Palaeobotanical Tools /
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Preparation and Conservation
Managing Fossil Collections
Palynological Preparation Techniques
Cellulose Peel Technique
Photography and Scanning
Imaging Fossils Using UV-Light (Black-Light Photography)
Scanning- (SEM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
Microtomography (CT Scanning, XTM) including Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM)
Digital Cameras on the Microscope
Cameras With Focus Bracketing or Built-In Focus Stacking
Focus Stacking (Photography, Extended Depth of Field)
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR)
Writing, Translating and Drawing
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
! Scientific Drawing@
! M.E. Collinson et al. (2012): The value of X-ray approaches in the study of the Messel fruit and seed flora. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 92: 403-416.
E. Couradeau et al. (2013): Cyanobacterial calcification in modern microbialites at the submicrometer-scale. In PDF, Biogeosciences Discuss., 10: 3311-3339.
! G. Guignard (2019): Thirty-three years (1986–2019) of fossil plant cuticle studies using transmission electron microscopy: A review. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 271. See also here (in PDF).
E.K. Kempf (1973): Transmission electron microscopy of fossil spores. In PDF.
L.C.A. Martínez et al. (2020): Studies of the leaf cuticle fine structure of Zuberia papillata (Townrow) Artabe 1990 from Hoyada de Ischigualasto (Upper Triassic), San Juan Province, Argentina. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 281. See also here (in PDF).
Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands:
Virtual Classroom Biology.
This website is an educational site,
especially meant for secondary school students who like to have a first glance on teaching
items of the Bio-science programs. One can find custom-made teaching material for
courses from the biology training. Navigate from here.
Electron microscopy (EM).
! N. Zavialova and E. Karasev (2016): The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reconstruct the ultrastructure of sporoderm. In PDF, Palynology.
N. Zavialova et al. (2010): Spore ultrastructure of Selaginellites leonardii and diversity of selaginellalean spores. In PDF, Geo.Alp 7: 1-17.
! A. Ziegler et al. (2010):
and challenges for digital morphology. In PDF,
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