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Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Riparian Habitats
Wetland Plant Communities
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Plant Roots
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
! Upland and Hinterland Floras@
! Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes@
! Teaching Documents about Ecology@
Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites@
Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Environment@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@

Playa Lakes (Endorheic Basins)

Ron Aiken, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada: Courses. Go to: Marine Biology: Coastal Systems. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See especially:
Soft Substrates - Salt Marshes.

R. Albert (2014): Die Entstehung und sedimentologische Bedeutung von Steinsalzkristallmarken im fossilen Beleg. PDF file, in German.

M.A. Aref and R.J. Taj (2018): Recent evaporite deposition associated with microbial mats, Al-Kharrar supratidal–intertidal sabkha, Rabigh area, Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia, Abstract, Facies, 64. See also here (in PDF).

M.A.M. Aref et al. (2014): Microbial and physical sedimentary structures in modern evaporitic coastal environments of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In PDF, Facies.

S.G. Banham and N.P. Mountney (2014): Climatic versus halokinetic control on sedimentation in a dryland fluvial succession. Abstract, Sedimentology. See also here (in PDF).

S.G. Banham and N.P. Mountney (2013): Evolution of fluvial systems in salt-walled mini-basins: a review and new insights. Abstract, Sedimentary Geology. See also here (in PDF).

Stephan Brauner, TU Freiberg, Germany: Sabkha-Modell. Sedimentologie und Biota. Chott el Djerid, Tunesien. PDF file, in German.

Peter R. Briere, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas: Playa, playa lake, sabkha: Proposed definitions for old terms. Abstract.

! R.G. Bryant (1993): The sedimentology and geochemistry of non-marine evaporites on the Chott el Djerid, using both ground and remotely sensed data. IN PDF. Thesis, University of Reading.

J.M. Cheeseman (2015): The evolution of halophytes, glycophytes and crops, and its implications for food security under saline conditions. New Phytologist, 206: 557–570.

Andrew S. Cohen (2003): Paleolimnology: The History and Evolution of Lake Systems. Provided by Google books.
! See also here. In PDF, 33 MB (slow download).

A.S. Cohen (2011): Scientific drilling and biological evolution in ancient lakes: lessons learned and recommendations for the future. In PDF, Hydrobiologia.

L. Courel et al. (2003): Mid-Triassic to Early Liassic clastic/evaporitic deposits over the Maghreb Platform. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 196: 157-176. See also here (in PDF).

Timothy M. Demko et al. (2005): Mesozoic Lakes of the Colorado Plateau. In PDF, Geological Society of America, Field Guide 6.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.-P. Deroin (2008): Permian and Quaternary playas, a discussion based on climatic, tectonic and palaeogeographic settings. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 34: 11-28.

The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program investigates Earth´s land biotas throughout their 400 million year history. Their goal is to understand how terrestrial ecosystems have been structured and how they change over geologic time. Using the fossil record, ETE scientists study the characteristics of ecological communities and the changing dynamics of ecosystems. Go to:
ETE Relational Database and ETE DataNet.
The ETE relational database is now partially united with the Paleobiology Database Project´s (PBDB) relational database. All primary database functions (queries, entries and updates) are available through the PBDB home page. The new combined database compiles information from the terrestrial and marine record, but lacks some of the data fields present in the original ETE database.

H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2014): Coniferopsid tree trunks preserved in sabkha facies in the Permian (Sakmarian) Community Pit Formation in south-central New Mexico, U.S.A.: Systematics and palaeoecology. Abstract.

Ernest B. Fish, Erin L. Atkinson, Tony R. Mollhagen, Christopher H. Shanks, and Cynthia M. Brenton: PLAYA LAKES DIGITAL DATABASE FOR THE TEXAS PORTION OF THE PLAYA LAKES JOINT VENTURE REGION.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T.J. Flowers et al. (2010): Evolution of halophytes: multiple origins of salt tolerance in land plants. PDF file, Functional Plant Biology, 37: 604-612.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! U. Hambach et al. (2001): A time frame for the Middle Keuper - cyclostratigraphy, sedimentology and first paleomagnetic results from the RAUENBERG 1 research well (km1-km4, Upper Triassic, SW-Germany). Poster, in PDF, Conference Sediment 2001, Jena. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 13. See also here (Google search).

