Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Palaeoclimate / Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General

Focused on Palaeoclimate
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
Stomatal Density
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle

! Triassic Climate@
! Trees@
! Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record@
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy@
Plant Anatomy@
! Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@
Fossil Charcoal@
! Wound Response in Trees@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@

Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General

! Harry Alden, Maryland Archaeological Conservation Lab: Wood & Charcoal Identification in Southern Maryland. Introductions to wood anatomy. Excellent! Please note especially the keys and description of soft- and hardwoods, including an array of microphotographs.

! Laureen Sally da Rosa Alves and Margot Guerra-Sommer (2007): Paleobotany and Paleoclimatology Part I: Growth Rings in Fossil Woods and Paleoclimates. PDF file; See also starting with PDF-page 16:
Part II: Leaf Assemblages (Taphonomy, Paleoclimatology and Paleogeography). In: Koutsoukos, Eduardo A.M. (ed.) Applied Stratigraphy. Series: Topics in Geobiology, Vol. 23.
See also here (in PDF) and there (Google books).

Archäologie Online: Dendrochronologie. A link directory with annotations (in German).

! Georg von Arx et al. (2016): Quantitative Wood Anatomy — Practical Guidelines. In PDF, Front. Plant Sci., 7. See also here.

Eleni Asouti, School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool: Charcoal Analysis Web. Go to:
Cecilia A. Western Wood Reference Collection Archive: The Wood Anatomy Notebooks. Descriptions (typewriter, in PDF) and images (jpg). Mainly species from Southwest Asia and Southeast Europe, donated to the Institute of Archaeology by Cecilia A. Western.

Association for Tree-Ring Research

J.A. Ballesteros-Cánovas et al. (2015): A review of flood records from tree rings. In PDF, Progress in Physical Geography. See also here.

! J. Barros et al. (2015): The cell biology of lignification in higher plants. Free access, Annals of Botany, 115: 1053–1074.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley: Plant Tissues, Wood, Growth Rings, Bark. Begin Photosynthesis. Lecture notes. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.K. Boyce et al. (2001): Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon in permineralized fossils. Free access, PNAS, 98.

M. Brea et al. (2015): Reconstruction of a fossil forest reveals details of the palaeoecology, palaeoenvironments and climatic conditions in the late Oligocene of South America. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 418: 19-42.

! K.R. Briffa et al. (2004): Large-scale temperature inferences from tree rings: a review. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 40: 11-26.

! C.R. Brodersen et al. (2011): Automated analysis of three-dimensional xylem networks using high-resolution computed tomography. In PDF, New Phytologist, 191: 1168-1179.

R.J. Burnham (2009): An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós, and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Center for Wood Anatomy Research, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), Madison, Wisconsin (U.S. Department of Agriculture, USDA). Information about wood identification techniques, and several hundred technical sheets which give details of the properties of North American hardwoods and softwoods, tropical woods and lesser-known woods. You may navigate from here: Wood Properties.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J. Chave et al. (2009): Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 12: 351–366.

! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:
Wood, Secondary Growth,

M. Collins et al. (2002): A comparison of the variability of a climate model with paleotemperature estimates from a network of tree-ring densities. In PDF, Journal of Climate, 15: 1497-1515.

Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University (Graphics & Web programming team in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory): Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery. Go to: The Tree Collection. Examine digital images made from stained thin sections cut from a variety of tree species (Click the headings). Images are accompanied by text describing characteristics and habitat of the individual trees.

Owen Kent Davis, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona Tucson: QUATERNARY PALYNOLOGY AND PLANT MACROFOSSILS. Lecture notes. Go to: Macrofossil Drawings, WOOD CROSS SECTION. Line drawings.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A.L. Decombeix et al. (2019): Plant hydraulic architecture through time: lessons and questions on the evolution of vascular systems. In PDF, IAWA Journal, 40: 387-420. See also here and there.

B. De Rybel et al. (2016): Plant vascular development: from early specification to differentiation. Abstract, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 2016: 30-40. see also here and there (in PDF).

M. Dolezych and W. Schneider (2006): Inkohlte Hölzer und Cuticulae dispersae aus dem 2. Miozänen Flözhorizont im Tagebau Welzow (Lausitz)–Taxonomie und vergleichende feinstratigraphisch-fazielle Zuordnung. PDF file, in German. Zeitschrift für geologische Wiss. See also here.

M. Dolezych (2005): Koniferenhölzer im Lausitzer Flöz und ihre ökologische Position. PDF file, in German, with English summary (starting on PDF page 27). LLP Contributions Series, 19. See also here.

