensional imaging of earth and planetary materials. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 249: 133-147. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Sue Chastain (2017), How To Remove Moire Patterns From Scanned Photos in Photoshop and Elements.

! Chip (in German): Test: DSLR, DSLM & Systemkamera.
Welche Kamera kaufen: Kompaktkamera, DSLR oder DSLM? Test Olympus OM-D E-M10 Mark III (DSLM) (2017). Test Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II (2016).

! Chip (in German):
Vollversion: Photoshop CS2. Photoshop CS2 free of charge!

Computer-Bild (in German):
Alle Bestenlisten im Überblick.
! Die besten Systemkameras.

Consumer Electronics HQ, Inc., Needham, MA: Digital Camera HQ.'s mission is to help consumers find the right digital camera for their needs and then direct them to the best online retailers selling these products.

D.L. Contreras (2018): A workflow and protocol describing the field to digitization process for new project-based fossil leaf collections. Open access, Applications in Plant Sciences, 6: e1025.

! P. Crabb (2001): The use of polarised light in photography of macrofossils. In PDF, Palaeontology, 44: 659-664.

Alister Cruickshanks, Photographing Fossils.

! J.A. Cunningham et al. (2014): A virtual world of paleontology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 347-357.

Michael W. Davidson, Mortimer Abramowitz, Olympus America Inc., and The Florida State University: Molecular Expressions, Introduction to Optical Microscopy, Digital Imaging, and Photomicrography.

Michael W. Davidson, Florida State University: An Introduction to Microscopy and Photography Through the Microscope. This page is divided into sections like: How to set up a microscope, photography through the microscope, sample preparation for microscopy, microscopy resources on the web, etc.

J. Delaney (2008): An Inconvenient Truth? Scientific Photography and Archival Ambivalence. In PDF Archivaria, 65 (The Journal of the Association of Canadian Archivists). Scanning Tips and Related Sites.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. (in German):
Testbericht. Available in German and English. Worth checking out: Tips and Tricks, Embed images with appropriate resolution in wordprocessor.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Digital Camera World (Matt Golowczynski et al.). Informative tutorials, reviews, and in-depth buying guides.
! The best digital camera 2019: which one should you buy? By Matt Golowczynski, Rod Lawton, January 02, 2019.
! The 10 best cameras for professionals in 2019. By Gavin Stoker April 20, 2018.
What is focus peaking? August 2018.
How to master manual focus. August 2018. (in German):
Test & Kaufberatung.
Search results: Focus stacking

! Digital Photography Review. Digital Photography Review's mission is to provide the most authoritative coverage of digital photography gear in the world, including news, articles and expert reviews. Worth checking out: Camera Reviews and previews See especially:
Best camera for macro with builtin focus bracketing? Started Jan 14, 2017.
Search results: focus bracketing.
Search results: focus stacking
! Side-by-side camera comparison. This tool lets you easily view the specifications of two or more cameras. (in German):
Testberichte spiegellose Kameras (DSLM).
Testbericht Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II.

The Exploratorium, San Francisco, The Learning Studio: Photography.

Electron Microscopy Core Laboratory (EMCL), Biotechnology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL: Tips & Tricks. This information is gleaned from the Microscopy and Confocal list-servers as well as from independent contributions. Go to: Photography.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Extreme-Macro (by Johan J Ingles-Le Nobel).
A free online guide to macro photography, including focus stacking, macro techniques, lighting, software and more.
Worth checking out: The focus stacking workflow. (maintained by Vubo Ltd., U.K.): Image Manipulation & How To Avoid Copyright Infingement.
This website looks at the legalities involved in image manipulation, mainly focusing on US law but also reviewing laws around the world. It looks at how these laws are interpreted by different people and shares some example cases.

The Fossil Forum:
! Fossil Photography.

Giraud Foster & Norman Barker, Ancient Microworld: Photo Gallery. Some petrified plants. Click on an image to view an enlarged version. See also: Photography Techniques.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Fotomagazin (in German):
Makrofotografie: So gelingen Ihnen bessere Bilder (2019).
Kamera Bestenliste.

FotoNet 2.0 (in German). Don´t miss the link directories about image processing.

Das Fotoportal (in German):
Worth checking out: Search for "focus bracketing" and "focus stacking".

