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The Carnian Pluvial Event
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips
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Geologic Time Scale@
A. Ahlberg et al. (2002): Onshore climate change during the Late Triassic marine inundation of the Central European Basin. Abstract, Terra Nova, 14.
R. Albert (2014): Die Entstehung und sedimentologische Bedeutung von Steinsalzkristallmarken im fossilen Beleg. PDF file, in German. Steinkern.de.
The primary mission of Albertiana is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among members of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy and the Triassic community at large. Articles and announcements are posted here in a blog-style format and archived (by volume) as fully-formatted pdf issues at year end.
In its new hybrid digital form, Albertiana publishes peer-reviewed original research articles, literature reviews, meeting announcements and commentary relevant to the Triassic community and in particular the development of Triassic stratigraphy and its time scale.
Still available: Albertiana on SUNY Cortland´s webserver (website edited by Wolfram Kuerschner, Oslo). E-Albertiana is formated in Adobe Portable document format (PDF), issues are available for download. See also:
! Geobiology.cn: Albertiana (PDF files). Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana. Excellent!
S. Ash (2010), Go to PDF page 59: Summary of the Upper Triassic flora of the Newspaper Rock Bed and its paleoclimatic implications. PDF file, SEPM-NSF Workshop "Paleosols and Soil Surface Analog Systems", September 21-26, 2010, Petrified Forest National Park, AZ.
A. Rahman Ashraf et al. (2010): Triassic and Jurassic palaeoclimate development in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China - a review and additional lithological data. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 187-201. See also here (in PDF).
G. Bachmann et al. (2010):
(Triassic stratigraphy, Facies and hydrocarbons of the southern Permian Basin Area (SPBA)).
Geological Atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area.
EAGE Publications, p. 149. ISBN 9789073781610.
See also here (PDF file, with table of contents) and there (PDF file, GIS maps presented in the atlas).
A. Bahr et al. (2020):
variability during the late Triassic: Re-assessing the role of orbital
forcing in the deposition of playa sediments in the Germanic Basin. In PDF,
"... The recurring pattern of pluvial events during the late Triassic demonstrates that orbital forcing, in particular eccentricity, stimulated the occurrence and intensity of wet phases. It also highlights the possibility that the Carnian Pluvial Event, although most likely triggered by enhanced volcanic activity, may also have been modified by an orbital stimulus. ..."
! V. Baranyi (2018): Vegetation dynamics during the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian): Response to climate and environmental changes inferred from palynology. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
J.J. Beer (2005):
stratigraphy of fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower part of the Chinle Formation,
south central Utah, United States: paleoclimatic and tectonic implications.
In PDF, thesis, Duluth, University of Minnesota. 169 p.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2005): Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. In PDF, PNAS, 102.
D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2002): Biogeochemical constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary carbon cycle event. In PDF, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16.
Claire M. Belcher et al. (2010): Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 3: 426-429. See also here (abstract).
C.M. Belcher et al. (2010):
Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major
questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF. See also
(the slides). Go to PDF page 22: "East Greenland 200 Million years ago".
See also there (Linklist: Fire Safety Engineering in the UK: The State of the Art. University of Edinburgh).
! M.J. Benton and A.J. Newell (2014): Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Gondwana Research.
! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkely (UCMP): The Triassic Period. Worth checking out: Triassic Period: Localities, Stratigraphy, and Triassic Period: Tectonics and Paleoclimate.
! D.J. Beerling and C.P. Osborne (2002): Physiological ecology of Mesozoic polar forests in a high CO2 environment. Annals of Botany, 89: 329-339.
M.J. Benton (2018):
mass extinctions: killing
models during the Permian–Triassic mass
extinction. In PDF,
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 376. See also
Note Fig. 3: Palaeogeographic map of the Permo-Triassic, showing the single supercontinent Pangaea, modelled climate belts, and the distribution of terrestrial tetrapods.
! M.J. Benton (2016): The Triassic. Open access, Current Biology, 26: R1214–R1218.M. Bernardi et al. (2017): Tetrapod distribution and temperature rise during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B 285. See also here.