Institut für Botanik, Technische Universität Dresden: Pinus sylvestris, Pinaceae, Gymnospermae (in German). Bordered pits and cross-field pits.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Drouet et al.: Long-term records of strontium isotopic composition in tree rings ... PDF file, Global Change Biology, 2005.

Dieter Eckstein and Sigrid Wrobel 2005): Dendrochronologie (in German). From: Pingel, V. and Hauptmann, A. (eds.): Archäometrie - eine Querschnittswissenschaft. Methoden und Anwendungsbeispiele naturwissenschaftlicher Verfahren in der Archäometrie. Stuttgart.

T. Eglin et al. (2008): Biochemical composition is not the main factor influencing variability in carbon isotope composition of tree rings. PDF file, Tree Physiology, 28: 1619-1628.

! European Commission: European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. Excellent!
! Don´t miss the Atlas Download Page. Plenty of downloadable PDFs, e.g. about Past forests of Europe, an ecological overview, about forest classifications and European forest tree species.

Exploring Earth (McDougal Littell). The investigations and visualizations on this site were designed to accompany Earth Science, a high school textbook. The Web site was developed by TERC, a non-profit educational research and development firm in collaboration with McDougal Littell. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation. Go to: Find out more about dendrochronology.

! H.J. Falcon-Lang and D.M. Digrius (2014): Palaeobotany under the microscope: history of the invention and widespread adoption of the petrographic thin section technique. In PDF.

Howard J. Falcon-Lang (2005): Global climate analysis of growth rings in woods, and its implications for deep-time paleoclimate studies. Abstract, Paleobiology: Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 434–444.
See also here.

Juan Pedro Ferrio Díaz, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany: How can we study past climates?

! H.J. Falcon-Lang (2000): A method to distinguish between woods produced by evergreen and deciduous coniferopsids on the basis of growth ring anatomy: a new palaeoecological tool. In PDF, Palaeontology.

Jane E. Francis and Imogen Poole (2002): Cretaceous and early Tertiary climates of Antarctica: evidence from fossil wood. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 182: 47-64.

! H. Gärtner and F.H. Schweingruber (2013): Microscopic Preparation Techniques for Plant Stem Analysis. In PDF.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! David R. Greenwood, Environmental Science Program, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada: Fossil plants as environmental indicators. Lecture note, PDF file (3.6 MB). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee: Software to Analyze Tree Rings. An annotated link list.

! Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, Department of Physics, Astronomy & Geosciences, Valdosta State University: TREE-RING WEB PAGES. Resources for information on tree-ring research (dendrochronology). Excellent!

Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (website hosted by Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL): Bibliography of Dendrochronology. This yearly updated Bibliography of Dendrochronology is a free searchable archive of printed documents relevant to tree-ring research worldwide. It currently contains 14,341 references dating back to 1737.

E.L. Gulbranson and P.E. Ryberg (2013): Paleobotanical and geochemical approaches to studying fossil tree rings: Quantitative interpretations of paleoenvironment and ecophysiology. In PDF, Palaios, 28: 137-140.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

U.G. Hacke et al. (2015): The Hydraulic Architecture of Conifers in Ecological and Functional Xylem Anatomy. In PDF, book chapter, Springer International.

Andreas G. Heiss, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna; also: Archaeobotany, Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science (VIAS): Anatomy of European and North American woods - an interactive identification key. A freeware DELTA-based interactive identification key for soft- and hardwoods. Macroscopic and microscopic features. The key is currently available in English and German (ZIP files).

S. Helama et al. (2017): Rereading a tree-ring database to illustrate depositional histories of subfossil trees. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.1.2A: 1-12.

! J. Hellawell et al. (2015): Incipient silicification of recent conifer wood at a Yellowstone hot spring. In PDF, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 149: 79-87. See also here (abstract).

Book announcement: M. Hughes, T. Swetnam and H. Diaz (2011): Dendroclimatology - Progress and Perspectives. Progress and Prospects Series: Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, Vol. 11. This volume presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the last 30 years, and its future potential.

August Ilg, Alfred Selmeier and Madelaine Böhme: The fossil wood database (FWDS). Fossil wood from Central Europe, Triassic to the Pleistocene. Specimen chiefly from the Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie München, the Naturmuseum Augsburg and the private collection P. Holleis.

The InsideWood Working Group (wood anatomists and North Carolina State University Libraries professionals):
! The InsideWood Database. This project integrates wood anatomical information from the literature and original observations into an internet-accessible database useful for research and teaching. Currently 8,735 descriptions and 45,225 images, including 1,807 fossil wood descriptions and 2,910 fossil wood images. Superbly done and very helpful! Also worth checking out:
! Wood Anatomy Links, Wood Collection Catalogs.

