Evolution & Extinction, Links for Palaeobotanists
Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Evolution & Extinction

Evolution & Extinction

Web Sites about Evolution
Focussed on the Fossil Record
Insect Evolution
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Living Fossils
! Teaching Documents about Evolution@
! Phylogeography@
! Focused on the Evolution of Plants@
! Articles in Palaeobotany@
! The Gaia Hypothesis@
! Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@

Home / Evolution & Extinction / Web Sites about Evolution

Focussed on the Fossil Record
Insect Evolution
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Living Fossils
! Teaching Documents about Evolution@
! Focused on the Evolution of Plants@
! Articles in Palaeobotany@
! The Gaia Hypothesis@
! Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@

Web Sites about Evolution

About.com: Education > Biology > Evolution, and Education > Geology > Fossils, Time and Evolution.

Academic Info. An annotated educational subject directory. Go to: Sciences > Biology > Evolution.

ActionBioscience.org (American Institute of Biological Sciences): ActionBioscience.org is a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience. Go to:
! Evolution: Fact and Theory (by Richard E. Lenski). See also: Issues in Evolution. A link directory.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! AG EvoBio, Germany. Evolution in Biology, Culture and Society (in German). See especially: The annotated link directories Publications and Videos. Excellent! Also worth checking out:
! EvoBioBlog (by Arbeitsgemeinschaft Evolution in Biologie, Kultur und Gesellschaft, in German).

John Alroy, Smithsonian Institution´s Department of Paleobiology: Lefalophodon: A History of Evolutionary Biology Web Site. This page is an informal guide to the history of evolutionary biology from about 1800 to about 1950.

The American Museum of Natural History, New York: Darwin. November 19, 2005 - May 29, 2006. The most in-depth exhibition ever mounted on Charles Darwin, the highly original thinker, botanist, geologist, and naturalist, and his theory of evolution. See also here (C. Driessen, Kölnische Rundschau, November 18, 2005; in German).

American Scientist (Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society):
Natural Selection for Everyone (by Douglas Erwin, National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, December 2006).
Articles in category: Evolutionary Theory. An asterisk denotes content restricted to members and subscribers.

! J. E. Armstrong and J. Jernstedt, The Botanical Society of America, St. Louis: Botanical Society of America's Statement on Evolution.

Nicholas H. Barton et al. (2007), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Evolution. Go to:
! Table of Contents. For each chapter, there are links to figures and tables, to discussion topics and to notes. See also:
! Evolution Figures. The images that are available for online use can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate chapter. See especially:
! Evolution Figures: Chapter 10.

E.G. Beck, Zentrale für Unterrichtsmedien im Internet e.V. (ZUM Internet e.V.): Evolution. Lecture notes (in German).

! C.M. Belin and B. Kisida (2012): Science Standards, Science Achievement, and Attitudes about Evolution. In PDF.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M.J. Benton (2015): Exploring macroevolution using modern and fossil data. Proc. R. Soc. B 282. See also here Michael J. Benton (2010): The origins of modern biodiversity on land. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B.

M.J. Benton and D.A.T. Harper: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. Go to:
! Companion Website: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. On this website you can download the figures in jpeg format at standard resolution (96 dpi) for viewing on screen and at a higher resolution (300 dpi) for downloading. They can also be downloaded as a Powerpoint file for each chapter.
! See also here (in PDF).
For better navigation note the table of contents (in PDF).

The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California, Berkeley (with support provided by the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute:
Welcome to the Evolution Wing. Explore the theory of evolution and learn about the history of evolutionary thought.
! Understanding Evolution - your one-stop choice for information on evolution. Understanding Evolution is a non-commercial, education website, teaching the science and history of evolutionary biology. This site is here to help you understand what evolution is, how it works, how it factors into your life, how research in evolutionary biology is performed, and how ideas in this area have changed over time. Excellent! Go to:
! What is evolution and how does it work? Detailed explanations of the mechanisms of evolution and the history of life on Earth.
See especially:
! History of Evolutionary Thought. Biographies of some of the key players in evolutionary thought over the last 300 years.

! The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley:
Understanding Science. Understanding Science provides a free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works. An excellent resource, especially for teachers!
Don't miss to go to the Resource library.