E. Frow (2012): Drawing a Line: Setting Guidelines for Digital Image Processing in Scientific Journal Articles Social Studies of Science, 42: 369-392.

Wayne Fulton: A few scanning tips. The purpose is to offer some scanning tips and hints, help with fundamentals and other basic scanning information to help you get the most from your scanner. See also here. And finally: Moiré Interference. Manual descreen methods. Scanning images in magazines/books/newspapers.

Geizhals Preisvergleich Preisvergleich Internet Services AG, Wien, e-matrix Online Business Development AG (in German):
Fotografie » Systemkameras. Anaglyph (3D) Imaging and Field Geology. How anaglyphs are made and the about 3D camera configuration. See also:
U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Department of the Interior: 3-D Tours Featuring Park Geology.

Gold Bugs Trilobites with Legs and Antennae, Watertown, NY: Fossil Photo Lab (March 03, 2012).
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Alan Hadley, U.K.: CombineZ5 (still available, because it works with older versions of windows), and CombineZ Movie (CZM). The purpose of these free programs is to increase depth of focus by combining pictures, but each picture should be in focus at a different depth into the scene. The programs are especially useful to microscope users (e.g. palynomorphs) and macro photographers. Excellent! CZM is the latest version, it can process movies, take pictures, and has more macro commands but still has all of the functionality of CombineZ5.
See also here (about Interactive Digital Photomontage), and a review of Helicon Focus and CombineZ5 software (by John Hollenberg, Digital Outback Photo).

! Ø. Hammer and J. Spocova (2013): Virtual whitening of fossils using polynomial texture mapping. Palaeontologia Electronica. See also here (in PDF).

! Ø. Hammer et al. (2002): Imaging Fossils Using Reflectance Transformation and Interactive Manipulation of Virtual Light Sources. Palaeontologia Electronica, 5.
Also available in PDF.

T.A. Hegna and R.E. Johnson (2016): Preparation of Fossil and Osteological 3D-Printable Models from Freely Available CT-Scan Movies. In PDF, Journal of Paleontological Techniques, 16: 1-10.

T.A. Hegna (2010): Photography of Soft-Bodied Crustaceans via Drying, Whitening, and Splicing. PDF file, Journal of Crustacean Biology.

Richard Hill, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona: Experiments in scanning fossils. Examples. The trick is to select small areas in the scanning software and then use the highest resolution.

! David Hollander (2010): Scientific Photography. In PDF. Useful hints!

Idealo (in German):

Imaging Resource (by Andrew Alexander et al.).
Imaging Resource seeks to lead photographers to positive experiences with their cameras. See especially:
! Camera Reviews. Links to the latest camera reviews, with detailed shooters' reports, test photos and sample photo galleries.
Fujifilm adds two big new features to the GFX 50S medium format camera (by Jeremy Gray, March 13, 2018). "... the addition of focus bracketing. This update allows you to capture up to 999 frames at a specified focus shift -- on a scale of 1 to 10 -- which should make focus stacking during post-processing much easier. ..."
Canon G9X Mark II Review - Field Test (by Jeremy Gray, 2017). "... By pressing the menu button, you can initiate focus bracketing, which is handy".
Panasonic GX85 Review - Field Test Part II (by Eamon Hickey, 2016). "... 4K Photo, Focus Bracketing, and other interesting tricks ..."
Rejoice, Olympus E-M1 shooters… in-camera focus stacking is here! (via the new firmware v4.0) (by Dave Pardue, 2015).

Intas Science Imaging Instruments GmbH, Göttingen, Germany (in German). Microscope cameras and others.

Wayne Itano (2005), Museum of Natural History, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado: Photographing Fossils. In PDF.
! Note the whitening procedure of fossils with ammonium chloride smoke starting on PDF page 23!

! T.P. Jones and Nick P. Rowe (eds.), Google Books: Fossil plants and spores: modern techniques. Published by Geological Society, 1999, 396 pages. Excellent! Go to page 41:

T.S. Karim et al. (2016): Digitization workflows for paleontology collections. Palaeontologia Electronica.

! H. Kerp and B. Bomfleur (2011): Photography of plant fossils - New techniques, old tricks. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 166: 117-151.
See also here (abstract with reduced figures and plates).