International Academy of Wood Science (IAWS). IAWS is a non-profit assembly of wood scientists, recognizing all fields of wood science with their associated technological domains, and securing a worldwide representation.

! The International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA): The IAWA Forum. The purpose of the IAWA Forum is to facilitate science and community within the world of wood anatomy and related sciences. Anyone is welcome to join regardless of membership in the IAWA. See also:

! IAWA Journal (The International Association of Wood Anatomists). Free electronic access to full texts of IAWA journal vol. 21-26!

! Inside Wood (provoded by the InsideWood Working Group (IWG) wood anatomists and NCSU Libraries professionals).
The InsideWood project integrates wood anatomical information from the literature and original observations into an internet-accessible database (over 40,000 images showing anatomical details) useful for research and teaching. This database contains brief descriptions of fossil and modern woody dicots (hardwoods) from more than 200 plant families, and is searchable by an interactive, multiple-entry key. Note: Gymnosperm woods (softwoods) are not included.

! The International Tree-Ring Data Bank ITRDB (website by Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee): The primary purpose for the ITRDB is to provide a permanent location for the storage of well-dated, high-quality dendrochronological data from around the world. See here, or go to The ITRDB Data Submission Form.

Paul James, Microscopy UK: Tree Rings. A cursory look at these well known features.

Steven Jansen, Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium: Links. Some links to web sites related to wood anatomy, including wood collections, general information, course materials, and plant taxonomy.

Z. Jiang et al. (2019): Tree ring phototropism and implications for the rotation of the North China Block. Open access, Scientific Reports,, 9.

J. Kus et al. (2020): Coal petrological and xylotomical characterization of Miocene lignites and in-situ fossil tree stumps and trunks from Lusatia region, Germany: Palaeoenvironment and taphonomy assessment. Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology. See also here (in PDF).

Frederic Lens and Steven Jansen, Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Links to web sites related to wood anatomy, including wood collections, general information, course materials, and plant taxonomy.

! W.J. Lucas et al. (2013): The Plant Vascular System: Evolution, Development and Functions. In PDF, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 55: 294-388. See also here.

Mark McCaffrey, NOAA: Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. A comprehensive online set of attractive slides, providing background on a variety of paleoclimatology subjects, including Ice Ages, Tree Rings, Ice Cores, Coral Reefs and much more. Go to: Tree Rings.
Websites outdated, download versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Brian C. McCarthy, Dept. Env. & Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Dendrochronology Methods. The purpose of this website is to learn the basic field, lab, and computational procedures necessary to conduct dendrochronological research.

V. Mencl et al. (2014): Summary of Occurrence and Taxonomy of Silicified Agathoxylon-Type of Wood in Late Paleozoic Basins of the Czech Republic. In PDF, Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica, 47. See also here.

Martin Munro: Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research. Visit the link page Other information sources.

NCSU Libraries, Raleigh, NC: American Woods. Radial, tangential, and cross-sections of 350 North American woods from the 14-volume rare book The American Woods, published between 1888 and 1910 by the author, Romeyn Beck Hough. Excellent!

! National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC. NOAA Paleoclimatology. NOAA Paleoclimatology operate the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology which distributes data contributed by scientists around the world. Paleo data come from natural sources such as tree rings, ice cores, corals, and ocean and lake sediments, and extend the archive of climate back hundreds to millions of years. Go to:
Tree Ring. The Data Bank includes raw ring width or wood density measurements, and site chronologies (growth indices for a site).

Sandra Niemirowska, Warsaw: Petrified Wood. Various species of fossilized wood taken under the microscope and shown in tomograms.
Worth checking out:
! Anatomical details under the stereoscopic optical microscope and scanning electron microscope.
Gallery of petrified wood. A collection of petrified wood arranged in order of locations.

NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, Colorado. Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. Go to: Tree Rings: Ancient Chronicles of Environmental Change.

Daniel Oakley et al. (2009): Morphometric analysis of some Cretaceous angiosperm woods and their extant structural and phylogenetic analogues: Implications for systematics. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 157: 375-390.

Mark E. Olson (2012): Linear Trends in Botanical Systematics and the Major Trends of Xylem Evolution. In PDF.

Marc Philippe (2011): How many species of Araucarioxylon? Abstract, Comptes Rendus Palevol., 10: 201-208.