N. Hauschke et al. (2011): Die Bildung pyramidaler Halit-Hopper in eindunstenden Wasserpfützen bei Teutschenthal (Sachsen-Anhalt), in der Saline von Halle (Saale) und im Keuper Nordwestdeutschlands. PDF file, in German. Der Aufschluss, 62: 333-344.
Note PDF page 10: Diagenesis of pyramidal halite hopper crystals and of cubic halite casts in the continental Triassic (in German).

N. Hauschke and U. Vath (2003): Zur Bildung und geologischen Überlieferung würfelförmiger und pyramidaler Steinsalzkristalle in der Germanischen Trias. PDF file, in German. Beitr. Geol. Thüringen, N. F., 10: 53–74.

! N. Hauschke (1989): Steinsalzkristallmarken - Begriff, Deutung und Bedeutung für das Playa-Playasee-Faziesmodell. About halite casts, Abstract (in German). Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 140: 355-369. See also here (in PDF).

M.H.T. Hipondoka (2005): The Development and Evolution of Etosha Pan, Namibia. Dissertation, Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006): Triassic - seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London, London.

K. Jewula et al. (2019): The late Triassic development of playa, gilgai floodplain, and fluvial environments from Upper Silesia, southern Poland. In PDF, Sedimentary Geology, 379: 25–45. See also here.
Note fig. 9A: Schematic illustration of the gilgai palaeoenvironment at Krasiejów.

Bill Johnson, Marina Oliver, Texas Tech University: Digital Resources for Managing Wetlands: The Case of Playa Lake Research: A Preliminary Report. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, Summer 1997.

D. Knaust and N. Hauschke (2005): Living conditions in a Lower Triassic playa system of Central Germany: evidence from ichnofauna and body fossils. Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss., B, Beiheft 19: 95-108.

Berit Legler, Technische Universität, Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany: Extrembiota - Biota und Sedimentation, Die Salare im Altiplano - Playa-Modell PDF file (in German).

S.M. Mandaville, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax: Limnological terms, definitions, acronyms and concepts.

! Nicholas J. Minter et al., (2007): Palaeoecology of an Early Permian playa lake trace fossil assemblage from Castle Peak, Texas, USA. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 246: 390-423.

NASA Earth Observatory: Sebkhat El Melah, Tunisia.

A.J. Newell et al. (2010): Disruption of playa-lacustrine depositional systems at the Permo-Triassic boundary: evidence from Vyazniki and Gorokhovets on the Russian Platform. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 167: 695-716.

Marina Oliver, GIS/Electronic Resources Librarian, TTU Libraries, and Bill Johnson, Science Librarian, Arizona State University: Playa Lakes / Ogallala Aquifer: A Bibliographic Database and Full Text Resource of Texas Tech University Libraries. Archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. A bibliographic and full text resource on information related to the specific physiographic wetland feature known as playa lakes.

Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to: Introduction to the Hydrosphere.

S. Ratti et al. (2011): Did Sulfate Availability Facilitate the Evolutionary Expansion of Chlorophyll a+c Phytoplankton in the Oceans? In PDF, Geobiology 9, no. 4: 301–312. See also here (abstract).

L. Reinhardt and W. Ricken (2000): The stratigraphic and geochemical record of Playa Cycles: monitoring a Pangaean monsoon-like system (Triassic, Middle Keuper, S. Germany). Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 161: 205-227.

L. Reinhardt and W. Ricken (1999): Climate cycles documented in a playa system: comparing geochemical signatures of subbasins (Triassic, Middle Keuper, German Basin). In PDF, Zbl. Geol. Paläontol. Teil I.