! R.A. Berner et al. (2007): Oxygen and evolution. In PDF, Science, 316.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Die Evolution.
Lecture notes, in German.

! BiologyBrowser (produced by Thomson Scientific). This is a free web site offering resources for the life sciences information community. Go to: Evolutionary Biology.

Biology Online. Information in the Life Sciences. Go to: Tutorials > Genetics and Evolution.

Biopedia an openfree bioinfomation encyclopedia: Evolution.

Charles Blinderman, and David Joyce, Clark University: The Huxley File. Thomas Henry Huxley's publications. The English biologist has been occasionally named "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.

C. Kevin Boyce (2010): The evolution of plant development in a paleontological context. PDF file, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13: 102-107.

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Evolutionary Theory. Lecture notes. Taxonomic classification and theory of evolution.

! P.J. Bowler (2009): Darwin's originality. In PDF, Science, 323: 223-226. See also here.

J.C. Briggs (2014): Invasions, adaptive radiations, and the generation of biodiversity. In PDF, Environmental Skeptics and Critics, 3: 8-16.

! M.C. Brundrett (2002): Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. In PDF, New phytologist, 154: 275-304. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.J.A. Buggs (2021): The origin of Darwin’s “abominable mystery”. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 108: 22–36.

! N.J. Butterfield (2007): Macroevolution and macroecology through deep time. In PDF, Palaeontology, 50: 41–55. See also here.

T. Cardona (2016): Reconstructing the Origin of Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Do Assembly and Photoactivation Recapitulate Evolution? Front. PlantSci., 7: 257.

Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago

Alison Campbell, Penelope Cooke, Kathrin Cass and Kerry Earl, School for Science and Engineering, The University of Waikato, New Zealand: Evolution for teaching. This website has been developed to provide a web based resource for use by secondary teachers, especially in the science fields of evolution and geological time. Go to: Frequently Asked Questions. See also: Plant Evolution, and The Evolution of Life. Information about the evolution of life on Earth. Go to: Glossary.

! Miguel Chavez: The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive. Access to many articles and books, e.g. via Library, and Books. Excellent!

Citable reviews in the life sciences (Wiley). Go to:
Evolution & Diversity of Life.

C.J. Cleal and B. Cascales-Miñana (2014): Composition and dynamics of the great Phanerozoic Evolutionary Floras. Abstract.

! Matthew Cobb, whyevolutionistrue: Excellent open access articles on the evolution of life on Earth - UPDATE 2.

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Studying Evolution. Mini-essays and sub-sections concerning evolution.

! P.R. Crane and A.B. Leslie (2013): Major Events in the Evolution of Land Plants. In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution.
1. Phylogenetic framework.
2. Origin and diversification of land plants.
3. Origin and diversification of vascular plants.
4. Origin and diversification of seed plants.
5. Origin and diversification of flowering plants.
6. Innovation in the land plant body.
7. Innovation in land plant reproduction.
8. Co-evolution with animals.
9. Patterns of extinction.
See also here, and there (Google books).

P.R. Crane et al. (2010): Darwin and the Evolution of Flowers. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 365: 347-350.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! W.L. Crepet and K.J. Niklas (2009): Darwin´s second "abominable mystery": Why are there so many angiosperm species? PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 366-381. See also here (abstract).

Charles Darwin, 1859: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray. 502 pp. Available from Project Gutenberg.

! Richard Dawkins (1986): The Blind Watchmaker. In PDF. Also available here.
See also "Watchmaker analogy" in Wikipedia and "The Blind Watchmaker" headword there.
See also the book reviews in Amazon.

Deutschlandradio (a German broadcasting channel):
Vom Vergrößerungsglas bis zu lebenden Schildkröten. (by Max Boehnel, November 18, 2005; in German). The big Darwin exhibition, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Ezequiel A. Di Paolo, School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences, University of Sussex Brighton, UK: Artificial Life Bibliography of On-line Publications. This is a list of on-line publications actually related to the field of artificial Life. Most of the papers listed here have been or will be published in some form. On-line versions may often differ from printed versions. Go to: Evolutionary Biology.

dmoz: Science > Biology > Evolution.