Marc Philippe et al. (2008): Woody or not woody? Evidence for early angiosperm habit from the Early Cretaceous fossil wood record of Europe. PDF file, Palaeoworld, 17: 142-152.

Christian Pinter, Wiener Zeitung: Redselige Baumringe (in German). The onset of dendrochronology and the pioneering work of Andrew Ellicott Douglass.

! Marc Philippe and Marion K. Bamford (2008): A key to morphogenera used for Mesozoic conifer-like woods. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 148: 184-207.

! J. Pittermann et al. (2015): The structure and function of xylem in seed-free vascular plants: an evolutionary perspective. In PDF. See also here.

D. Pons and D. de Franceschi (2007): Neogene woods from western Peruvian Amazon and palaeoenvironmental interpretation. Bulletin of Geosciences, 82: 343-354.

Imogen Poole and Pim F. van Bergen (2006): Physiognomic and chemical characters in wood as palaeoclimate proxies. PDF file, Plant Ecology, 182: 175-195.

R.R. Pujana et al. (2016): Proposals for quantifying two characteristics of tracheid pitting arrangement in gymnosperm woods. In PDF, Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 18. See also here.

! L. Ragnia and T. Greb (2018): Secondary growth as a determinant of plant shape and form. Open access, Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 79: 58-67.

Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research (a nonprofit research organization, founded by P.M. Brown): OldList, a database of ancient trees. The purpose of this database is to identify maximum ages that different tree species in different localities can attain.

! R. Rößler et al. (2014): Which name(s) should be used for Araucaria-like fossil wood? - Results of a poll. In PDF, Taxon, 63: 177-184.

J. Sakala (2004): The "Whole-Plant" concept in palaeobotany with examples from the Tertiary of northwestern Bohemia, Czech Republic with particular reference to fossil wood. PDF file (12.8 MB), Doctoral Thesis. Further papers included:
Starting on PDF page 17: J. Sakala (2003): Podocarpoxylon helmstedtianum GOTTWALD from Kuklin (Late Eocene, Czech Republic) reinterpreted as Tetraclinoxylon vulcanense PRIVÉ Feddes Repertorium, 114: 25-29.
Starting on PDF page 25: J. Sakala and Catherine Privé-Gill(2004): Oligocene angiosperm woods from Northwestern Bohemia, Czech Republic. IAWA Journal, 25: 369-380.
Starting on PDF page 56: Z. Kvacek and J. Sakala (1999): Twig with attached leaves, fruits and seeds of Decodon (Lythraceae) from the Lower Miocene of northern Bohemia, and implications for the identification of detached leaves and seeds. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 107: 201-222.

! R.A. Savidge (2007): Wood anatomy of Late Triassic trees in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA, in relation to Araucarioxylon arizonicum Knowlton, 1889. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol. 82: 301-328.

! Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004 (Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland: Wood anatomy of central European species. This web-based identification key is a completely revised version with more and new micro photographs and new anatomic items of the book by Schweingruber et al., 1990: Microscopic Wood Anatomy; Structural variability of stems and twigs in recent and subfossil woods from Central Europe. 3rd edition 1990.
Identify your species with online high resolution cross- and length sections from trunks and twigs. Excellent!

K. Schollaen et al. (2014): UV-laser-based microscopic dissection of tree rings - a novel sampling tool for d13C and d18O studies. In PDF, New Phytologist, 201: 1045–1055.

! F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner (2018):
The Plant Stem
A Microscopic Aspect
. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Open access! Excellent!

! F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner (2018): Fossilization, permineralization, coalification, carbonization and wet wood conservation. PDF file, pp. 183-192.
In: F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner:
! The Plant Stem. A Microscopic Aspect. Open access!

! F.H. Schweingruber and P. Poschlod (2005): Growth Rings in Herbs and Shrubs: life span, age determination and stem anatomy. In PDF, For. Snow Landsc. Res., 79: 195-415.

Fritz Schweingruber and W. Landolt, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (an Institute of the ETH Board): Xylem Database. The Xylem database provides an anatomical description and classification of the xylem and phloem of herbs, shrubs and trees.

Fritz Schweingruber and W. Landolt, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (an Institute of the ETH Board): Dendrochronological Picture Database. 1400 slides cover most topics relevant to dendrochronology. Shown are general and species specific macroscopic and microscopic reactions to climate, extreme events and decomposition from all over the world.

A.C. Scott (2001): Federico Cesi and his field studies on the origin of fossils between 1610 and 1630. PDF file, Endeavour, vol. 25. Early descriptions of fossil wood!

Paul R. Sheppard, Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona, Tucson: Crossdating Tree Rings Using Skeleton Plotting. Information about dendrochronological crossdating using skeleton plots.