B. Bomfleur et al. (2018):
Regions of the Mesozoic-Paleogene
Greenhouse World as Refugia for Relict
Plant Groups. Chapter 24, in PDF, in:
M. Krings, C.J. Harper, N.R. Cuneo and G.W. Rothwell (eds.): Transformative
Paleobotany Papers to
Commemorate the Life and Legacy of Thomas N. Taylor.
Note figure 24.2: Distribution of Dicroidium through space and time.
! Nina R. Bonis (2010), Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology,
Palaeoecology Institute of Environmental Biology,
Department of Biology, Utrecht University:
and vegetation history during the Triassic-Jurassic transition.
PDF file (7.7 MB), LPP Contribution Series No. 29.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Seven research reports (chapters) in this thesis, see especially chapter 7 (with W.M. Kürschner):
! Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (PDF page 140).
V. Borruel-Abadía et al. (2015):
changes during the Early–Middle Triassic
transition in the E. Iberian plate and their palaeogeographic significance in the
western Tethys continental domain. In PDF,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 440: 671–689.
See also here.
S. Bourquin et al. (2007): The Permian-Triassic boundary and Early Triassic sedimentation in Western European basins: an overview. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 33: 221-236. See also here.! S.E. Bryan and L. Ferrari (2013): Large igneous provinces and silicic large igneous provinces: Progress in our understanding over the last 25 years. In PDF, GSA Bulletin. See also here.
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003):
during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2.
Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file,
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375.
Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.
J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson (2005): Ecology and Behaviour of Mesozoic Reptiles, The Mesozoic Environment. In PDF. See also here,
M.L. Crocker (2012): The dirt on paleosols: sedimentology and paleoclimate indicators within the upper triassic Chinle Formation, Paria, Utah. In PDF. Thesis, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah.
N.R. Cúneo et al. (2003): In situ fossil forest from the upper Fremouw Formation (Triassic) of Antarctica: paleoenvironmental setting and paleoclimate analysis. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 197: 239-261.
J. Dal Corso (2011):
Middle-Late Triassic d13Cplant trend and the carnian pluvial event C-isotope signature.
Ph.D. thesis, University of Padua. See also
Amber from the Triassic of the Italian Alps.
Timothy M. Demko et al. (2005):
Lakes of the Colorado Plateau. In PDF,
Geological Society of America,
Field Guide 6.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J.M. Dickins (1984):
of the Triassic as seen from the Permian. PDF file,
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
T. Dixon (2013): Palynofacies and Palynological Analysis of Late Triassic Sediments from the Kentish Knock-1 Well (Northern Carnarvon Basin, NW Australia). Reconstruction of vegetation history, interpretation of climate and sea level changes and placement in regional zonation. In PDF, thesis, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo.
Y. Donnadieu et al. (2009): Exploring the climatic impact of the continental vegetation on the Mezosoic atmospheric CO2 and climate history. In PDF, Clim. Past, 5: 85-96.
! R.F. Dubiel and S.T. Hasiotis (2011): Deposystems, paleosols, and climatic variability in a continental system: the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau, USA. In PDF. From River To Rock Record: The Preservation Of Fluvial Sediments And Their Subsequent Interpretation. SEPM Special Publication No. 97.
! R.F. Dubiel et al. (1991): The Pangaean megamonsoon: evidence from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau. PDF file, Palaios, 6: 347-370.
R.F. Dubiel (1989):
and climatic setting of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau
In PDF, Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs ...
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
R.F. Dubiel (1987):
of the Upper Triassic Chinle
Formation Southeastern Utah: Paleoclimatic
Implications. In PDF,
Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science.
See fig. 8: Horsetail pith casts, formed when the hollow trunks of the horsetails were broken off and filled with sediment during a flood event.
A.M. Dunhill et al. (2018): Modelling determinants of extinction across two Mesozoic hyperthermal events. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B, 285.
! Erin Eastwood (2008): Pangean Paleoclimate. PDF file, GEO 387H.