Keyence. A leading supplier of digital microscopes, as well as sensors, measuring systems, laser markers, etc. Go to:

Kodak, (Eastman Kodak Company), Rochester, New York. Go to: Scientific Imaging Systems Products by Use. Whether you're interested in capturing molecular details, the big picture, or something in between, Kodak's digital imaging systems and film products for scientific imaging are specifically designed for such key research applications.

! M. Krogmann and J. Lehmann (2016): Weißen von Fossilien für die wissenschaftliche Fotografie – ein Methodenvergleich. PDF file, in German. Der Präparator, 62: 66-77. See also here.

S. Lautenschlager (2016): Reconstructing the past: methods and techniques for the digital restoration of fossils. Abstract, R. Soc. sci., 3. See also here (in PDF).

S.H. Leach (2016): Scientific Imagining: Studio Based Research into Genre Images of Science and How Art Might Interpret Modern Science. In PDF, thesis, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University, Melbourne.

Leica Microsystems

Jay Longson et al. (2010): Adapting Traditional Macro and Micro Photography for Scientific Gigapixel Imaging. PDF file, Fine International Conference on Gigapixel Imaging for Science.

H. Mallison (2012): Digitizing Methods for Paleontology: Applications, Benefits and Limitations. In PDF.

Marsupium Photography (by M. Hagdorn, Edinburgh).
Macro Photography.

Sean T. McHugh, Cambridge in Colour, Digital Photography Tutorials. Go to: Sharpening Using an "Unsharp Mask".

D. Morse et al, (2009): Improving search in scanned documents: Looking for OCR mismatches. In PDF.

Philip Greenspun, Switzerland (Project MAC):, and Black and White Photography Resources, Resource Links.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Department of the Interior (the Museum Management Program (MMP), part of the National Center for Cultural Resources Stewardship):
! NPS Museum Handbook. This is a reference guide on how to manage, preserve, document, access and use museum collections. Go to:
Part I: Museum Collections.
Part II, Museum Records.
Part III, Museum Collections Use.
All files are in PDF format. See especially:
! Appendix K: Photography (in PDF).

Bruno J. Navarro, fotophile: World Wide Web Photography Sites. A list of photography and related sites on the World Wide Web.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Laura Niven et al. (2009): Virtual skeletons: using a structured light scanner to create a 3D faunal comparative collection. PDF file, Journal of Archaeological Science, 36: 2018-2023.

The Novartis and The Daily Telegraph, UK: Visions of Science. £ 7000 of cash prices to be won. In this competition they are looking for photographs that communicate the impact of science, medicine and technology on all our lives.

FOTO-online. This site from Switzerland provides photographical knowledge, formulas, tables and a glossary of photographical terms (in German).

Kodak. Go to: Digital Photography.

! R. Mukherjee (2017), Photo Workout:
Best Macro Cameras (Compare 9 Top Picks in 2018).

! R.L. Parsley et al. (2018): A Practical and Historical Perspective of the How and Why of Whitening Fossil Specimens and Casts as a Precurser to Their Photography. Open access, Fossil Imprint, 74: 237–244.

PC-Magazin (in German):
Tests - Kameras & Zubehör.
Vergleiche - Fotografie.
! Top 10 Die besten spiegellosen Systemkameras (January 24, 2019).

PC-Magazin (in German):
Spiegellose Systemkamera: Darauf sollten Sie beim Kauf achten (by Reinhard Merz, April 20, 2018).

PhotoshopGurus: How to remove moire.

Charles A. Price et al. (2011): Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface: Segmenting and Analyzing the Structure of Leaf Veins and Areoles. Plant Physiol., 155: 236-245.

The Print Guide Blogspot: Moiré.

Pro Photo (a subsidiary company of Photoindustrie-Verband e.V.). In German:
Woher weiß der Autofokus, worauf scharf zu stellen ist? Fototechnik 08 / 2018.
Bracketing Funktionen - Erweiterung des fotografischen Spektrums. 25. Oktober 2017 • Fotografieren in der Praxis.
! Focus Bracketing und Focus Stacking: Automatische Fokus-Aufnahmereihen. About some new camera types producing photographs with extended depth of field. Fototechnik 08 / 2017.
! Innovative Kameratechniken für die kreative Fotografie - Focus Bracketing und Focus Stacking. 09. Dezember 2015, Digitalfotografie.

