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Ecology & Palaeoenvironment
Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Playa Lakes
Riparian Habitats
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Plant Roots
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants

! Teaching Documents about Ecology@
Teaching Documents about Ichnology@
Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
! The Gaia Hypothesis@

Home / Ecology & Palaeoenvironment / Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment

Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Playa Lakes
Riparian Habitats
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Plant Roots
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants

Teaching Documents about Ecology@
Upland and Hinterland Floras@
Wildfire and Present Day Fire Ecology@
Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies@
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
Sedimentology and Sedimentary Rocks@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Environment@
! The Gaia Hypothesis@

Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment

Z. Feng et al. (2014): Evidence for insect-mediated skeletonization on an extant fern family from the Upper Triassic of China. In PDF, Geology. See also here (Abstract).

Ana María Alonso-Zarza and Lawrence H. Tanner (2006): Paleoenvironmental Record and Applications of Calcretes and Palustrine Carbonates. GSA Special Papers 416 (Google books).

American Meteorological Society (website supported by the National Science Foundation): Water in the Earth System Learning Files.

! Lorna Ash & Brett Poulin, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Introductory Biology. Go to: The Carbon Cycle, The Nitrogen Cycle. Online and downloadable flash movies. Excellent!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.D. Barnosky et al. (2017): Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems. Abstract, Science, 355.

G. Barth et al. (2014): Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) brackish to freshwater habitats at a fluvial-dominated delta plain (Seinstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany). In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94. See also here.

A.R. Bashforth and W.A. DiMichele (2012): Permian Coal Forest offers a glimpse of late Paleozoic ecology. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 4717-4718.

! R.M. Bateman et al. (1998): Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29: 263-292. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Anna K. Behrensmeyer (1992; Google books): Terrestrial ecosystems through time.

! J.B. Bennington et al. (2009): Critical issues of scale in paleoecology. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 1-4. See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California,Berkeley, CA: Online exhibits, The world´s biomes. Environmental divisions defined by the community of organisms adapted to live within them.

! H. Beraldi-Campesi (2013): Early life on land and the first terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Ecological Processes, 2. See also here.
Note figure 1: Suggested chronology of geological, atmospheric, and biological events during the Hadean, Archean, and Paleoproterozoic eons.
! Die Ökologie.
Lecture notes, in German.

! BiologyBrowser (produced by Thomson Scientific). This is a free web site offering resources for the life sciences information community. Go to: Subject > Environmental Sciences > Ecology > Paleoecology.

Biology Online. Information in the Life Sciences. Go to: Tutorials > Freshwater Ecology.

! David M.J.S. Bowman et al. (2009): Fire in the Earth System. PDF file, Science, 324: 481-484. See also here (abstract).

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Ecological Concepts. Lecture notes and Power Point presentations.
See especially: Wetland Plants and Ecology. In PDF.

Anthony R. Brach, Missouri Botanical Garden & Harvard University Herbaria (Botany Net): Ecology WWW page. Ecology links sorted in alphabetical order.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Brent H. Breithaupt (1992): The use of fossils in interpreting past environments. PDF file, Pages 147-158, in: Tested studies for laboratory teaching, Volume 13 (C. A. Goldman, Editor). Proceedings of the 13th Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Excellent! Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
! Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

British Ecological Society. Their mission is to generate, communicate and promote ecological knowledge and solutions. Go to: Learning resources.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Excellent! Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

R.J. Burnham (2009): An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós, and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Robyn J. Burnham and Kirk R. Johnson (2004): South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 1595-1610.

S.N. Césari et al. (2010): Nurse logs: An ecological strategy in a late Paleozoic forest from the southern Andean region. Abstract, Geology, 38: 295-298.

A. Channing and D. Edwards (2009): Yellowstone hot spring environments and the palaeoecophysiology of Rhynie chert plants: towards a synthesis. In PDF, Plant Ecology & Diversity. See also here.

F.S. Chapin et al. (2011): Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology, The Ecosystem Concept. In PDF.
See also here. Book announcement of the second edition.