Thomas Siccama and Daniel Vogt, Yale School for Forestry and Environmental Studies: Methods of Ecosystem Analysis, Saltonstall Ridge, East Haven, Ct., Tree Rings Introduction. Go to: Challenges to Accurate Tree Ring Measurement. About false rings.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

James H. Speer (2010): Fundamentals of Tree Ring Research. Book announcemen. Click "Read Excerpt":
! (Chapter "Introduction").

! J.S. Sperry (2003): Evolution of water transport and xylem structure. PDF file, International Journal of Plant Sciences.

! Rachel Spicer and Andrew Groover (2010): Evolution of development of vascular cambia and secondary growth. PDF file, New Phytologist, 186: 577-592.

M. Stoffel et al. (2019): Tree-ring correlations suggest links between moderate earthquakes and distant rockfalls in the Patagonian Cordillera. Open access, Scientific Reports.

Ed Strauss: Petrified Wood From Western Washington. How to identify petrified wood and reference resources for information on petrified wood. Read about the the monetary value of petrified wood. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Table of Genera. Microscopic images of Acer momijiyamense, Alnus latissima, Carpinus absarokensis, Cercidiphyllum, Cornoxylon, Diospyroxylon, Fagoxylon, Quercinium lamarense, Licquidambaroxylon weylandi, Carya tertiara, Pterocarya rhoifilia, Laurinoxylon, Robinioxylon, Magnolia, Lirodendroxylon.

Ed Strauss, Washington (article hosted by Evolving Earth Foundation Issaquah, WA). The Evolving Earth Foundation is committed to encouraging research and building community related to the earth sciences. How to Identify Conifers. Conifer micro photographs.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Tanrattana et al. (2019): A new approach for modelling water transport in fossil plants. In PDF, IAWA Journal 40: 466–487.

E.L. Taylor and P.E. Ryberg (2007): Tree growth at polar latitudes based on fossil tree ring analysis. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 255: 246-264.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Susan Trulove, Virginia Tech: Ancient climate record preserved in prehistoric plants. Ancestor of modern trees preserves record of ancient climate change. About Devonian/Carboniferous growth rings.

! Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson: About Tree Rings. Tree-Ring Basics and Resources.

! E.A. Vaganov et al. (2011): How well understood are the processes that create dendroclimatic records? A mechanistic model of the climatic control on conifer tree-ring growth dynamics. In PDF, Dendroclimatology. See also here (abstract).

! Pim F. van Bergen and Imogen Poole (2002): Stable carbon isotopes of wood: a clue to palaeoclimate? PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 182: 31-45.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Mike Viney, Ft. Collins, Colorado: The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum. Images of fossil wood and other fossils sorted by geological age. See especially:
! The Anatomy of Arborescent Plant Life Through Time.

Wayne's Word An Online Textbook Of Natural History (Wayne P. Armstrong, alias Mr. Wolffia, Palomar College):
The Anatomy Of Wood. Easy to understand website, general macroscopic and microscopic features.
Tree-Ring Dating.

Carola Wenk, Computer Science Department, University of Texas, San Antonio: Algorithmen für das Crossdating in der Dendrochronologie (PDF, in German). See also here (Publications), and there.

E.A. Wheeler and S.R. Manchester (2007): Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 82: 329-342.

! A.C. Wiedenhoeft and R.B. Miller (2005): Structure and function of wood. In PDF, Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, Boca Raton, Fla. (CRC Press), pages 9-33.
An extended description of the microscopic structure of soft- and hardwoods, e.g. tracheids, rays, vessels, pits, growth rings, etc. See also here. (abstract).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Dendrochronology,
List of woods,

C.J. Williams et al. (2010): Fossil wood in coal-forming environments of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Chickaloon Formation. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 363-375.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.P. Wilson and A.H. Knoll (2010): A physiologically explicit morphospace for tracheid-based water transport in modern and extinct seed plants. PDF file, Paleobiology, 36: 335-355. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

W.E. Wright et al. (2016): Dendrochronology and middle Miocene petrified oak: Modern counterparts and interpretation. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 445: 38–49. See also here (In PDF).

Yale Forestry School, Methods of Ecosystem Analysis: Challenges to Accurate Measurement of Tree Rings. About false rings.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Laurence D. Zuckerman, Omar Alvarado, and Michael W. Davidson, The Florida State University (website hosted by Molecular Expressions, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory): The Tree Collection. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Cross, radial, and tangential sections of about 50 common US woods, including the Glossary of Terms.

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