! T. Dobzhansky (1973): Nothing in Biology Makes Sense except in the Light of Evolution. In PDF, The American Biology Teacher, 35: 125-129. See also here (Google books).

! P.C.J. Donoghue and Z. Yang (2016): The evolution of methods for establishing evolutionary timescales. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 371.See also here (abstract).

! P.C.J. Donoghue and M.J. Benton (2007): Rocks and clocks: calibrating the Tree of Life using fossils and molecules. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

! N. Eldredge and S.J. Gould (1972): Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism. PDF file. In: Schopf, T.J.M. (ed.) Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco, 82-115. See also here.

K.C. Elliott et al. (2016): Conceptions of Good Science in Our Data-Rich World. In PDF, Bioscience, 66: 880–889. S ee also here.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:

Funded by the National Science Foundation and hosted by Indiana University: ENSIWEB - Evolution and Nature of Science. ENSIWEB is a collection of classroom lessons to help biology teachers more effectively teach basic concepts in the areas of evolution and the nature of science. See the EVOLUTION LESSONS.

D.H. Erwin (2009): Climate as a driver of evolutionary change. PDF file, Current Biology, 19: R575-R583.

G. Escarguel et al. (2011): Biodiversity is not (and never has been) a bed of roses! In PDF, Comptes Rendus Biologies.

European Society for Evolutionary Biology (ESEB): The objectives of the ESEB are to support the study of organic evolution and the integration of those scientific fields that are concerned with evolution: molecular and microbial evolution, behaviour, genetics, ecology, life histories, development, paleontology, systematics and morphology.

E. Margaret Evans et al. (2010): A Conceptual Guide to Natural History Museum Visitors Understanding of Evolution. PDF file, Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

EvoBioBlog, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Evolution in Biologie, Kultur und Gesellschaft (AG Evolutionsbiologie). In German.

Evolution (Blackwell, published for the Society for the Study of Evolution). A publication devoted to the study of organic evolution and the integration of the various fields of science concerned with evolution.

The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program investigates Earth´s land biotas throughout their 400 million year history. Their goal is to understand how terrestrial ecosystems have been structured and how they change over geologic time. Using the fossil record, ETE scientists study the characteristics of ecological communities and the changing dynamics of ecosystems. Go to:
ETE Relational Database and ETE DataNet.
The ETE relational database is now partially united with the Paleobiology Database Project´s (PBDB) relational database. All primary database functions (queries, entries and updates) are available through the PBDB home page. The new combined database compiles information from the terrestrial and marine record, but lacks some of the data fields present in the original ETE database.

M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College, Phoenix, Arizona:
! On-Line Biology Book. Table of Contents. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:
! The modern view of evolution.

FAZ-NET (Frankfurter Allgemeine, a German newspaper): Mutter Natur? Dass ich nicht lache (July 08, 2008, in German)

M.A. Fedonkin (2003): The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record. In PDF, Paleontological Research, 7: 9-41. See also here.

The Field Museum, Chicago: All about Evolution. About the importance and some misconceptions of evolution.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Historical Geology. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture.
! Go to: The Origin and Evolution of Life. Powerpoint presentation.

William Friedman et al., Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder: Molecular and Organismal Research in Plant History, MORPH. MORPH, an NSF research coordination network, fosters cross-disciplinary interactions between organismic and molecular plant biologists studying the evolution of morphological diversity to promote a modern synthesis in plant evolutionary developmental biology. Go to: Publications.

Douglas Futuyma, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook: Natural Selection: How Evolution Works (an ActionBioscience.org original interview, American Institute of Biological Sciences).

! D.J. Futuyma and A.A. Agrawal (2009): Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores. In PDF.

The Geological Society of America (GSA): Evolution and Creationism, Sites describing and/or promoting evolution. An annotated link list. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.J. Gould (2002): The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Belknap, 1464 pp., 45.90 Euro, ISBN 0-674-00613-5. Read an excerpt of this book (in PDF format). See also: The Stephen Jay Gould Archive. Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) was among the best known and widely read scientists of the late 20th century.