Citable reviews in the life sciences (Wiley). Go to:

C. Coiffard et al. (2012): Deciphering Early Angiosperm Landscape Ecology Using a Clustering Method on Cretaceous Plant Assemblages. In PDF.

! Committee on the Geologic Record of Biosphere Dynamics, National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (The National Academies Press): The Geological Record of Ecological Dynamics: Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future Environmental Change. 216 pages, 2005. Produced by a committee consisting of both ecologists and paleontologists, the report provides ecologists with background on techniques for obtaining and evaluating geohistorical information, and provides paleontologists with background on the nature of ecological phenomena amenable to analysis in the geological record. The report can be read online for free!

! F.L. Condamine et al. (2013): Macroevolutionary perspectives to environmental change. In PDF, Ecology letters.

W.K. Cornwell et al. (2009): Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed? PDF file, Global Change Biology, 15: 2431-2449.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

N.R. Cúneo et al. (2003): In situ fossil forest from the upper Fremouw Formation (Triassic) of Antarctica: paleoenvironmental setting and paleoclimate analysis. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 197: 239-261.

! Edward DeLong and Penny Chisholm (2009): Ecology I: The Earth System. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Go to Lecture notes (in PDF).

Kevin J. Devito, University of Alberta: Wetland Ecology and Management. Lecture notes and readings for anyone interested in water management issues.

! William A. DiMichele and Robert A. Gastaldo (2008): Plant Paleoecology in Deep Time. PDF file, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 95: 144-198. See also here (abstract).

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2006): Paleoecology of Late Paleozoic pteridosperms from tropical Euramerica. In PDF, The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 133: 83-118. See also here.

! W.A. DiMichelle, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and T.L. Phillips, University of Illinois: The Response of Hierarchially Structured Ecosystems to Long-Term Climatic Change: A Case Study using Tropical Peat Swamps of Pennsylvanian Age. From:
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

W.A. DiMichele (1994): Ecological patterns in time and space. PDF file, Paleobiology, 20: 89-92.

! dmoz: Science: Biology: Ecology.

M.J. Donoghue and E.J. Edwards (2014): Biome shifts and niche evolution in plants. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 45: 547-572.

Earth Learning Idea (James Devon, London). Free PDF downloads for Earth-related teaching ideas. Go to:
Environmental detective (in PDF). Imagining how the evidence of modern environments could become preserved.

Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD). A service of USRA, sponsored by NASA Goddard. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. Browse EPODs by Related Fields, such as Coccolithophore bloom in the Celtic Sea.

Ecological Abstracts. Ecological Abstracts is a comprehensive reference source for literature in the fields of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecology.

The Ecological Society of America (ESA):
ESA, a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization of scientists promote ecological science by improving communication among ecologists. Fact Sheets. See also:
ESA Family of Journals. ESA publishes a suite of publications, from peer-reviewed journals to newsletters.

Brian J. Enquist et al. (2002): General patterns of taxonomic and biomass partitioning in extant and fossil plant communities. PDF file, Nature.

The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program investigates Earth´s land biotas throughout their 400 million year history. Their goal is to understand how terrestrial ecosystems have been structured and how they change over geologic time. Using the fossil record, ETE scientists study the characteristics of ecological communities and the changing dynamics of ecosystems. Go to:
ETE Relational Database and ETE DataNet.
The ETE relational database is now partially united with the Paleobiology Database Project´s (PBDB) relational database. All primary database functions (queries, entries and updates) are available through the PBDB home page. The new combined database compiles information from the terrestrial and marine record, but lacks some of the data fields present in the original ETE database. All About Nature, Biomes - Habitats.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:
See also:
AP Environmental Science Chapter 5- The Biosphere. About organisms, populations and communities, ecosystems, biomes and the evolution of life. More articles here.

ENDS (Environmental Data Services Ltd), London: ENDS Environment Daily. ENDS publishes an in-depth monthly professional journal and a daily internet-based news briefing on European environmental affairs.