! J. Enga (2015): Paleosols in the Triassic De Geerdalen and Snadd formations. In PDF, Master thesis, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet. See also here.! R.E. Ernst and N. Youbi (2017): How Large Igneous Provinces affect global climate, sometimes cause mass extinctions, and represent natural markers in the geological record. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 478: 30-52. See also here (in PDF).
S.J. Fischer and S.T. Hasiotis (2018): Ichnofossil assemblages and palaeosols of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, south-eastern Utah (USA): Implications for depositional controls and palaeoclimate. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 88: 127-162. See also here.
M. Franz et al. (2018): The Schilfsandstein and its flora - arguments for a humid mid-Carnian episode? Journal of the Geological Society. See also here (in PDF).
A. Fijalkowska-Mader (2015): A record of climatic changes in the Triassic palynological spectra from Poland. In PDF, Geological Quarterly, 59.
C.R. Fielding et al. (2019):
and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction
constrained by multiproxy analysis. Open access,
"... we use palynology coupled with high-precision CA-ID-TIMS dating of euhedral zircons from continental sequences of the Sydney Basin, Australia, to show that the collapse of the austral Permian Glossopteris flora occurred prior to 252.3?Ma (~370 kyrs before the main marine extinction). Weathering proxies indicate that floristic changes occurred during a brief climate perturbation in a regional alluvial landscape ..."
B.J. Fletcher et al. (2008): Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change. In PDF, Nat. Geosci., 1: 43-48.
M. Franz et al. (2019): The Schilfsandstein and its flora - arguments for a humid mid-Carnian episode? Journal of the Geological Society, 176: 133-148. See also here (in PDF).
M. Franz et al. (2015):
and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea
(late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF,
Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27.
Fig. 13: Ladinian North Pangaean palaeogeography, showing depositional environments and inferred zonal climates.
M. Franz et al. (2014): Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 122 :305-329. See also here (in PDF).
T. Galfetti et al. (2007): Late Early Triassic climate change: Insights from carbonate carbon isotopes, sedimentary evolution and ammonoid paleobiogeography. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 243: 394-411.M. Geluk et al. (2018): An introduction to the Triassic: current insights into the regional setting and energy resource potential of NW Europe. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 469. R. Harris et al. (2017): Climate change during the Triassic and Jurassic. In PDF, Geology Today, 33: 210–215. See also here .
Bilal U. Haq et al. (1987): Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. PDF file, Science, 235.
E. Hermann et al. (2012):
oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the
North Indian Margin. In PDF,
Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Carmen Heunisch and Heinz-Gerd Röhling, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover: Permo-Triassic climatic development. Research report (via wayback archive, in German).
B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.
M. Holz (2015): Mesozoic paleogeography and paleoclimates - a discussion of the diverse greenhouse and hothouse conditions of an alien world. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences.
B.L.H. Horn et al.(2018):
loess deposit in the Late Triassic of southern Gondwana, and its
significance to global paleoclimate. Abstract,
Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 81: 189-203. See also
Note fig. 10: Paleomap of Late Triassic showing the climatic zones.
M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006): Triassic - seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London, London.
R.B. Huey and P:D. Ward (2005): Climbing a triassic Mount Everest: Into thinner air. In PDF, JAMA-Journal of the American Medial Association, 294: 1761-1762.
X. Jin (2019): The Carnian (Late Triassic) Extreme Climate Event: Comparison of the Italian Tethys and South China Geological Records. Ph.D. thesis. See also here (in PDF).
M.M. Joachimski et al. (2012): Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology, 40: 195-198.
D.V. Kent and G. Muttoni (2003): Mobility of Pangea: Implications for Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Paleoclimate. In PDF.
D.V. Kent and P.E. Olsen (2000):
polarity stratigraphy and paleolatitude of the
Triassic-Jurassic Blomidon Formation in the Fundy basin
(Canada): implications for early Mesozoic tropical climate
gradients. In PDF,
Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 179: 311-324.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson Sally Stephens,
University of Bristol:
The Late Triassic Website.