! S.J. Gould (1994): Tempo and Mode in the Macroevolutionary Reconstruction of Darwinism. In: Fitch, W.M. And Ayala, F.J. (eds.):
! Tempo And Mode In Evolution: Genetics And Paleontology 50 Years After Simpson. Open access! National Academies Press (US); Washington (DC).

Walton A. Green et al. (2011): Does extinction wield an axe or pruning shears? How interactions between phylogeny and ecology affect patterns of extinction. PDF file, Paleobiology, 37: 72-91.

Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group. Understanding the Diversity of Plants. The purpose of the "Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group" is to facilitate or initiate interaction between distinct research groups that have independent foci yet entail some aspect of green plant phylogeny or systematics. Visit the Phylogenetics Resources.

! T.R. Gregory (2008): Understanding evolutionary trees. Abstract Evolution: Education and Outreach, 1: 121–137. See also here (in PDF).

! Andrew Grimshaw (2001): The Adventures of Punctuated Equilibria. A Struggle for Authority in the Evolutionary Sciences. PDF file, thesis, Deakin University.

The Guardian, UK (Guardian Unlimited):
How Darwin won the evolution race (by Robin McKie, June 22, 2008).
Blogging Darwin. The Origin of Species: Over 149 years, Darwin's theory of evolution has withstood attacks far better than many other scientific theories (by Adam Rutherford, February 09, 2008).

Michael Gudo, Morphisto Evolutionsforschung und Anwendung GmbH (in German).
Die Frankfurter Evolutionstheorie. See especially:
www.evolutionswissenschaft.de Forum Evolution (in German).
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Guindon (2020): Rates and Rocks: Strengths and Weaknesses of Molecular Dating Methods. Open access, Frontiers in Genetics, 11.
"... molecular dating will undoubtedly keep playing a crucial role in biology in the future. Our understanding of important phenomena such as species diversification or dispersal, population migration and demography, or the molecular signature resulting from environmental changes, depends on our ability to date past evolutionary events. The wealth of available techniques to perform this task provides a powerful set of tools to make progress in this direction. ..."

B. Hallgrímsson and B.K. Hall (2011): Epigenetics: linking genotype and phenotype in development and evolution. In PDF. See also here (Google books).

Ken Harding, Evolution Education Resource Center (a Paleo Ring site): Evolution for beginners.

Colin Harris, UK: Geology Shop. A link directory (introductory website slow loading), comprising over 70 individual web pages. Go to:
Evolution and the fossil record.

T. He et al. (2019): Fire as a key driver of Earth's biodiversity. In PDF, Biological Reviews. See also here.

! S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (2009): Discovering the Timetree of Life. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life.
! See here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.B. Hedges (2009): Life. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life.
! See here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Scott A. Heckathorn, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA:
Biodiversity lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See especially:
The Evolution of Populations.
The Origin of Species.
Introduction to Animal Evolution.

R.S. Hermann et al. (2020): Understanding of Evolution Law among K–12 Public School Teachers. Free access, The American Biology Teacher, 82: 86-92.

! S.M. Holland (2016): The non-uniformity of fossil preservation. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 371. See also here (abstract).

S. Horenstein (2012): Paleontology and Evolution in the News. In PDF, Evo. Edu. Outreach, 5: 171-178. PDF page 4: Darwin Specimens Found After 150 Years!

G. Hunt (2010): Evolution in fossil lineages: paleontology and The Origin of Species. PDF file, The american naturalist.

Jeremy B.C. Jackson and Douglas H. Erwin (2006): What can we learn about ecology and evolution from the fossil record? PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

D. Jablonski (2008): Biotic interactions and macroevolution: extensions and mismatches across scales and levels. PDF file, Evolution, 62: 715-739.

! D. Jablonski (2007): Scale and hierarchy in macroevolution. PDF file, Palaeontology, 50: 87-109.

Tonya Johnson, 8th grade Life Science, Pine View School: Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.

Thomas Junker, Fakultät für Biologie, Universität Tübingen: Geschichte der Evolutionstheorie (in German). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Thomas Junker, Birgit Klaus and Dennis Wilms, Planet Wissen (German broadcasting service WDR, SWR and BR-alpha; December 2009): Charles Darwin (in German). Videos available via YouTube. Easy to understand information (in German), go to:
! Part 4 (beginning about 7:26: information on creationism and intelligent design),
! Part 5 (information on creationism and intelligent design), and
Part 6.