! European Commission: European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. Excellent!
! Don´t miss the Atlas Download Page. Plenty of downloadable PDFs, e.g. about Past forests of Europe, an ecological overview, about forest classifications and European forest tree species.

Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE). Page hosted by Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.

H.J. Falcon-Lang and W.A. DiMichelle (2010): What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases? PDF file, Palaios, 25: 611-617.

! H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2006): The Pennsylvanian tropical biome reconstructed from the Joggins Formation of nova Scotia, Canada. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 163: 561576. See also here.
Note fig. 5: Ecosystem reconstruction of retrograding coastal plain and open water facies associations.

T.J. Flowers et al. (2010): Evolution of halophytes: multiple origins of salt tolerance in land plants. PDF file, Functional Plant Biology, 37: 604-612. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.-C. Gall and L. Grauvogel-Stamm (2005): The early Middle Triassic "Grès à Voltzia" Formation of eastern France: a model of environmental refugium. PDF file, C. R. Palevol, 4: 637-652.

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2009): Ecological persistence in the Late Mississippian (Serpukhovian, Namurian A) megafloral record of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 336-350.

L. Gillson and R. Marchant (2014): From myopia to clarity: sharpening the focus of ecosystem management through the lens of palaeoecology. In PDF, Trends in ecology & evolution.

Google directory:
! Science > Biology > Ecology.
Science > Biology > Ecology > Education.
Link directories, with ratings (Google page rank).
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40. Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous wetland reconstructions.

M. Grey and Z.V. Finkel (2011): The Joggins Fossil Cliffs UNESCO World Heritage site: a review of recent research. In PDF. Carboniferous forest reconstruction on page 192.

Douglas J. Hallett and Robert C. Walker (2000): Paleoecology and its application to fire and vegetation management in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. PDF file, Journal of Paleolimnology, 24: 401-414.

! Stephen T. Hasiotis (2004): Using Trace Fossils to Differentiate between Alluvial, Lacustrine, Eolian, and Marine Paleoenvironments. PDF file, AAPG HEDBERG CONFERENCE, May 2004; Baku, Azerbaijan.

Scott A. Heckathorn, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA:
Biodiversity lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See especially:
An Introduction to Ecology and The Biosphere.
Community Ecology.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Hill and K. Davis, Geology Rocks: The Use Of Diatoms As Palaeoenvironmental Indicators.

Stephen D. Hopper (2009): OCBIL theory: towards an integrated understanding of the evolution, ecology and conservation of biodiversity on old, climatically buffered, infertile landscapes. PDF file, Plant Soil, 322: 49-86.

R.B. Huey et al. (2002): Plants versus animals: do they deal with stress in different ways? PDF file, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42: 415-423.

! C.E. Hughes et al. (2015): Evolutionary plant radiations: where, when, why and how? In PDF, New Phytologist. See also here.

P.M. Hull et al. (2016): Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems. In PDF, Nature 528: 345351. See also here (abstract).

R.B. Irmis and J.H. Whiteside (2010): Newly integrated approaches to studying Late Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. Abstract, Palaios, 25: 689-691.

Jeremy B.C. Jackson and Douglas H. Erwin (2006) What can we learn about ecology and evolution from the fossil record? PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

Carlos Jaramillo et al. (2010): The origin of the modern Amazon rainforest: implications of the palynological and palaeobotanical record. PDF file, Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past, 1st edition. Edited by C. Hoorn and F.P. Wesselingh.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K.G. Johnson et al. (2011): Climate Change and Biosphere Response: Unlocking the Collections Vault. In PDF, BioScience, 61: 147-153. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K.R. Johnson (2007): Forests frozen in time. In PDF. Fig. 1 shows the reconstruction of a lycopsid forest.