This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic,
and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to:
! Ecology of the Triassic.
V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2009): Paleofloristic evidence of climate change near and beyond the Permian-Triassic boundary. PDF file, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 284: 326-336.
W.M. Kuerschner et al.: Abrupt climate changes at the Triassic. Jurassic boundary inferred from palynological evidence. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 2006.
Evelyn Kustatscher et al. (2009): Macrofloras and palynomorphs as possible proxies for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological studies: A case study from the Pelsonian (Middle Triassic) of Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Prà della Vacca (Olang Dolomites, N-Italy). Abstract.L. Li et al. (2017): Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF, Geological Magazine.
L. Li et al. (2014): Late Triassic palaeoclimate and palaeoecosystem variations inferred by palynological record in the northeastern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF.
! C.H. Lear et al. (2020): Geological Society of London Scientific Statement: what the geological record tells us about our present and future climate. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 178. See also here and there.
Sofie Lindström et al. (2009): Ladinian palynofloras in the Norwegian-Danish Basin: a regional marker reflecting a climate change. PDF file, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, 17: 21-24.Alan Logan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.: Triassic Period.
! A.W. Martinius et al. (2014): 2. Climatic and tectonic controls on Triassic dryland terminal fluvial system architecture, central North Sea. Summary. See also here (Google books).
Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin:
Climate change and mass extinction: What
can we learn from 200 million year old
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
T. McKie (2014):
and tectonic controls on Triassic dryland terminal fluvial system architecture, central North Sea. In PDF,
Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ., 46: 19-58.
by Google books).
! Palaeogeographic response to regional climate wettening depicted in Fig. 19.
T. McKie and B. Williams (2009): Triassic and fluvial dispersal across the northwest European Basins. Abstract.
I. Metcalfe et al. (2015): High-precision U-Pb CA-TIMS calibration of Middle Permian to Lower Triassic sequences, mass extinction and extreme climate-change in eastern Australian Gondwana. Abstract, Gondwana Research, 28: 61-81. See also here (in PDF).
! C.S. Miller and V. Baranyi (2019): Triassic Climates. In PDF. See also here.
M. Mutti and H. Weissert (1995): Triassic monsoonal climate and its signature in Ladinian-Carnian carbonate platforms (Southern Alps, Italy). PDF file, Journal of Sedimentary Research-Section B.
National Research Council (2011), The National Academies Press, Washington, DC:
Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for
Our Climate Future. 177 pages.
In Understanding Earth's Deep Past, the National Research Council reports that rocks and sediments that are millions of years old hold clues to how the Earth's future climate would respond in an environment with high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases.
! See also here (PDF files available to download for free). You may download PDF files from NAP by logging in as a guest, providing only your email address.
A.J. Newell (2017): Rifts, rivers and climate recovery: A new model for the Triassic of England. Abstract, Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association.
E. Nitsch (2015):
Lettenkeuper – Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").
! H. Nowak et al. (2020): Palaeophytogeographical Patterns Across the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Open access, Front. Earth Sci.
! J.G. Ogg et al. (2014): Triassic timescale status: A brief overview. PDF file, go to PDF page 3, Albertina 41.
C. Oh et al. (2015): Xenoxylon synecology and palaeoclimatic implications for the Mesozoic of Eurasia. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60: 245-256. See also here.
P.E. Olsen et al. (2018): Colorado Plateau Coring Project, Phase I (CPCP-I): a continuously cored, globally exportable chronology of Triassic continental environmental change from western North America. In PDF, Sci. Dril., 24: 15–40.
E.F. Pires et al. (2005): Late Triassic climate in southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): evidence from dendrochronological data. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 18: 213-221.
J.T. Parrish and F. Peterson (1988): Wind directions predicted from global circulation models and wind directions determined from eolian sandstones of the western United States: a comparison. PDF file, Sedimentary Geology, 56.
! J.T. Parrish (1983): Climate of the supercontinent Pangea. Abstract, The Journal of Geology. Sede also here (in PDF).