M. Kimura (book written 1924–94): My Thoughts on Biological Evolution. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., 2020.
"... In the book, Kimura first summarizes the development of evolutionary theory since Lamarck and Darwin. He then shows how the search for mechanisms of evolution developed into population genetics and describes how the study of molecular evolution matured by taking in the fruits of molecular biology. ..."
Please note. Tracing the Course of Evolution. (in PDF).

Ulrich Kutschera (2011): From the scala naturae to the symbiogenetic and dynamic tree of life. In PDF, Biology Direct, 6: 33.

! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also here (in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.

M. Lange and M. Winkelheide, Deutschlandfunk: Jenseits der Gene. Wie die Epigenetik die Biologie revolutioniert (in German).

! Michel Laurin (2012): Recent progress in paleontological methods for dating the Tree of Life. In PDF, Frontiers in Genetics, 3.

Reinhold Leinfelder, Institute of Geological Sciences, Free University, Berlin:
Darwin. Er hat sogar aus dem Staubwischen eine Wissenschaft gemacht! Interview with Reinhold Leinfelder (Berliner Zeitung, February 2009, by Lilo Berg and Frank Junghähnel; in German).
! Ach du lieber Darwin. Comments ande discussions about evolution (in German).

! Richard E. Lenski (website by American Institute of Biological Sciences): Evolution: Fact and Theory. About the major patterns of change in nature, how these changes occur and the fossil and genetic evidence of change.

! T.M. Lenton (1998): Gaia and natural selection. Abstract, Nature, 394. See also here (in PDF).

Estelle Levetin and Karen McMahon, University of Tulsa (McGraw-Hill Companies): Plants and Society. McGraw-Hill has worked to create a variety of tools and resources to accompany the third edition. Go to: Web Links, Chapter 8: Plant Systematics and Evolution.

Bruce S. Lieberman and Roger Kaesler (2010): Prehistoric Life Evolution and the Fossil Record. Book announcement (Wiley-Blackwell), including table of contents.
The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.
! Available in PDF from here. See especially:
PDF page 38: "Taphonomy."
! PDF page 74: "Introduction to Evolution."
PDF page 123: "Extinctions: The Legacy of the Fossil Record."
PDF page 137: "The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences."
PDF page 227: "Life, Climate, and Geology."
PDF page 236: "Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind."
PDF page 242: "Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology."

! Jere H. Lipps, University of California, Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, CA: The Decline of Reason? About science and anti-science.

The Natural History Museum, London: Nature online, Evolution.

! J. Losos (2013): What Is Evolution? In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution. See also here.

J.B. Losos et al. (2013): Evolutionary Biology for the 21st Century. In PDF, PLoS Biol 11. See also here.

! Jonathan B. Losos and D. Luke Mahler (2010): Chapter 15, Adaptive radiation: the interaction of ecological opportunity, adaptation, and speciation. PDF file. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Macrovolution.net. A website by Gene McCarthy, focusing on biology and evolutionary theory.

Wayne P. Maddison & David R. Maddison: Mesquite. Mesquite is software for evolutionary biology, designed to help biologists analyze comparative data about organisms.

Brenda Maddox, Times Online: The whole world in his hand. Book review: THE RICHNESS OF LIFE by Stephen Jay Gould, 646 pp

C.R. Marshall (2019): Using the Fossil Record to Evaluate Timetree Timescales. Open access, Front Genet., 10.

! C.R. Marshall (2017): Five palaeobiological laws needed to understand the evolution of the living biota. In PDF, Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1.

! C.V. McLelland (2008): Nature of Science and the Scientific Method. PDF file, The Geological Society of America.
This article promotes understanding of the nature of science and how the scientific method is used to advance science, focusing in particular on the Earth sciences. It also includes talking points for those who would like help explaining the nature of science to others who have developed misconceptions.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Axel Meyer, Die Zeit, Germany: The master of why - Ernst Mayr. An obituary, in German. See also here (Christian Schwägerl, FAZ).

Kenneth R. Miller, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island: Evolution Resources.