Julia K. Johnson, Stephen J. Reynolds (Dept. of Geological Sciences, Arizona State University), Nicholas J. Olejniczak, and Jonathan A. Foley (Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment, University of Wisconsin, Madison) Biosphere 3D. The Biosphere 3D site (mostly using maps from the "Atlas of the Biosphere") has links to QuickTime movies of maps of the Biosphere draped over digital topography in globes that you can spin and tilt. Globes may be rotated using the mouse, zoomed using the shift-key, and unzoomed using the crtl-key.

Kania´s Science Page, Lake Central High School, St. John, IN:
Biology Page. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See for instance:
Ecology Introduction.

Derek Keats, Botany Department at the University of the Western Cape, Bellville (Cape Town) South Africa: Tides & the seashore, and Zonation on the seashore.

! Kerry S. Kilburn, Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University: Principles of Ecology, Notes and Links.

M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos: Terrestrial Mesozoic Ecosystems. See also: Mesozoic Terrestrial Life note form.

V.A. Krassilov (2003): Terrestrial palaeoecology and global change. PDF file (35.6 MB), Russian Academic Monographs No. 1, 464 p., (Pensoft), Sophia.

! Kustatscher, E., van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. & Gianolla, P. (2006): The Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Pra della Vacca (Prags/Braies Dolomites, Northern Italy): An attempt to reconstruct an Anisian (lower Middle Triassic) palaeoenvironment. PDF file, 9th International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, 27-29.05.06, Manchester, Abstract and Proceedings Volume, p. 63-66, 164.

Jonathan B. Losos and D. Luke Mahler (2010): Chapter 15, Adaptive radiation: the interaction of ecological opportunity, adaptation, and speciation. PDF file. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Yuandan MA et al. (2009): Carbon storage of cycad and other gymnosperm ecosystems in China: implications to evolutionary trends. PDF file, Polish Journal of Ecology, 57: 635-646.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Martín-Closas (2003): The fossil record and evolution of freshwater plants: a review. PDF file, Geologica Acta, 1: 315-338.

D. Mauquoy et al. (2010): A protocol for plant macrofossil analysis of peat deposits. PDF file, Mires and Peat, Volume 7.

! N.G. McDowell (2011): The interdependence of mechanisms underlying climate-driven vegetation mortality. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761787. See also here

K. McGarigal (2001): Landscape Ecology. In PDF.

Jacqueline S. McLaughlin and Stam M. Zervanos, Pennsylvania State University: Biodiversity of World Biomes. Powerpoint presentation.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.M. Mendes et al. (2014): Vegetational composition of the Early Cretaceous Chicalhão flora (Lusitanian Basin, western Portugal) based on palynological and mesofossil assemblages. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 65-81. See also here (abstract).

! NASA, Earth Observatory. The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet. The focus is on Earth's climate and environmental change. By activating the glossary mode, you can view each page with special terms highlighted that, when selected, will take you to the appropriate entry in the glossary. Use the full-text search engine, or go to: Data and Images. To view a particular dataset, select one of the data types in this column, e.g. Vegetation, or Landcover Classification.

NASA: Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). GCMD is a comprehensive directory of descriptions of data sets of relevance to global change research. It includes descriptions of data sets (DIFs) covering climate change, the biosphere, hydrosphere & oceans, geology, geography, and human dimensions of global change. Go to Solid Earth, Biosphere, or Paleoclimate.

The National Science Foundation, Arlington: Life in Extreme Environments (LExEn). The LExEn research program will explore the relationships between organisms and the environments within which they exist, with a strong emphasis upon those life-supporting environments that exist near the extremes of planetary conditions.

PAGES (a core project of IGBP, funded by the U.S. and Swiss National Science Foundations and NOAA). The primary objective of PAGES is to improve the understanding of past changes in the earth system in order to improve projections of future climate and environment.