Lutz Reinhardt, Fakultät Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität zu Köln: Dynamic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system: a record of Pangean megamonsoon cyclicity (Triassic, Middle Keuper, Southern Germany). Abstract, in German.

Lutz Reinhardt, Department of Geology, University of Cologne: The strati-chem record of playa cycles: implications for paleo-climate control (Triassic, Middle Keuper, S-Germany). Abstract.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London.

T. Rychliñski et al. (2014): Unusually well preserved casts of halite crystals: A case from the Upper Frasnian of northern Lithuania. Sedimentary Geology, 308: 44-52. See also here.

! D. Schnurrenberger et al. (2003): Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components. In PDF, Journal of Paleolimnology.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.J. Scott et al. (2012): Lacustrine environments. In PDF. In: Knaust, D., Bromley, R.G. (Eds.), Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments. Developments in Sedimentology, vol. 64. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 379–419. See also here. Google books.

Dieter B. Seegis, (1993): The lacustrine-palustrine facies of the upper Knollenmergel (Middle Keuper, Upper Triassic) in Southwest Germany: Sedimentary types and formation. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 189, 309-332, Stuttgart. Abstract from members of the Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, University of Stuttgart (IGPS).

D.B. Seegis and M. Goerik: Lakustrine und pedogene Sedimente im Knollenmergel (Mittlerer Keuper, Obertrias) des Mainhardter Waldes (Nordwürttemberg). Abstract, in German. Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen: NF 74: 1992; Oberrheinischer Geologischer Verein.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! P.A. Shaw and D.S.G. Thomas (1997): 15. Pans, playas and salt lakes. Book announcement, In: Thomas, D.S.G., Ed., Arid Zone Geomorphology; Process, Form and Change in Drylands. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 293-312.
! See also here. In PDF, chapter is for 3rd edition.

William James Smith Jr. (sponsored by the University of Delaware Water Resources Agency): What is a watershed and why should I care? Inland, go to: Playa Lakes.

United Nations Environment Programme: Endorheic Lakes: Waterbodies That Don't Flow to the Sea.

Robert van Geldern & Michael Joachimski, Institut für Geologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, Germany: Stabile Isotope und Sedimentologie triassischer Paläoböden als Paläoenvironment- und Paläoklimaindikatoren. Abstract, Sediment'98, (in German).

F.B. Van Houten (1965): Crystal casts in Upper Triassic Lockatong and Brunswick Formations. Abstract, Sedimentology, 4: 301-313.

! T. Vollmer et al. (2008): Orbital control on Upper Triassic Playa cycles of the Steinmergel-Keuper (Norian): a new concept for ancient playa cycles. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 267: 1–16. See also here (in PDF).

T. Vollmer (2005): Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles: New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin) PDF file (10.3 MB), Thesis, Universität zu Köln. See also here.

Derek Walton, University of Derby, UK: Fossils and Strata, Wind, Rain and (Fresh) Water. Non-marine depositional environments. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.K. Warren (2010): Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 98: 217–268. Worth checking out, excellent!

! John K. Warren (2006): Evaporites: Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons. In PDF, 1035 pages, (Springer). See especially:
! PDF page 154: Chapter 3. Sabkhas, saline mudflats and pans.
! PDF page 236: Chapter 4. Subaqueous salts: salinas and perrenial lakes.
! PDF page 301: Chapter 5. Ancient basins and stratigraphic evolution.

Waterfoul Management Handbook: Ecology of Playa Lakes. PDF file.

Ian West, Geology Department, Southampton University, UK: Sabkha and some other desert features. An introduction. Sabkha field trip images and information on sabkhas of the Middle East and North Africa.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Playa Lakes.
! Category:Endorheic lakes.
! Category:Salt flats.
! Salt pan (geology).
Salztonebene (in German).
Sabcha (in German).
! Endorheic Basins. Waterbodies that don't flow to the sea.
Endorheisch (in German).

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Last updated June 06, 2019

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