R. Monastersky, The Chronicle of Higher Education: Fossils vs. the Formula, When Physicists Tried to Explain Evolution, Biologists Cried Foul. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B.R. Moore et al. (2016): Critically evaluating the theory and performance of Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionarymixtures. In PDF, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 113: 9569–9574.
"... the inability to correctly compute the likelihood or to correctly specify the prior for rate-variable trees precludes the use of Bayesian approaches for testing hypotheses regarding the number and location of diversification-rate shifts using BAMM."

MORPH (supported by the National Science Foundation, website hosted by University of Colorado, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology). A research coordination network to promote a modern synthesis in plant evolutionary developmental biology. The MORPH RCN fosters cross-disciplinary interactions between organismic and molecular plant biologists studying the evolution of morphological diversity.

S.C. Morris (1993): The fossil record and the early evolution of the Metazoa. PDF file.

! L.S. Nadelson and K.K. Hardy (2015): Trust in science and scientists and the acceptance of evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8.

The National Academies: The National Academies perform an unparalleled public service by bringing together committees of experts in all areas of scientific and technological endeavor. Go to: Evolution Resources From the National Academies. This Web page is designed to provide easy access to books, position statements, and additional resources on evolution education and research.

National Center for Science Education (NCSE), Oakland, CA. NCSE provides information dedicated to keeping evolution in the science classroom and creationism out.
! A peek at Eternal Ephemera. Introduction of Niles Eldredge´s "Eternal Ephemera: Adaptation and the Origin of Species from the Nineteenth Century Through Punctuated Equilibria and Beyond" (Columbia University Press, 2015). See also:
! Free evolution and climate change book downloads! Free evolution book excerpts on the NCSE web site (often complete chapters).

NATURE, Nature Debates: Andrew Smith, Department of Palaeontology, the Natural History Museum, London: Is the fossil record adequate? This debate introduces the topic and the conflicting viewpoints that surround it.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B.D. Ness (ed., 2002): Magill's Encyclopedia of Science: Plant Life, Volume 2. In PDF. See also here.

Neue Zürcher Zeitung, February 16, 2005: How perfect are adaptions? About pan-adaptionism (in German).

The New York Times (registration procedure might be required):
From a Few Genes, Life’s Myriad Shapes (by CAROL KAESUK YOON, June 26, 2007).

! L.R. Novick et al. Depicting the tree of life in museums: guiding principles from psychological research. In PDF, see also here.

L. Olsson et al. (2010): Evolutionary developmental biology: its concepts and history with a focus on Russian and German contributions. In PDF, Naturwissenschaften, 97: 951-969.

! Dennis O'Neil, Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marcos, California: Early Theories of Evolution. 17th-19th Century Discoveries that Led to the Acceptance of Biological Evolution. Go to:
Evidence of Evolution,
Synthetic Theory of Evolution. An introduction to modern evolutionary concepts and theories. See also:
The Basic Principles of Genetics. An introduction to Mendelian Genetics.

W. Oschmann (2006): Evolution und Sterben der Dinosaurier. In PDF, Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 93, 345, 117-143. PDF file, in German.

! K. Padian (2008): Darwin's enduring legacy. In PDF, Nature, 451: 632-634. See also here and there.

J.L. Payne et al. (2020): The evolution of complex life and the stabilization of the Earth system. Open access, Interface Focus, 10: 20190106.

! Panda´s Thumb. This is "a blog that discusses evolutionary biology and the creation-evolution controversy from a scientific perspective" (Wikipedia).
Go to: Links.
Snapshot saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.W. Pennell et al. (2014): Is there room for punctuated equilibrium in macroevolution? Trends in ecology & evolution, 29.

A.J. Petrosino et al. (2015): Decentralized thinking and understanding of evolution in K-12 evolution education. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8.

! Alex L. Pigot et al. (2012): Speciation and Extinction Drive the Appearance of Directional Range Size Evolution in Phylogenies and the Fossil Record. In PDF.

A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 216.