Paleontological Research Institution (PRI), Ithaca, NY: (PRI was founded by Gilbert Dennison Harris, 1865-1952):
The Paleontological Research Institution pursues and integrates education and research, and interprets the history and systems of the Earth and its life. Go to:
Conservation Paleobiology. Opportunities for the Earth Sciences. In PDF, Report of an NSF-Funded Workshop, 2011. Table of contents on PDF page 04. Worth checking out:
PDF page 09: "Major Science Themes in Conservation Paleobiology".
PDF page 17: "Frontiers in Conservation Paleobiology".
PDF page 19: "Emerging Opportunities for the Earth Sciences" (i.e. Analysis and Modeling of the Near-time Fossil Record, Scaling and Other Issues for Merging Neo- and Paleobiological Data, etc.).

! J.G. Pausas et al. (2017): Flammability as an ecological and evolutionary driver. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 105: 289297.

R. Toby Pennington et al. (2004): Introduction and synthesis: Plant phylogeny and the origin of major biomes. PDF file, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci., 359: 1455-1464. See also here.

! N. Pérez-Harguindeguy et al. (2013): New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 61: 167-234.

! Peter H. Raven and Paul H. Zedler: Chapter 31: The Dynamics of Communities and Ecosystems and Chapter 32: Global Ecology (PDF files). Chapters thoroughly updated for the seventh edition of "Biology of Plants", Peter H. Raven et al. (2005).
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! G.J. Retallack and E.S Krull (1999): Landscape ecological shift at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. In PDF, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences.

P.D. Roopnarine (2009): Ecological modeling of paleocommunity food webs. In Conservation Paleobiology: Using the Past to Manage for the Future, Paleontological Society Short Course, October 17th, 2009. The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 15, Gregory P. Dietl and Karl W. Flessa (eds.).

M. Roscher: Environmental reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic. Numeric modelling and geological evidences. In PDF. Dissertation, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg.

Nick Rowe and Thomas Speck (2005): Plant growth forms: an ecological and evolutionary perspective. PDF file, New Phytologist, 166: 61-72. See also here.

Valentí Rull (2010): Ecology and Palaeoecology: Two Approaches, One Objective. PDF file, The Open Ecology Journal, 3: 1-5.

H.M. Sachs et al. (1977): Paleoecological transfer functions. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 5. See also here (abstract).

G.N. Sadovnikov (2011): On Quantitative and Semiquantitative Analysis of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Nonmarine Paleoecosystems. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, 45: 105-111.

! Schmidt, Diane, Allison, Melody M., Clark, Kathleen A., Jacobs, Pamela F. and Porta, Maria A., Libraries Unlimited (a member of the Greenwood Publishing Group): Guide to Reference and Information Sources in Plant Biology. This directory contains the URLs and annotations for Web-accessible resources. Go to:

Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Erwin Beck, Klaus Müller-Hohenstein (2005): Sample pages, Plant Ecology. Keywords for this textbook are e.g. autecology, ecophysiology, ecosystem ecology, plant ecology, synecology. Worth checking out: Table of contents (PDF file). Go to: 4.1 Historic-Genetic Development of Phytocenoses and Their Dynamics (PDF file).

George Sly, Union High School, Dugger, Indiana (Classrooms of the 21th Century): Teaching Tropical Rainforest Biology.

R.A. Spicer and A.B. Herman (2010): The Late Cretaceous Environment of the Arctic: A Quantitative Reassessment based on Plant Fossils. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware. Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT. No registration required. Go to:
John Southard: Special Topics in Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences: The Environment of the Earth´s Surface. PDF files. The course combines aspects of geology, climatology, hydrology, and soil science to present a coherent introduction to the surface of the Earth.

Els Slots, The Netherlands: World Heritage Site, Categories. See: Natural landscape.

StartLocal. An Australian search engine and web directory. Go to: You are here: Home > Educational Articles > Ultimate guide to Biomes Ultimate guide to Biomes.

P.E. Tarasov et al. (2013): The biome reconstruction approach as a tool for interpretation of past vegetation and climate changes: application to modern and fossil pollen data from Lake El´gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic. In PDF, Clim. Past Discuss., 9: 3449-3487.

! T.N. Taylor and J.M. Osborn (1992): The Role of Wood in Understanding Saprophytism in the Fossil Record. PDF file.