Real World Scanning and Halftones: Links.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.B. Riding and M.J. Head (2017): Preparing photographic plates of palynomorphs in the digital age. Palynology, 42. See also here (in PDF).

! Royal Ontario Museum: Photographing Fossils. Video lecture.

Bjørn Rørslett, The Circle is Closed: Chips to the Rescue. Macro lenses adapted on a Nicon digital camera! Descreening Images. Why we use descreening.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Manual Descreen methods.

! J. Schindelin et al. (2012): Fiji - an Open Source platform for biological image analysis. Open access, Nat Methods, 9: 10.1038/nmeth.2019.

! Seam Carving GUI. Seam carving for content-aware image resizing. Free download! Also available as online tool.
For more see here, and there (Wikipedia), or read about the nuts and bolts (PDF file, by Shai Avidan (Mitsubishi) and Ariel Shamir, ACM Transactions on Graphics, Volume 26).

! P.A. Selden (2014): A workflow for digital photography of fossil specimens. In PDF, The Geological Curator, 10: 93-97.

! SELFHTML: Techniken und Begriffe der Bildbearbeitung (in German).

What Causes Moiré, How To Avoid It & How To Remove It.

Der Spiegel (in German):
Neue Kameras auf der Photokina. Vollformat liegt voll im Trend (September 28, 2018).
Makrofotografie: Schau mir in die Facettenaugen. (June 26, 2018).
Neue Kameras: Mit dicken Rohren gegen die Smartphone-Invasion (September 24, 2016).
Fotomesse Photokina: Die neuen Kameras heben ab (September 20, 2016).
Fotokünstler Felix Hernández. Miniatur-Kriegskunst mit Photoshop (September 20, 2015).
Gratis-Software rüstet Kompaktkameras auf. About CHDK, the "Canon Hack Development Kit". (June 26, 2010).

Michael J. Sullivan, Catalog Design, Open Market, Inc.: Sullivan's Online Scanning Resources. Online scanning resources website.

! T.N. Taylor (1968): Application of the scanning electron microscope in paleobotany. PDF file.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Bestenliste.
! Testsieger. Digital Photography. An introduction.

! Jessica M. Theodor and Robin S. Furr (2009): High Dynamic Range Imaging as Applied to Paleontological Specimen Photography. Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 12, No. 1. Underexposed, metered and overexposed images have been saved in Nikon´s NEF format (a version of the RAW format) and in high quality JPEG files and then processed using Photomatix Pro (HDRSoft), Hydra 1.5 (Creaceed Software), FDRTools (AGS Technik) and Adobe Photoshop CS3, running under Mac OS X 10.5.3.

Traumflieger Fotographics (Stefan Gross, Hamburg): Camera tests and descriptions, reports and a forum, especially about marophotography (in German).
! So funktioniert Fokus-Stacking!
Extrem-Makros jenseits von 1:1! (Video report). (in German):
Kameras - Alle Tests und Vergleiche.
Vollformatkamera Vergleich 2019.

Berthold Weber, Weiden:
Foto. In German.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Photographic techniques.
! Macro photography.
Makrofotografie (in German).
Mikrofotografie (in German).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Image editing.
! Image sharpening.
! Photo manipulation.
See especially: ! "Photoshopped".
Category:Photographic techniques.
Computer graphics.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Moiré pattern.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Adobe Photoshop,
Bildbearbeitung (in German),
Computer graphics (see also here, in German).

A. Willis et al.(2009): Improving search in scanned documents: Looking for OCR mismatches PDF file). In: Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Digital Libraries 2009: ICSD - International Conference for Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web, Trento, Italy.

P. Wolniewicz (2009): Easily-accessible digital palaeontological databases - a new perspective for the storage of palaeontological information. In PDF, Geologos, 15: 181-188.

Zeiss AG: Microscope Software AxioVision LE. A free software, including image analysis and measurement functions.

! A. Ziegler et al. (2010): Opportunities and challenges for digital morphology. In PDF, Biology Direct.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated March 03, 2021

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