Donald R. Prothero, Department of Geology, Occidental College, Los Angeles:
PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM AT TWENTY: A PALEONTOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE. A historical overview. From Skeptic Magazine vol. 1, no. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 38-47 (The Skeptics Society, Altadena, CA). Comprises chapters like "The Birth of Punk Eek", "Stasis, Landscapes, and Polyhedra", "Species Sorting and Macroevolution", etc. Explore the excellent Bibliography.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS, a private, nonprofit corporation, whose members are America´s public TV stations):
NOVA. This is one of the highest rated science series on television and the most watched documentary series on public television. Go to: Evolution.

! D.L. Rabosky et al. (2017): Is BAMM flawed? Theoretical and practical concerns in the analysis of multi-rate diversification models. In PDF, Syst. Biol., 66: 477–498. See also here.

James L. Reveal, Paul J. Bottino and Charles F. Delwiche, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland: The 1858 Darwin-Wallace Paper.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! David N. Reznick and Robert E. Ricklefs (2009): Darwin´s bridge between microevolution and macroevolution. PDF file, Nature, 257. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! R.A. Rohde and R.A. Muller (2005): Cycles in Fossil Diversity. In PDF, Nature, 434, 208-210. See also here and there (abstract).

M. Ridley (2003): Evolution (third edition). Book announcement. With book illustrations, an image gallery and downloadable chapters (PDF files), please take notice:
! Chapter 4: Natural Selection and Variation.
! Chapter 13: Species Concepts and Intraspecific Variation.
! Chapter 20: Evolutionary Developmental Biology.
Also worth checking out: Classic Texts. This website provides you with twenty classic texts from the history of evolutionary biology.

Gar Rothwell and Ruth Stockey (instructors), Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR:
! Fossil History of Plants. Lecture notes, excellent

Jes Rust (2006), starting on PDF page 75: Die Bedeutung von Fossilien für phylogenetische Rekonstruktionen. PDF file, in German. Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, 1. Themenheft Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen: Der Stellenwert der Morphologie in der heutigen Phylogenetische Systematik. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H. Schneider, (2006), starting on PDF page 65: Plant morphology as the cornerstone to the integration of fossil and extant taxa in phylogenetic systematics. PDF file, in German. Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, 1. Themenheft Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen: Der Stellenwert der Morphologie in der heutigen Phylogenetische Systematik.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Science magazine (published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, with assistance of Stanford University's HighWire Press. Go To: Science Collections, Evolution. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Michon Scott: Strange Science. The rocky road to modern Paleontology and Biology. This website is an eclectic collection of old illustrations and information about the history of palaeontology or biology. Superby done! See especially:
! What is Evolution? See also:
Biographies. Biographies of some of the people whose work has led to what we know today in palaeontology and evolution.

Eugenie Scott, National Center for Science Education, BioForum, Access Excellence:
! Evolution. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Moderator: Eugenie Scott, (National Center for Science Education), Access Excellance, BioForum 2: Evolution. BioForum is a series of lectures, presented by California Academy of Sciences, in which scientists share their research results with high school biology teachers.

D.H. Scott (1909): Darwin and Modern Science: The Palaeontological Record: Plants. In: A.C. Seward (ed.): Darwin and Modern Science (provided by SJG Archive).

! P.A. Selden (2016): Land Animals, Origins of. In PDF. In: Kliman, R. M. (ed.): Encyclopedia of evolutionary biology. Volume 2: 288-295. Oxford, Academic Press.
About the colonization of the land habitat from the sea by plants and animals.

D. Sepkoski and M. Ruse (2009): Introduction: Paleontology at the High Table. In PDF, starting on PDF page 5. In: Sepkoski, D. and Ruse, M. (eds.): The Paleobiological Revolution: Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleontology (University of Chicago Press).

! J.J. Sepkoski (1998): Rates of speciation in the fossil record. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 353: 315-326.

Charles H. Smith, Western Kentucky University: The Alfred Russel Wallace Page. Wallace is recognized as one of history's most important naturalists (as the "other man") in the development of the theory of natural selection. Full-text of some of Wallace's published writings and full-text of some interviews Wallace gave.

! Society for the Study of Evolution.
The objectives of the Society for the Study of Evolution are the promotion of the study of organic evolution and the integration of the various fields of science concerned with evolution. Go to: The Stephen Jay Gould Prize.