T.N. Taylor and J.M. Osborn (1996): The importance of fungi in shaping the paleoecosystem. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

! R.C. Terry (2009): Palaeoecology: Methods. Abstract. See also here (in PDF), and there.

! TRY Plant Trait Database. Quantifying and scaling global plant trait diversity.
TRY is a network of vegetation scientists headed by Future Earth and the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, providing a global archive of curated plant traits. Please take notice:
! J. Kattke et al. (2011): TRY a global database of plant traits. Global Change Biology, 17: 29052935. TutorVista provides online tutoring to students across the world. Go to:

! D. Uhl (2006): Fossil plants as palaeoenvironmental proxies - some remarks on selected approaches. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica, 46: 87-100.

From the Universities Space Research Association´s Earth System Science Education (USRA): Earth System Science Online. Earth system science views the Earth as a synergistic physical system of interrelated phenomena, governed by complex processes involving the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

U.S. Salinity Laboratory (USSL): Visit the Salt Tolerance Bibliography Database. Also see the related Crops and Ornamentals Salt Tolerance Database.

G.J. Vermeij (2015): Paleophysiology: From Fossils to the Future. Trends in ecology & evolution.

Elizabeth Anne Viau, Charter College of Education, California State University, Los Angeles: World Builders, Session Eight, Terrestrial Botany, Plants on Land. Go to: Introduction to Biomes.

Jun Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDF, PNAS. See also: Ash-covered forest is "Permian Pompeii" (S. Perkins, Nature).
Penn researcher helps discover and characterize a 300-million-year-forest.
The Lost Forest.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware. Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT. No registration required. Go to:
Kelin Whipple and Ben Crosby: Surface Processes and Landscape Evolution. The course (PDF files) offers an introduction to quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes, and examines the interaction of climate, tectonics, and surface processes in the sculpting of Earth´s surface.

Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, and Montana State University, Bozeman, MT: Microbial Life - Educational Resources. This site contains a variety of educational and supporting materials for students and teachers of microbiology. You will find information about microorganisms, extremophiles and extreme habitats, as well as links to online resources, teaching and learning activities.

! Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: High School Earth Science.
Contributed by John Benner et al. Worth checking out:
<Ecosystems and Human Populations.

! Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: Ecology. Contributed by Eric Guinther et al.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Ecology.
! Category:Ecology.
! Category:Ecology terminology.

Peter Wilf et al. (1998): Portrait of a Late Paleocene (Early Clarkforkian) Terrestrial Ecosystem: Big Multi Quarry and Associated Strata, Washakie Basin, Southwestern Wyoming. PDF file, Palaios, 13: 514-532.

D.M. Wilkinson and T.N. Sherratt (2016): Why is the world green? The interactions of top-down and bottom-up processes in terrestrial vegetation ecology. In PDF, Plant Ecology & Diversity, 9: 127-140. See also here.

D.M. Wilkinson (2012): Paleontology and Ecology: Their Common Origins and Later Split. In PDF.
In: J. Louys (ed.): Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation.
See also here (in PDF).

! J.W. Williams and S.T. Jackson (2007): Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. In PDF, Front. Ecol. Environ., 5: 475-482.

Susan Woodward, Physical Geography Working Group, Department of Geography, Radford University: Major Biomes of the World. This module presents basic content on the distribution and nature of the world's major biomes. It considers the structure, characteristic growthforms, and taxonomic affiliations of the vegetation; major soil order(s); and common adaptive characteristics of the fauna of the tundra, boreal forest, temperate broadleaf deciduous forest, tropical broadleaf evergreen forest, tropical savanna, temperate grasslands, desertscrub, and Mediterranean shrub biomes.

The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Ecology and Biodiversity.

James D. Wright, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ: Environments and Life. Powerpont presentation. See also here and there.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J. Zalasiewicz et al. (2008): Are we now living in the Anthropocene? In PDF.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated April 03, 2020

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