! S. Péron et al. (2005): Paleoenvironment reconstructions and climate simulations of the Early Triassic: Impact of the water and sediment supply on the preservation of fluvial systems. In PDF, Geodinamica Acta, 18: 431-446.
M. Philippe et al. (2015):
from an old wood - Agathoxylon keuperianum (Unger) nov. comb.
in the Keuper of Poland and France. Abstract,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 221: 83–91. See also
"Anatomical features suggest that Agathoxylon keuperianum thrived under warm and wet conditions, whereas German Keuper sediments globally suggest hot and dry climate".
! N. Preto et al. (2010): Triassic climates. State of the art and perspectives. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 290: 1-10. For PDF download go to "Download PDF" and choose "Article". See also here (in PDF).
(a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists).
! See especially: Paleoclimate.
! Don´t miss to search e.g. for "Triassic".
Visit the link directory Paleo-data and Paleo Reconstructions (including code).
Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson:
PaleoIntegration Project (PIP).
The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability
between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases,
enabling a greater understanding of the life,
geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to:
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Lutz Reinhardt (2000): Dynamic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system: a record of Pangean megamonsoon cyclicity (Triassic, Middle Keuper, Southern Germany). Abstract, in PDF, Dissertation, University of Cologne, Germany.
L. Reinhardt and W. Ricken (2000): The stratigraphic and geochemical record of Playa Cycles: monitoring a Pangaean monsoon-like system (Triassic, Middle Keuper, S. Germany). Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 161: 205-227.
L. Reinhardt and W. Ricken (1999): Climate cycles documented in a playa system: comparing geochemical signatures of subbasins (Triassic, Middle Keuper, German Basin). In PDF, Zbl. Geol. Paläontol. Teil I.
G.J. Retallack (2013): Permian and Triassic greenhouse crises. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 24: 90-103.
Gregory J. Retallack (2010): Greenhouse crises of the past 300 million years. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 121: 1441-1455.
G.J. Retallack (1999): Postapocalyptic greenhouse paleoclimate revealed by earliest Triassic paleosols in the Sydney Basin, Australia. Abstract, GSA Bulletin, 111: 52-70. See also here (in PDF.)
M. Roscher: Environmental reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic. Numeric modelling and geological evidences. In PDF. Dissertation, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg.
! A. Ruffell et al. (2016): The Carnian Humid Episode of the late Triassic: a review. Abstract, Geological Magazine, 153: 271-284. See also here (in PDF).
A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London.
M. Ruhl (2010): Carbon cycle changes during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. In PDF.
M.F. Schaller et al. (2015): A 30 Myr record of Late Triassic atmospheric pCO2 variation reflects a fundamental control of the carbon cycle by changes in continental weathering. In PDF, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 127.
E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2020):
shifts in an Early Triassic subtropical ecosystem.
Frontiers in Earth Science, 8: 588696.
"... The Permian–Triassic, the Griesbachian–Dienerian, and the middle–late Smithian boundary stand out with abrupt shifts between lycophyte-dominated vegetation and gymnosperm-dominated vegetation. ..."
E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2012): Extinguishing a Permian World. In PDF, Geology, 40: 287-288.
Christopher R. Scotese, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas:
Climate History. Go to:
Late Triassic Climate.
Middle Triassic Climate.
Early Triassic Climate.
! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2007): Mesozoic climates. In: Mark Williams et al. (eds.): Deep-time perspectives on climate change: marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. Google books.
B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2006):
climates: General circulation models and the rock record. In PDF,
Sedimentary geology, 190: 269-287.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J. Sha et al. (2015): Triassic-Jurassic climate in continental high-latitude Asia was dominated by obliquity-paced variations (Junggar Basin, Ürümqi, China). In PDF, PNAS.
A.M. Siegloch et al. (2021): Paleoclimatic inferences based on wood growth interruptions in Late Triassic flood deposits from the southernmost Brazilian Gondwana. In PDF, Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 24: 3–20.
! C.J. Smiley (1967): Paleoclimatic Interpretations of Some Mesozoic Floral Sequences. AAPG Bulletin.
Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution: Triassic, Climate and Plate Tectonics.
Yi Song et al. (2020):
of pyrolytic PAHs across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China:
Evidence of wildfire outside the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Abstract,
Earth-Science Reviews, 201. See also
"... Sharp increases in the abundances of pyrolytic PAHs normalized to total organic carbon were found during the Rhaetian Stage (R1 and R2) and at the Tr-J boundary. The ratios of pyrolytic PAHs (PPAHs) to methylated homologues document the combustion origin of PPAHs from methylated PAHs during these intervals of increased wildfire frequency. ..."
L.A. Spalletti et al. (2003): Geological factors and evolution of southwestern Gondwana Triassic plants. In PDF, Gondwana Research. See also here (abstract).
The Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, Germany:
Mittlerer und Oberer Keuper.
Mittlerer Keuper vor 233 – 205 Millionen Jahren.
Unterer Keuper vor 235 – 233 Millionen Jahren.
Easy to understand informations, in German.
! Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic Life on Land: The Great Transition. Google books.
! L.H. Tanner (2018): Climates of the Late Triassic: Perspectives, Proxies and Problems. Abstract, with an extended citation list. Pages 59-90. In: L.H. Tanner (ed.): The Late Triassic World.
! E.L. Taylor et al. (2000): Permian and Triassic high latitude paleoclimates: evidence from fossil biotas. In: Brian T. Huber, Kenneth G. MacLeod (eds.): Warm climates in earth history. Google books.
N. Tian et al. (2016): New record of fossil wood Xenoxylon from the Late Triassic in the Sichuan Basin, southern China and its paleoclimatic implications. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464: 65–75. See also here (in PDF).
M.E. Tucker and M.J. Benton (1982): Triassic environments, climates and reptile evolution. PDF file.
V. Vajda et al. (2016): Mesozoic ecosystems – climate and biotas. In PDF, Preface, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464.
B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2020): The Mesozoic Arctic: warm, green, and highly diverse. In PDF, Geological Magazine, 157: 1543–1546.
! T. Vollmer et al. (2008): Orbital control on Upper Triassic Playa cycles of the Steinmergel-Keuper (Norian): a new concept for ancient playa cycles. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 267: 1–16. See also here (in PDF).
T. Vollmer (2005): Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles: New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin) PDF file (10.3 MB), Thesis, Universität zu Köln. See also here.
! P.X. Wang et al. (2017): The global monsoon across time scales: Mechanisms and outstanding issues. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.
! Z. Wang (1993): Evolutionary ecosystem of Permian-Triassic redbeds in North China: a historical record of global desertification. In PDF; The Nonmarine Triassic. See also here and there.
! J.K. Warren (2010): Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 98: 217–268. Worth checking out, excellent!
J.H. Whiteside et al. (2015):
ecosystem instability suppressed tropical dinosaur dominance for 30 million years. Open access,
"Our data demonstrate that a generally stable vertebrate community with a rarity of dinosaurs (especially large-bodied forms) coexisted with dramatically fluctuating plant communities, the latter reflecting highly variable environmental conditions enabled by high atmospheric pCO2".
! J.H. Whiteside et al. (2011): Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea. In PDF, PNAS, 108: 8972-8977. See also here and there.
Wikipedia the free encyclopedia: Triassic. See also: Trias (in German).
S.L. Wing et al. (1992):
and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See especially page 329 (on PDF page 3): "Triassic Biotas"
H. Wu et al. (2012): Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cycles of the early Triassic Daye Formation, South China and their geochronological and paleoclimatic implications. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 22: 748-759.
Q. Wu et al. (2021):
U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change,
and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology.
"... The great loss of highly diverse and abundant Cathaysian floras and the widespread invasion of the Angaran floras under arid climate conditions in the North China block happened during the late Cisuralian to Guadalupian, but its exact timing is uncertain due to the long hiatus. ..."
A.M. Ziegler et al. (2003): Tracing the tropics across land and sea: Permian to present. In PDF; Lethaia.
A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993):
Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.
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