Spektrum.de Spektrum Akademischer Verlag:
Online Lexika. A variety of searchable Encyclopedias (in German). Go to:
! Lexikon der Geowissenschaften.
! Lexikon der Biologie.
! Kompaktlexikon der Biologie. Biology knowledge in a nutshell. See for instance:

! Stanley C. Spencer, SA Associates, Inc., Riverside, CA: Evolution Research News. The academic guide to evolution news and research. This extensive resource site is a research tool for biologists, students, and teachers, covering natural selection, origin of life, phylogenetics, and all other aspects of evolutionary biology, as well as darwinism, creationism, intelligent design (ID), and associated controversies.

Startlocal, Australia:
Guide to Evolution / Paleontology

Ruth A. Stockey et al. (2009): Introduction to the Darwin special issue: The abominable mystery. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 3-4.

The Talk.Origins Archive: Talk.origins is a Usenet newsgroup devoted to the discussion and debate of biological and physical origins. This archive is a collection of articles and essays, most of which have appeared in talk.origins.

D. Tautz (2006), starting on PDF page 09: Morphologie versus DNA-Sequenzen in der Phylogenie-Rekonstruktion. PDF file, in German. Species, Phylogeny and Evolution 1. Themenheft Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen: Der Stellenwert der Morphologie in der heutigen Phylogenetische Systematik.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Telegraph.co.uk (The Telegraph Media Group):
Darwin´s Ghosts by Rebecca Stott: review (by Gillian Beer, May 07, 2012).

P. Thagard and S. Findlay (2010): Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection. In PDF, Science & Education.

Douglas Theobald, TalkOrigins Archive: Evidences for Macroevolution, Part 1: The Unique Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

A.S. Thorpe et al. (2011): Interactions among plants and evolution. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 99: 729-740. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Bruce H. Tiffney, UC Santa Barbara: What is Science? Tracking the course of evolution.

! A. Tomescu and G. Rothwell (2020): Fossils and Plant Evolution: Structural Fingerprints and Modularity in the Evo-Devo Paradigm. Preprints, 2020, 2020070311 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0311.v1). See also here (in PDF).

! D. Turner and J.C. Havstad (2019): Philosophy of Macroevolution. Open access, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Walther Umstätter, Institute for Library Science, Humboldt University Berlin: Die Wissenschaftlichkeit im Darwinismus (in German). Naturw. Rundsch., 21 (9), Beil.: Biologie Heute p. 4-6; 1990.

G.J. Vermeij (2017): How the land became the locus of major evolutionary innovations. In PDF, Current Biology; 27: 3178–3182. See also here.

! G.J. Vermeij (2016): Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life. PLoS ONE, 11.

G.J. Vermeij (2015): Forbidden phenotypes and the limits of evolution. In PDF, Interface Focus 5: 20150028.

G.J. Vermeij and L. Dudley (2000): Why are there so few evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems? In PDF, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 70: 541-554.

Volkswagenstiftung, Germany (website by www.uni-protokolle.de): Evolutionsbiologie in Deutschland neu verankern (in German). A new initiative about evolution biology.

M.J. Watson and D.M. Watson (2020): Post-Anthropocene Conservation. Open access, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston, and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc. (PPS): Evolution. "Evolution-Deep Time" uses Flash animations in a timeline bar to summarize significant events in geologic history. Pass your cursor over an event and an image and accompanying description appear. To get to this section, click on "skip intro" located on the upper right hand portion of the page. Better navigating from the site map. See also "About the Evolution TV Series". Watch show preview in QuickTime or RealPlayer.

Wikibooks, an open content textbooks collection that anyone can edit:
History and Origin of Life.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Evolutionary biology, for example Punctuated equilibrium. Also worth checking out:
The German Wikipedia: Evolution, e.g. Punktualismus.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Evolutionary history of plants, and Timeline of plant evolution.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Epigenetik (in German).

! Steven J. Wolf, Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Stanislaus: Introduction to Evolution. Lecture notes.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! www.evolutionsbiologen.de Arbeitskreis (AK) Evolutionsbiologie im Verband Biologie, Biowissenschaften und Biomedizin in Deutschland (VBIO). In German.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated February 17, 2021

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